Community Participation In Cost Effective Housing.

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Community Participation should be indispensible element in human settlements,especially in planning strategies and in formulation, implementation and management. It should influence all levels of Government in the decision making process to further the political, social and economic growth of Human settlements. This relates especially to low income and Cost Effective Housing projects denoting squatter settlement upgrading with site and service schemes.
In squatter settlement upgrading projects, the authorities regularize the illegal land tenure of squatters and provide basic infrastructure in the settlements. These interventions are expected to be sufficient incentives for the residents to start improving their houses. In sites-and-services schemes, the authorities provide serviced plots to the urban poor and expect them to produce their own houses, through individual or mutual self-help or the employment of small contractors. Participation assumes an activity in which the community takes part and the involvement of at least one other party, usually a government agency or a nongovernmental organization (NGO). Community participation is sometimes used to indicate community self reliance or self-help, i.e. an activity which is usually undertaken by a government agency, is undertaken by the community on its own (e.g. spontaneous housing).
The United Nations defined community development as "the processes by which the efforts of the people themselves are united with those of governmental authorities to improve the economic, social and cultural conditions of communities, to integrate these communities into the life of the nation and to enable them to contribute fully to national progress."

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Community Participation In Cost Effective Housing.

  1. 1. 16th International conference on Human Habitat 2014 At Rizvi College Of Architecture, Mumbai Author- Ar.Suvarna.S.Lele, Practicing Architect, Mumbai-400066 Theme: People's Participation in Evolving Humane Habitats Title-Community Participation in Mass Housing
  2. 2. -Community Participation in Mass Housing
  3. 3. Poverty Alleviation
  4. 4. Housing Scenario in India 1.Rise in population in last 10 years is more than 75 millions. 2.More than 50% of India's population is likely to be urbanized by 2020. 3.The rise from 2001 to 2010 as per senses is from 286.1 millions to 360 millions. Problems in housing – 1Lack of equitable supply of land, shelter and services at affordable price. 2. The depletion of resources and their effect towards next generations are unfortunately neglected. ICHH-2014 Rizvi College of Architecture Ar.Suvarna LeleCommunity Participation In Mass Housing
  5. 5. Key measures affecting housing Development- 1.ragmented housing policies and administrative systems. 2.Lack of capacity 3. Non payment of housing loans 4.Inappropriate standards. 5.Inexperienced housing consumers. ICHH-2014 Rizvi College of Architecture Ar.Suvarna LeleCommunity Participation In Mass Housing
  6. 6. Housing Shortage and the funds required ICHH-2014 Rizvi College of Architecture Ar.Suvarna LeleCommunity Participation In Mass Housing
  7. 7. Housing Performance at a glance ICHH-2014 Rizvi College of Architecture Ar.Suvarna LeleCommunity Participation In Mass Housing
  8. 8. Governments objective to achieve ICHH-2014 Rizvi College of Architecture Ar.Suvarna LeleCommunity Participation In Mass Housing
  9. 9. The United Nations defined the community development as- ‘The process by which the efforts of people themselves are united with those of governmental authorities to improve the economic, social and cultural conditions of the communities, to integrate these communities into the life of nation and enable them to contribute fully to national progress.’ Participation is means to achieve better project results and consequently better housing conditions for the community. ICHH-2014 Rizvi College of Architecture Ar.Suvarna LeleCommunity Participation In Mass Housing
  10. 10. i Peoples Participation Existing Housing Condition.
