Chapter 6 Cultural Geography


Published on

Published in: Technology, Business
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Chapter 6 Cultural Geography

  1. 1. CULTURAL GEOGRAPHY Cultural Evolution vs. Cultural Diffusion Behavioral Geography Culture Realms Global Diffusion of Western Culture
  2. 2. WHAT IS CULTURE? (IN SOCIOLOGY) <ul><li>Knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Language </li></ul><ul><li>Values </li></ul><ul><li>Customs </li></ul><ul><li>Material objects </li></ul>*Also called Cultural Traits or Elements
  3. 3. NOTES ON CULTURAL <ul><li>Learned .  The process of learning one’s culture is called “enculturation.”  Culture is not merely passively absorbed, but rather taught and learned by agentive individuals with differing levels of power. </li></ul><ul><li>Shared .  Members of a particular society have their culture in common. </li></ul><ul><li>Patterned .  People in a given society live and think in distinctive and describable ways. </li></ul><ul><li>Mutually constructed .  By means of constant and ongoing social interaction, individuals create, recreate, and change the nature of a particular culture. </li></ul><ul><li>Symbolic .  Those within a particular culture possess a shared understanding of meaning. </li></ul><ul><li>Arbitrary .  Culture is not based on natural laws but rather is created by human beings. </li></ul><ul><li>Internalized .  Culture is habitual, taken for granted, and perceived as natural. </li></ul>
  4. 4. KEEP IT GOING <ul><li>Each is passed person to person in the society </li></ul><ul><li>Also from one generation to the next </li></ul>
  5. 5. CREATING CULTURAL LANDSCAPES The earth’s surface as modified by human action
  6. 6. CULTURES CHANGE IN TWO WAYS: <ul><li>Cultures change internally </li></ul><ul><li>Technology plays an important role </li></ul><ul><li>Cultures change externally by borrowing of cultural elements from one society by members of another </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural diffusion – process of spreading </li></ul><ul><li>Acculturation – process of adopting </li></ul><ul><li>Evolutionism </li></ul><ul><li>Diffusionism </li></ul>
  7. 7. THEORIES OF CULTURAL EVOLUTION <ul><li>How might cultures change through internal measures? </li></ul>
  8. 8. VARRO’S THEORY OF HUMAN STAGES <ul><li>Stages of Development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stage 1 – Hunters & Gatherers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stage 2 – Pastoral Nomadism (domestication) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stage 3 – Settled agriculture (Subsistence agriculture) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stage 4 – Commercial Agriculture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stage 5 – Urbanization & Industry </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Challenges </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not every culture passes through the same stages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not true of all societies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Some ahead and some behind” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used to dominate other cultures </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. MARX’S HISTORICAL MATERIALISM <ul><li>Looks for the causes of developments and changes in human societies </li></ul><ul><li>Technology is the key to change! </li></ul><ul><li>Technology determines economic systems which determines politics and society </li></ul><ul><li>Cornucopian </li></ul><ul><li>Goods would be distributed based on need since technology would help produce surplus. </li></ul>* Malthusians believe that there is no guarantee that technology will continue to provide rising standards of living as population increases.
  10. 10. ENVIRONMENTAL DETERMINISM <ul><li>View that the physical environment, rather than social conditions, determines culture. </li></ul><ul><li>Societies adapt to natural landscape </li></ul><ul><li>Climate (major control) </li></ul><ul><li>Challenge-Response Theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People need the challenge of a difficult environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Weather of the middle latitudes led to more determined and driven work ethics </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Possibilism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Theory that the environment sets certain constraints or limitations, but culture is otherwise determined by man's actions </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Environmental Determinism Debate
  12. 12. CULTURAL DIFFUSION <ul><li>How might cultures change through external measures? </li></ul>
  13. 13. CULTURAL DIFFUSION <ul><li>Overwhelms Cultural Evolution </li></ul><ul><li>Does not explain all distribution </li></ul><ul><li>Diffusion is affected by a number of important variables: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>duration and intensity of contact </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>degree of cultural integration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>similarities between the donor and recipient cultures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>built in cultural resistance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cultural Hearth – place of origin of culture elements </li></ul><ul><li>Problem: Same phenomenon occurs spontaneously at two or more places </li></ul>
