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Chapter 6   Cultural Geography
 

Chapter 6 Cultural Geography

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    Chapter 6   Cultural Geography Chapter 6 Cultural Geography Presentation Transcript

    • CULTURAL GEOGRAPHY Cultural Evolution vs. Cultural Diffusion Behavioral Geography Culture Realms Global Diffusion of Western Culture
    • WHAT IS CULTURE? (IN SOCIOLOGY)
      • Knowledge
      • Language
      • Values
      • Customs
      • Material objects
      *Also called Cultural Traits or Elements
    • NOTES ON CULTURAL
      • Learned .  The process of learning one’s culture is called “enculturation.”  Culture is not merely passively absorbed, but rather taught and learned by agentive individuals with differing levels of power.
      • Shared .  Members of a particular society have their culture in common.
      • Patterned .  People in a given society live and think in distinctive and describable ways.
      • Mutually constructed .  By means of constant and ongoing social interaction, individuals create, recreate, and change the nature of a particular culture.
      • Symbolic .  Those within a particular culture possess a shared understanding of meaning.
      • Arbitrary .  Culture is not based on natural laws but rather is created by human beings.
      • Internalized .  Culture is habitual, taken for granted, and perceived as natural.
    • KEEP IT GOING
      • Each is passed person to person in the society
      • Also from one generation to the next
    • CREATING CULTURAL LANDSCAPES The earth’s surface as modified by human action
    • CULTURES CHANGE IN TWO WAYS:
      • Cultures change internally
      • Technology plays an important role
      • Cultures change externally by borrowing of cultural elements from one society by members of another
      • Cultural diffusion – process of spreading
      • Acculturation – process of adopting
      • Evolutionism
      • Diffusionism
    • THEORIES OF CULTURAL EVOLUTION
      • How might cultures change through internal measures?
    • VARRO’S THEORY OF HUMAN STAGES
      • Stages of Development
        • Stage 1 – Hunters & Gatherers
        • Stage 2 – Pastoral Nomadism (domestication)
        • Stage 3 – Settled agriculture (Subsistence agriculture)
        • Stage 4 – Commercial Agriculture
        • Stage 5 – Urbanization & Industry
      • Challenges
        • Not every culture passes through the same stages
        • Not true of all societies
        • “ Some ahead and some behind”
        • Used to dominate other cultures
    • MARX’S HISTORICAL MATERIALISM
      • Looks for the causes of developments and changes in human societies
      • Technology is the key to change!
      • Technology determines economic systems which determines politics and society
      • Cornucopian
      • Goods would be distributed based on need since technology would help produce surplus.
      * Malthusians believe that there is no guarantee that technology will continue to provide rising standards of living as population increases.
    • ENVIRONMENTAL DETERMINISM
      • View that the physical environment, rather than social conditions, determines culture.
      • Societies adapt to natural landscape
      • Climate (major control)
      • Challenge-Response Theory
        • People need the challenge of a difficult environment
        • Weather of the middle latitudes led to more determined and driven work ethics
      • Possibilism
        • Theory that the environment sets certain constraints or limitations, but culture is otherwise determined by man's actions
    • Environmental Determinism Debate
    • CULTURAL DIFFUSION
      • How might cultures change through external measures?
    • CULTURAL DIFFUSION
      • Overwhelms Cultural Evolution
      • Does not explain all distribution
      • Diffusion is affected by a number of important variables:
        • duration and intensity of contact
        • degree of cultural integration
        • similarities between the donor and recipient cultures
        • built in cultural resistance
      • Cultural Hearth – place of origin of culture elements
      • Problem: Same phenomenon occurs spontaneously at two or more places
    • ACCULTURATION
      • Exchange of cultural features that results when groups come into continuous firsthand contact
      • Immigrants adapt to cultural change resulting from contact with the dominant group by using one of four strategies:
        • Assimilation (adopting)
        • Integration (multicultural)
        • Separation (separate)
        • Marginalization (alienation)
    • CULTURAL RESISTANCE
      • France bids Adieu to “E-mail”
        • PARIS, July 18, 2003-- Goodbye "e-mail," the
        • French government says, and hello "courriel" — the
        • term that linguistically sensitive France is now using
        • to refer to electronic mail in official documents. The
        • Culture Ministry has announced a ban on the use of
        • "e-mail" in all government ministries, documents,
        • publications or websites, the latest step to stem an
        • incursion of English words into the French lexicon.
    • FOLK CULTURE
      • Made up of people who maintain the traditional
      • Describes people who live in an old-fashioned way-simpler life-style
      • Rural, cohesive, conservative, largely self-sufficient group, homogeneous in custom
      • Strong family or clan structure and highly developed rituals
      • Tradition is paramount — change comes infrequently and slowly
    • FOLK CULTURE
      • Amish
      • Appalachia
    • POPULAR CULTURE
      • Consists of large masses of people who conform to and prescribe to ever-changing norms
      • Large heterogeneous groups
      • Often highly individualistic and groups are constantly changing
      • Pronounced division of labor leading to establishment of specialized professions
      • Police and army take the place of religion and family in maintaining order
      • Money based economy prevails
      • Replacing folk culture in industrialized countries and many developing nations
    •  
    • GROUPING HUMANS IN CULTURE
      • How are humans groups defined?
    • DIFFERENCE BETWEEN RACE AND ETHNICITY