  11. 11. Specifications Cost Foundation a) U.C.R. foundation b) Raised Plinth Superstructure & Finishing a) R.C.C. Slab 88309.00 b) 23 & 11 cm thk walls c) Plaster int. & ext. d) Doors -Flush door e) windows - R.C.M. Jali f) Flooring - I.P.S. Flooring W. S. & Sanitary 1400.00 a) WC seat b) Pipes Total Cost/ House Rs. 100067.00 10358.00 13 ICHH-2014 Rizvi College of Architecture Ar.Suvarna LeleCommunity Participation In Mass Housing Cost and type Design of a house
  12. 12. 14 PROPOSED CLUSTER FOR BURUD MUHALLA SLUM ICHH-2014 Rizvi College of Architecture Ar.Suvarna LeleCommunity Participation In Mass Housing
  13. 13. 1.The establishment and maintenance of habitable, stable and sustainable, public and private residential environment. 2.People should be giving an easy access to permanent residential structures with secure tenure, ensuring internal and external privacy and providing adequate protection against harming elements. 3.The development also includes the provision of potable water, adequate sanitary facilities and domestic energy supply. 4.The integrated development plan includes the regulatory bodies and public participation acting within the constitutional framework. 5.The public participation should include information sharing mechanisms, translation into local languages, consultative methods, shared decision making, joint assessments and collaboration leading ICHH-2014 Rizvi College of Architecture Ar.Suvarna LeleCommunity Participation In Mass Housing
  14. 14. Peoples Participation –Stages- 1.participation 2.social learning 3.self reliance 4. capacity building 5. empowerment sustainability. . Significance of Public Participation – Public Participation is essential part of human growth whic is development of self confidence, pride, initiative, responsibility and co-operation . Ar.Suvarna Lele ICHH-2014 Rizvi College of Architecture Community Participation In Mass Housing
  15. 15. ICHH-2014 Rizvi College of Architecture Ar.Suvarna LeleCommunity Participation In Mass Housing
  16. 16. Self help in community housing – 1.If people participate in planning and decision making with regards to their house and its environment, they can also decide how much they can and want to contribute to project in terms or labour and money and what they expect to receive for their contribution. 2.They also further can get involved in maintenance and management of their neighborhood, its infrastructure and services 3.If the authorities prepare the community for the project and educate them about its means and objectives, the community more easily complies with the project facilitating the project and its effectiveness. Ar.Suvarna Lele ICHH-2014 Rizvi College of Architecture
  17. 17. Ar.Suvarna Lele ICHH-2014 Rizvi College of Architecture Community Participation In Mass Housing
  18. 18. Ar.Suvarna Lele ICHH-2014 Rizvi College of Architecture Community Participation In Mass Housing Local Program-Motivators work with community National program Training Of motivators Inter national program Training Of National Course leaders
  19. 19. Motivating The Community.
  20. 20. Housing Design –Role of Architects- 1.Architects and Urban planner are required to interact with authorities, NGOs and community members to come to an appropriate solution. Their role is challenging because this deals with people and whole community who contain very high diversities in financial conditions, occupations, micro politics and sociological characteristics in the community itself. 2.The design process needs to be a two way communication between the community and designers. 3.The goal of this project not only concerns of housing design outcomes, maintaining the budgetary and aesthetic dimensions but contains sense of society both physically and socially Ar.Suvarna Lele ICHH-2014 Rizvi College of Architecture Community Participation In Mass Housing
  21. 21. The stages of Community Participation at Initiation –(1) Introduction to community regarding the benefits of the project and encouraging their involvement. (2) Collection of both physical and socioeconomic information for design. (3) Developing master plan scheme regarding community limitations and decisions. (4) Sociological and economical integrated planning. Ar.Suvarna Lele ICHH-2014 Rizvi College of Architecture
  22. 22. Ways and forms of community participatio ICHH-2014 Rizvi College of Architecture Ar.Suvarna LeleCommunity Participation In Mass Housing 1.Consultation 2.Financial Contribution 3.Self Help projects by group beneficiaries 4.Self-help projects involving the whole community 5.Community special workers 6.Mass action 7.Collective commitment to behavior change 8.Indigenous development 9.Autonomous Development 10.Approaches to self sufficiency