  14. 14. ACCULTURATION <ul><li>Exchange of cultural features that results when groups come into continuous firsthand contact </li></ul><ul><li>Immigrants adapt to cultural change resulting from contact with the dominant group by using one of four strategies: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Assimilation (adopting) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Integration (multicultural) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Separation (separate) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Marginalization (alienation) </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. CULTURAL RESISTANCE <ul><li>France bids Adieu to “E-mail” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PARIS, July 18, 2003-- Goodbye &quot;e-mail,&quot; the </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>French government says, and hello &quot;courriel&quot; — the </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>term that linguistically sensitive France is now using </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to refer to electronic mail in official documents. The </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Culture Ministry has announced a ban on the use of </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;e-mail&quot; in all government ministries, documents, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>publications or websites, the latest step to stem an </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>incursion of English words into the French lexicon. </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. FOLK CULTURE <ul><li>Made up of people who maintain the traditional </li></ul><ul><li>Describes people who live in an old-fashioned way-simpler life-style </li></ul><ul><li>Rural, cohesive, conservative, largely self-sufficient group, homogeneous in custom </li></ul><ul><li>Strong family or clan structure and highly developed rituals </li></ul><ul><li>Tradition is paramount — change comes infrequently and slowly </li></ul>
  17. 17. FOLK CULTURE <ul><li>Amish </li></ul><ul><li>Appalachia </li></ul>
  18. 18. POPULAR CULTURE <ul><li>Consists of large masses of people who conform to and prescribe to ever-changing norms </li></ul><ul><li>Large heterogeneous groups </li></ul><ul><li>Often highly individualistic and groups are constantly changing </li></ul><ul><li>Pronounced division of labor leading to establishment of specialized professions </li></ul><ul><li>Police and army take the place of religion and family in maintaining order </li></ul><ul><li>Money based economy prevails </li></ul><ul><li>Replacing folk culture in industrialized countries and many developing nations </li></ul>
  19. 20. GROUPING HUMANS IN CULTURE <ul><li>How are humans groups defined? </li></ul>
  20. 21. DIFFERENCE BETWEEN RACE AND ETHNICITY <ul><li>Race: attitudes formed in consequence of being a minority or majority member (via privilege). – Not assumed to be biological </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnicity: attitudes formed associating with the traditions and values of particular ethnic group. </li></ul><ul><li>Sociologist Max Weber once remarked that: </li></ul><ul><li> &quot;The whole conception of ethnic groups is so complex and so vague that it might be good to abandon it altogether.“ </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: Polish, Arab, Chinese, Japanese, Mexican, & French </li></ul>
  21. 22. GROUPS <ul><li>Defined by a variety of characteristics or just one: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Language/Literature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Religion/Values/Traditions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Politics/Beliefs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Food/Manners </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Subjective </li></ul><ul><li>Subculture – smaller bundle of attributes shared by a smaller group </li></ul><ul><li>“ Ethno” – Gr. for people </li></ul><ul><li>Ambiguous term </li></ul><ul><li>May depend on: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Biology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Culture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allegiance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Historic background </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ethnocentrism - judge other cultures by own standards </li></ul><ul><li>Culture Groups </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnic Groups </li></ul>
  22. 23. ARE YOU TABOO? <ul><li>Do you eat pork? </li></ul><ul><li>Have you ever kissed in public? </li></ul><ul><li>Should you have more than one wife or husband? </li></ul><ul><li>Do you eat with your left hand? </li></ul><ul><li>Do you compliment physical features? </li></ul><ul><li>Do you eat fertilized duck eggs ? </li></ul><ul><li>Do you wear shoes in the house? </li></ul><ul><li>Have you ever talked back to an adult? </li></ul>
  23. 24. BEHAVIORAL GEOGRAPHY <ul><li>Approach to Human Geography that examines human behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Studies perceptions of the world and how perceptions influence behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Pictures in our heads” – Mental Maps </li></ul><ul><li>People make decisions on their mental maps </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural differences in perceptions </li></ul><ul><li>Proxemics (cross-cultural study of the use of space) </li></ul><ul><li>Territoriality </li></ul>
  25. 26. WHAT CRITERIA IS USED TO DEFINE THE CULTURE REGION? <ul><li>Is it consistent? </li></ul><ul><li>Is it meaningful? </li></ul>
  26. 27. WHAT ARE THE MOST OBVIOUS FACTORS OF CULTURAL DIVERSITY? <ul><li>Language </li></ul><ul><li>Religion </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnicity </li></ul><ul><li>Architecture </li></ul><ul><li>Statues & Monuments </li></ul><ul><li>Clothing/Style </li></ul>
