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Chapter 4   Bio
 

Chapter 4 Bio

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    Chapter 4   Bio Chapter 4 Bio Presentation Transcript

    • Biogeochemical Cycles and the Biosphere
      • Hydrologic & Carbon Cycles
      • Water Budgets & Movement
      • Photosynthesis & Respiration
      • Soil Formation
      • Global Patterns of Soil
      • Interaction of Ecosystems
      • Food Chains & Trophic Levels
      • Biodiversity
      • World Biomes
      • Recycling processes that supply needed substances for the biosphere
      • Examples
        • Water
        • CO2
        • Nitrogen
      • Law of Conservation
        • Energy cannot be created or destroyed
        • May be changed from one form to another
      • Energy and matter are continually transformed in the biosphere
      • Life requires matter (chemicals) & energy.
      • Earth system is closed (to matter), but media (air and water) allow matter to flow between components (reservoirs).
      • Biogeochemical CYCLES transfer necessary nutrients and material to sustain life.
      • The system requires energy…
      • Which biogeochemical cycle is the “most obvious”?
      • Hydrologic
      • Carbon
      • Nitrogen
      • Oxygen
      • Answer: B - Carbon plays the central role in the "reduction-oxidation battlefield" that we call life.
      • Water = central to every part of the biosphere
        • Only common substance that exists as solid, liquid, & gas at normal temperatures
        • Large amounts of heat energy is transferred
        • Excellent solvent
        • All living things are water (70% humans)
      • Water is stored in the atmosphere, hydrosphere, & lithosphere
      • Oceans = greatest reservoir
    •  
      • Precipitation: water that condenses from a vapor and falls as rain or snow on the earth’s surface
      • Runoff: the portion of precipitation on land that ultimately reaches streams; flow from a stream into another body of water
      • Evaporation: water converted from liquid form in to vapor; water transferred from a liquid water body (stream, lake, ocean, moisture in soil, etc.) into the atmosphere
      • Transpiration: the passage of water vapor from a living body into the atmosphere through a membrane or pores
      • Evapo-transpiration: the combination of evaporation and transpiration
    • 97% of the water in the globe resides in the oceans 22% of precipitation occurs over land, and is greater than losses by evaporation and transpiration The processes of evaporation, transpiration, and precipitation cycle water through ecosystems 78% of precipitation occurs over ocean, which is less than losses by evaporation Water Cycle 97% of the water in the globe resides in the oceans 22% of precipitation occurs over land, and is greater than losses by evaporation and transpiration The processes of evaporation, transpiration, and precipitation cycle water through ecosystems 78% of precipitation occurs over ocean, which is less than losses by evaporation
      • If water is neither being created nor destroyed, then
        • the amount of water on earth is constant
        • we can make a water budget
      • In a water budget, we select an area or volume of the earth and set up an “accounting ledger” for our “water account” for this area or volume.
      • Two rivers that fed the Aral Sea, the Amu Darya in the south and the Syr Darya in the northeast, would be diverted to irrigate the desert, in order to attempt to grow rice, melons, cereals, and cotton.
      • Geological
        • Enters through rock formation
          • Weathering
          • Erosion
        • Deposits of coal, petroleum, and natural gas derived from once-living things
        • Soils
      • Biological
        • Photosynthesis
        • CO2+H20+Energy = Carbs + O2
        • Respiration (Returns)
        • Carbs+O2 = CO2 + H20 + Energy (heat)
      *Note: All living things need carbon and oxygen to sustain life
    • Cannot ignore the human affects on CO2 levels
    • Greenhouse gases Carbon dioxide is the largest single contributer to climate forcing Carbon dioxide contributes about half of total climate forcing from greenhouse gases
      • Inorganic-C in rocks (such as bicarbonate and carbonate)
      • Organic-C (such as found in organic plant material)
      • Carbon gases such as CO2 (carbon dioxide), CH4, (methane), and CO (carbon monoxide) 
      LOCATION Amount (x10 15 gC) Rocks 65,000,000 Oceans 39,000 Soils 1,580 Atmosphere* 750 Land plants 610
    •  
    •  
      • Porous layer of mineral and organic material, in which plants grow