  23. 23. The stages in Community Participation at Implementation- 1.Formulation of strategies, their application and deciding the tools for implementation. 2.After the survey and analysis of data a program may be formed and discussed with community. 3.Formation of networks and committee and to work with them in planning is next step. 4.Public hearing -People should be made aware of the developments. 5. They should know regarding the opportunities thus enabling them to take a decision. 6.Defining working strategy- Before designing the work plan it is necessary to identify concerned issues, manage how to work with various clients and defining limitations in planning and design. 7.Implementation. ICHH-2014 Rizvi College of Architecture Ar.Suvarna LeleCommunity Participation In Mass Housing
  24. 24. Steps for implementing an IDP 1.An assessment of current social, economical and environmental reality. 2.A determination of community needs through close consultation. 3.Development of vision for a developing area. 3.An audit of available resources, skills and capacities. 4.A prioritization of needs in terms of urgency and long term importance. 5.The development of integrated frameworks and goals within the specific time frames. 6.The implementation of projects and programs to achieve the key goals. 7.To use monitoring tools to study impact and performance. ICHH-2014 Rizvi College of Architecture Ar.Suvarna Lele Community Participation In Mass Housing
  25. 25. STEPS IDNTIFYING PROBLEM SET FACTOR CLARYFYING TRAINING GOALS SPECIFY LEARNING OBJECTIVES DRAW UP A TOP IC LIST SELECT APPROPRIATE TRAINING METHODS UNDERTAKE FINAL DETAILED COURSE p PREPARATION ICHH-2014 Rizvi College of Architecture Ar.Suvarna Lele Community Participation In Mass Housing
  26. 26. From IDEAS to PROPOSALS
  27. 27. ICHH-2014 Rizvi College of Architecture Ar.Suvarna LeleCommunity Participation In Mass Housing TRAINING
  28. 28. ICHH-2014 Rizvi College of Architecture Community Participation In Mass Housing Ar.Suvarna Lele Sources Of Financing
  29. 29. Residents and Individual briefing sessions
  30. 30. The goals of Public Participation- 1.To Further the democratic values by ensuring the interest of majority of citizens are the forefront of local Govt. decision making. 2.To achieve the planning which is more attuned to the needs of different groups by recognizing the diversity within the local community. 3.To educate the non participating public by educating them. 4.To bring about social change by enacting the policy that ensures the equal access to services and opportunities across the spectrum of local population. 5.To recruit support, obtain legitimacy and avoid opposition by including citizen groups and stake holders in some aspects of decision making process . 6.To promote particular perspective or bring about change in political order by informing like minded
  31. 31. How To Reach People-??? Public Participation Strategies 1.News letters 2.Community Group Presentations. 3.Advertisements. 4.Press releases and feature articles. 5.Public meetings 6.Open House. 7.Semi structured interviews. 8.Focus groups 9.Community liaison groups 10.Social profiles 11.Workshops 12.Other methods Ar.Suvarna Lele ICHH-2014 Rizvi College of Architecture Community Participation In Mass Housing
  32. 32. Sustainable housing models Laterite stone houseTraditional mud house Wattle and Daub wall walling house Stone Masonry house ICHH-2014 Rizvi College of Architecture Ar.Suvarna LeleCommunity Participation In Mass Housing
  33. 33. Ferro cement channel and Filler slab hBamboo crete house Brick dome houseRat trap bond house ICHH-2014 Rizvi College of Architecture Ar.Suvarna LeleCommunity Participation In Mass Housing
  34. 34. Rural Sanitation Park Adobe mud block house (ex. Ward Stabilized Earth block house ICHH-2014 Rizvi College of Architecture Ar.Suvarna LeleCommunity Participation In Mass Housing
  35. 35. Self help in construction Participant working on fabrication for pile foundation. Participant working on window frames Wall construction by members
  36. 36. SELF HELP FOUNDATION SYSTEMS Natural stone foundations Rammed earth foundation Burnt brick in cement mortor Reinforced Foundations Split-bamboo piles Wooden post foundation. http://collections.infocollections.org/u kedu/en/d/Jsk01ae/8.10.html
  37. 37. Rammed earth foundationNatural stone foundations
  38. 38. Reinforced FoundationsBurnt brick in cement mortar