  27. 28. SETTLEMENT PATTERNS <ul><li>Cluster Housing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Live together, work together </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Family or Religious bonds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Common security </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Europe, Latin America, Asia, Africa, & Middle East </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Isolated Housing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Peace & security </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Agricultural colonization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anglo-America, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa </li></ul></ul>
  28. 29. FORCES THAT STABILIZE CULTURE REALMS <ul><li>Despite diffusion, cultures remain fixed </li></ul><ul><li>Inertia – term for the force that keeps things stable </li></ul><ul><li>Historical Geography </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Studies the past and how geographic distributions have changed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How people have interacted with their environment, and created the cultural landscape. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fixed Assets (Infrastructure) </li></ul><ul><li>Historical Consciousness (self reflection on history) </li></ul><ul><li>Values - Preserve key aspects of culture </li></ul><ul><li>Passed down from generation to generation </li></ul>
  29. 30. TRADE & CULTURAL DIFFUSION <ul><li>Diminishes isolation </li></ul><ul><li>Triggers change - Important force of diffusion </li></ul><ul><li>Trade, economy, and culture intertwined </li></ul><ul><li>Part of Economic Geography </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Study of how various people make a living, how economies develop, and trade </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Export surplus, Import Luxuries </li></ul>
  30. 31. TRENDS IN TRADE <ul><li>More Trade, More Diffusion </li></ul><ul><li>Nearly all parts of the world are affected </li></ul><ul><li>Friction of Distance is less (costs down) </li></ul><ul><li>Felt needs are created (think you need) </li></ul><ul><li>Activities relocate freely – footloose </li></ul><ul><li>Communication advances trades/ideas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Electronic highway </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cyberspace </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Possible clash of “Civilizations” </li></ul>
  32. 33. NOTES ON EUROPEAN CULTURE <ul><li>Widespread (through conquest) </li></ul><ul><li>Massive Impact </li></ul><ul><li>Progress or unwanted acculturation??? </li></ul><ul><li>Illustrates all types, paths, and processes of diffusion </li></ul>Prince Henry “the Navigator”
  33. 35. CULTURAL IMPERIALISM <ul><li>European ways are superior </li></ul><ul><li>Christianity a major catalyst (conversion) </li></ul><ul><li>Economic & military superiority </li></ul><ul><li>Methods </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Force </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Training/schooling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reference Group Behavior (desire to belong) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rewarding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Degrading </li></ul></ul>
  34. 36. WESTERNIZATION TODAY <ul><li>Diffusion continues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wealthy buy Western products </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Young adopt western styles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Media & TV increase rate of diffusion </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tourism </li></ul><ul><li>Non-Western Professionals (Europe & U.S.) </li></ul><ul><li>Transforming traditional cultures/folk cultures </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. Influence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Very strong </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>9/11 Ripple Effect </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Negative views of American policies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Drugs” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Peace-Keeping” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spread of U.S. Culture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic Power </li></ul></ul>
  35. 38. UGLY AMERICAN <ul><li>Used to describe boorish people from the U.S. insensitive to those in other countries </li></ul><ul><li>Bothers fans of the 1958 novel The Ugly American, whose title character was actually sensitive and thoughtful—he just looked ugly </li></ul><ul><li>Are Americans truly ugly? </li></ul>“ The Great Satan” – 1979 Ayatollah Khomeini
  36. 39. PEW GLOBAL ATTITUDES PROJECT (6/2006) <ul><li>America's Image Slips </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spain, India, Russia, Indonesia, & Turkey </li></ul></ul><ul><li>U.S.-led war on terror draws majority support in just two countries - India and Russia </li></ul><ul><li>United States as the worst culprit in “hurting the world’s environment.” </li></ul><ul><li>In Japan, barely a quarter of respondents (26%) now favor the U.S.-led war on terror </li></ul><ul><li>War in Iraq has made the world a more dangerous place </li></ul><ul><li>33 of the 47 countries polled expressed a dislike of American ideas about democracy, with the hostility highest in three allies: Turkey, France and Pakistan . </li></ul>47 nations surveyed
  37. 40. WHAT ARE AMERICAN VALUES? <ul><li>Equal Opportunity </li></ul><ul><li>Achievement & Success (competition) </li></ul><ul><li>Material Comfort </li></ul><ul><li>Activity and Work (action) </li></ul><ul><li>Practicality and efficiency </li></ul><ul><li>Progress (move forward) </li></ul><ul><li>Science </li></ul><ul><li>Democracy and Free enterprise (individual rights have significant value) </li></ul><ul><li>Freedom (individual over the group) </li></ul><ul><li>Racism and group superiority </li></ul>