      • Race: attitudes formed in consequence of being a minority or majority member (via privilege). – Not assumed to be biological
      • Ethnicity: attitudes formed associating with the traditions and values of particular ethnic group.
      • Sociologist Max Weber once remarked that:
      • "The whole conception of ethnic groups is so complex and so vague that it might be good to abandon it altogether.“
      • Examples: Polish, Arab, Chinese, Japanese, Mexican, & French
    • GROUPS
      • Defined by a variety of characteristics or just one:
        • Language/Literature
        • Religion/Values/Traditions
        • Politics/Beliefs
        • Food/Manners
      • Subjective
      • Subculture – smaller bundle of attributes shared by a smaller group
      • “ Ethno” – Gr. for people
      • Ambiguous term
      • May depend on:
        • Biology
        • Culture
        • Allegiance
        • Historic background
      • Ethnocentrism - judge other cultures by own standards
      • Culture Groups
      • Ethnic Groups
    • ARE YOU TABOO?
      • Do you eat pork?
      • Have you ever kissed in public?
      • Should you have more than one wife or husband?
      • Do you eat with your left hand?
      • Do you compliment physical features?
      • Do you eat fertilized duck eggs ?
      • Do you wear shoes in the house?
      • Have you ever talked back to an adult?
    • BEHAVIORAL GEOGRAPHY
      • Approach to Human Geography that examines human behavior
      • Studies perceptions of the world and how perceptions influence behavior.
      • “ Pictures in our heads” – Mental Maps
      • People make decisions on their mental maps
      • Cultural differences in perceptions
      • Proxemics (cross-cultural study of the use of space)
      • Territoriality
    • CULTURE REGIONS/ CULTURE REALMS
    • WHAT CRITERIA IS USED TO DEFINE THE CULTURE REGION?
      • Is it consistent?
      • Is it meaningful?
    • WHAT ARE THE MOST OBVIOUS FACTORS OF CULTURAL DIVERSITY?
      • Language
      • Religion
      • Ethnicity
      • Architecture
      • Statues & Monuments
      • Clothing/Style
    • SETTLEMENT PATTERNS
      • Cluster Housing
        • Live together, work together
        • Family or Religious bonds
        • Common security
        • Europe, Latin America, Asia, Africa, & Middle East
      • Isolated Housing
        • Peace & security
        • Agricultural colonization
        • Anglo-America, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa
    • FORCES THAT STABILIZE CULTURE REALMS
      • Despite diffusion, cultures remain fixed
      • Inertia – term for the force that keeps things stable
      • Historical Geography
        • Studies the past and how geographic distributions have changed
        • How people have interacted with their environment, and created the cultural landscape.
      • Fixed Assets (Infrastructure)
      • Historical Consciousness (self reflection on history)
      • Values - Preserve key aspects of culture
      • Passed down from generation to generation
    • TRADE & CULTURAL DIFFUSION
      • Diminishes isolation
      • Triggers change - Important force of diffusion
      • Trade, economy, and culture intertwined
      • Part of Economic Geography
        • Study of how various people make a living, how economies develop, and trade
      • Export surplus, Import Luxuries
    • TRENDS IN TRADE
      • More Trade, More Diffusion
      • Nearly all parts of the world are affected
      • Friction of Distance is less (costs down)
      • Felt needs are created (think you need)
      • Activities relocate freely – footloose
      • Communication advances trades/ideas
        • Electronic highway
        • Cyberspace
      • Possible clash of “Civilizations”
    • GLOBAL DIFFUSION OF EUROPEAN CULTURE
    • NOTES ON EUROPEAN CULTURE
      • Widespread (through conquest)
      • Massive Impact
      • Progress or unwanted acculturation???
      • Illustrates all types, paths, and processes of diffusion
      Prince Henry “the Navigator”
    •  
    • CULTURAL IMPERIALISM
      • European ways are superior
      • Christianity a major catalyst (conversion)
      • Economic & military superiority
      • Methods
        • Force
        • Training/schooling
        • Reference Group Behavior (desire to belong)
        • Rewarding
        • Degrading
    • WESTERNIZATION TODAY
      • Diffusion continues
        • Wealthy buy Western products
        • Young adopt western styles
        • Media & TV increase rate of diffusion
      • Tourism
      • Non-Western Professionals (Europe & U.S.)
      • Transforming traditional cultures/folk cultures
      • U.S. Influence
        • Very strong
        • 9/11 Ripple Effect
        • Negative views of American policies
          • “ Drugs”
          • “ Peace-Keeping”
        • Spread of U.S. Culture
        • Economic Power
    •  
    • UGLY AMERICAN
      • Used to describe boorish people from the U.S. insensitive to those in other countries
      • Bothers fans of the 1958 novel The Ugly American, whose title character was actually sensitive and thoughtful—he just looked ugly
      • Are Americans truly ugly?
      “ The Great Satan” – 1979 Ayatollah Khomeini
    • PEW GLOBAL ATTITUDES PROJECT (6/2006)
      • America's Image Slips
        • Spain, India, Russia, Indonesia, & Turkey
      • U.S.-led war on terror draws majority support in just two countries - India and Russia
      • United States as the worst culprit in “hurting the world’s environment.”
      • In Japan, barely a quarter of respondents (26%) now favor the U.S.-led war on terror
      • War in Iraq has made the world a more dangerous place
      • 33 of the 47 countries polled expressed a dislike of American ideas about democracy, with the hostility highest in three allies: Turkey, France and Pakistan .
      47 nations surveyed
    • WHAT ARE AMERICAN VALUES?
      • Equal Opportunity
      • Achievement & Success (competition)
      • Material Comfort
      • Activity and Work (action)
      • Practicality and efficiency
      • Progress (move forward)
      • Science
      • Democracy and Free enterprise (individual rights have significant value)
      • Freedom (individual over the group)
      • Racism and group superiority