  39. 39. SELF HELP WALLING SYSTEMS Stone masonry block walls Rammed earth walls Compressed soil block walls. Bamboo reinforced earth walls Burnt clay brick walls Concrete hollow block wall Bamboo walls Timber panel walls Walls from agro waste http://collections.infocollections.org/u kedu/en/d/Jsk01ae/8.10.html
  40. 40. Stone masonry block walls Rammed earth walls Compressed soil block walls
  41. 41. Bamboo reinforced earth walls Burnt clay brick walls
  42. 42. Hollow concrete block wall Bamboo wall
  43. 43. Hollow concrete agro waste block wall
  44. 44. SELF HELP ROOFING SYSTEMS Earth reel roofs Clay tile roofs Precast concrete channel roof Ferrocement roofsFerro cement Roofing Channel Fibre and micro concrete tiles Durable thatch with stiff-stem grass Pole timber roof structures Hogan Roof Construction Concrete block construction Earth dome and vault construction http://collections.infocollections.org/u kedu/en/d/Jsk01ae/8.10.html
  45. 45. Precast Roof Precast Roof Thatched Roof Jack archBrick Vault Brick dome
  46. 46. Flat roofs Timber board roofing Traditional Earth reel roof
  47. 47. SELF HELP-work in progress ICHH-2014 Rizvi College of Architecture Ar.Suvarna LeleCommunity Participation In Mass Housing
  48. 48. Wall construction by members ICHH-2014 Rizvi College of Architecture Ar.Suvarna LeleCommunity Participation In Mass Housing
  49. 49. Training To Build
  50. 50. Ref-B.Janardan Reddy,IAS, Project Co-ordinator, APUSP 07.06.2007
  51. 51.  Objective: Initiation of reforms for Municipal Performance Improvement  Budget: Rs.121.13 Crores  Approach: People participation Revenue improvement Institutional Development Capacity Building Improved Service Delivery ICHH-2014 Rizvi College of Architecture Ar.Suvarna LeleCommunity Participation In Mass Housing
  52. 52. • Baseline data collection • MPC in Basic MAPP • MRC, MTF, WG – I, II & III • Training to Municipal and Community Teams • HHS survey, Data entry, Data validation & • corrections, Generation of reports • CMAPP orientation • Group discussions • Annucmt. of MRC, MTF, WGs • Orientation on PMLP • PMLP in selected poor settlements • Preparation of line estimates • Preparation of Action Plans on Health, Edun.,Livelihood, SHGs, Vulnerability • Preparation of C1 (reforms), C2 (infrastructure), C3 (SDAP) proposals though WG – I, II and III • Finalization of C1, C2, C3 proposals by MRC with the Participation of members of working groups & others • Preparation of Document as a cooperative effort of Municipal staff • Consultation with Commissioner / CP etc. • Documentation preparation through MTF • Field appraisal in C1, C2, C3 • Necessary corrections • Council approval • EC approval • Preparation of Sub project reports • Memorandum of Understanding(MoU) • Approval and release of funds HOUSE HOLD SURVEY PREPARATORY STAGE PARTICIPATORY MICROPLANNING PROCESS CMAPP ORIENTATION PREPARATION OF C1,C2,C3 PROPOSALS CONSULTATIVE WORKSHOP APPRAISAL AND COUNCIL APPROVAL PREPARATION OF DRAFT DOCUMENT MOU IMPLEMENTATION & RELEASE OF FUNDS
  53. 53.  Involvement of people at every stage of project planning and implementation.  A programme of the people, for the people and by the people.  A sense of belongingness in stakeholders.  Common man, especially poor women have a direct stake in urban planning. ICHH-2014 Rizvi College of Architecture Ar.Suvarna LeleCommunity Participation In Mass Housing
  54. 54.  Introductory Workshops  Launch Workshops  Strategy Formulation Workshops  Micro Planning for prioritization of infrastructure needs Direct participation of over 1 lakh people ICHH-2014 Rizvi College of Architecture Ar.Suvarna LeleCommunity Participation In Mass Housing
  55. 55.  Regular trainings to functionaries at all levels: › Nearly 270 structural trainings organised › Over 4.30 lakh SHG women trained  Training Needs Analysis in all ULBs  Exposure visits: › Intrastate visits nearing completion › Interstate visits being planned ICHH-2014 Rizvi College of Architecture Ar.Suvarna LeleCommunity Participation In Mass Housing
  56. 56.  Change Management concept  Simplification and standardization of procedures  Kapra model Citizen service centre – transparent, responsible and timely service delivery  Personality Development and motivation trainings to functionaries ICHH-2014 Rizvi College of Architecture Ar.Suvarna LeleCommunity Participation In Mass Housing
  57. 57.  Computerisation of services: › systems and networking facilities for computerisation of primary data › 116 E-seva centers for integrated services  Automation: › Modernisation of office buildings, Record rooms › Municipal Knowledge Cells › Improved tools is Engg., Town Planning & Sanitary divisions › Internal and external communication systems  Comprehensive studies: › In key engineering areas for strategic planning for next 30 years.
  58. 58.  Revenue improvement measures  Application of GIS  104 Municipal Accounting years updated  38 years of Audit cleared  Revenue Improvement: › Rs 311 Cr to Rs.852.78 Cr i.e an increase of 265% ICHH-2014 Rizvi College of Architecture Ar.Suvarna LeleCommunity Participation In Mass Housing
  59. 59.  1.Municipal Base maps  2.GIS application for municipal revenue improvements  3.General Town Plan (GTP) for towns ICHH-2014 Rizvi College of Architecture Ar.Suvarna LeleCommunity Participation In Mass Housing
  60. 60.  Savings in energy consumption through: › Optimization of CMD › Avoiding surcharges on low PF › Light and Fan (L&F) load segregation › Avoiding late payment charges › Sun-synchronization of street lighting  A saving of Rs.11.79 crores from November, 2005. Anticipated savings are Rs.13.03 crore. ICHH-2014 Rizvi College of Architecture Ar.Suvarna LeleCommunity Participation In Mass Housing
  61. 61.  Provision of Local Technical Assistance: › ULBs could hire any professional services from open market for a limit period  Provision of new professional services on long term basis: › MIPOs/MAFAs/TPRPs/LPAs/DRPs, etc.,  Filling of existing gaps: › Provision of additional COs › MHOs, where there are no sanctioned posts › D.D. Consultants for Engineering Deptt.
  62. 62.  Massive creation of infrastructure in slums  Assets created:  Roads - 749.12 K.Ms  Drains - 755.46 K.Ms  Street lighting - 112.38 K. Ms  Water Supply installations - 642.90 K.Ms  UGD - 32.52 ICHH-2014 Rizvi College of Architecture Ar.Suvarna LeleCommunity Participation In Mass Housing
  63. 63. Conclusion: Community participation is a right and people have right to participate in decision making which directly affect their living conditions. This participation must be extended to all spheres of life sharing the benefits of development. It is a learning process whereby the urban poor become a ware of their situation, build up their self confidence and understand their power. ICHH-2014 Rizvi College of Architecture Ar.Suvarna LeleCommunity Participation In Mass Housing
  64. 64. THANK YOU Ar.Suvarna Lele References: 1.Community Participation in low income housing projects-F. Theron and team. 2.Catalogue of training and Information tools on community participation in human settlements-HS/128/88/E. 3.Assessing public participation strategies in low income housing: The Mamre Housing Project-Janine Davy. 4.Community Participation In low income housing projects: problems and prospects -Yap Kioe Sheng. 5.Formats and guidelines for survey and preparation of slum, household, and livelihood profiles of cities, towns-Govt. Of India Publication. 6.Power point presentation by NHB 7. Ommunity Participation in Low Income Housing-Mohamed Abdel baki Mohamed Ibrahim.Thesis. 8.http://collections.infocollections.org/ukedu/en/d/Jsk01ae/8.10.html

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