      • Soils consists of:
      • Mineral particles – determine soil texture
      • Organic matter
      • Air and Water
      • Soil organisms
      • Soils form from rock by ’weathering’
      • physical
        • freezing, thawing, wetting, drying, organisms
      • chemical
        • dissolved minerals moved in water
        • soil horizons formed
      • 1 inch = 100 years
      Formed vertically (unlike layers of sediment)
      • O - organic horizons .
      • A - predominatly mineral horizon that is mixed with humified organic material (an eluvial horizon, i.e. a source of organic material, clay, and cations to lower horizons).
      • E - light colored, bleached mineral horizon underlying the A horizon that occurs only in highly leached acidic soils.
      • B - mineral horizon that shows little or no evidence of the original rock structure and which has been altered by oxidation, and illuviation (addition of minerals, clays, and organic matter from the A horizon).
      • K - a subsurface horizon that is characterized by accumulation of calcium carbonate. Occurs mostly in desert and dry areas.
      • C - a subsurface horizon that is basically the material from which the soil formed (loess, alluvium, till, etc.). It lacks most of the properties of the A or B horizon, but can be somewhat
      • R - regolith (consolidated bedrock).
      • Soils are classified into orders based on the presence or absence of diagnostic horizons and major differences in soil forming factors or properties.
      • There are 11 soil orders.
      • There are some soil orders that generally correspond to specific conditions:
      • Arid Organic Forests
      • Volcanic Highly oxidized Cracking
      • Frozen Prairie Young
    • Inceptisol – weakly developed soils often found in mountains Mollisol – grassland; plentiful organic material
      • Humid & Subtropical
        • Highly weathered
        • Lost nutrients due to heavy precipitation
        • Fertilization needed
      • Arid
        • High in soluble materials
        • Low in organics
        • Irrigation needed
      • Midlatitude Soils
        • Moderately leached
        • Deciduous Forests
        • Coniferous (acidic)
      • Midlatitude Subhumid Soils
        • Fertile
        • Grain-Producing Regions
      Mountain Regions have poor soils due to heavy erosion
      • No continent is free of soil degradation
      • 1.2 billion have moderately to severely degraded (especially Asia and Africa)
      • Central America highest percentage and worst degrees of soil degradation
      • Central part of USA very degraded soils
      Intensive agriculture accelerates degradation (loss of nutrients)
      • Ability to support plant growth
      • Agriculture
        • Fallow period (no harvest; fields allowed to rest)
        • Inorganic fertilizers replace organic materials
      • Concern about impact on world’s food-producing capacity
      • Desertification
        • Caused by climate change, erosion, and degradation of soil in dryland areas
        • Spreads outward from any where excessive abuse of the land occurs and far from any climatic desert
      • Poor irrigation practices and the unsustainable exploitation of water resources are contributing to chemical pollution, soil salinization and aquifer depletion.
      • The study of ecosystems mainly consists of the study of certain processes that link the living, or biotic, components to the
      • non-living, or abiotic, components.
      Circle of Life Mufasa: Everything you see exists together, in a delicate balance. As king, you need to understand that balance, and respect all the creatures-- from the crawling ant to the leaping antelope. Simba: But, Dad, don't we eat the antelope? Mufasa: Yes, Simba, but let me explain. When we die, our bodies become the grass. And the antelope eat the grass. And so we are all connected in the great Circle of Life.
    • Ecosystem = a “major interacting system that involves both organisms and their nonliving environment" (Molles 2002) - who defines ecosystems as having the most complex level of biological organization. Biome = Widespread terrestrial ecosystems. Biomes are major communities of organisms that have a characteristic appearance and that are distributed over a wide land area defined largely by regional variations in climate.
    •  
      • Abiotic (Non-living)
        • Sunlight
        • Temperature
        • Precipitation
        • Water or Moisture
        • Soil or Water
      • Biotic (Food Chain)
        • Primary Producers (autotrophs)
        • Carnivore (meat-eaters)
        • Herbivore (plant-eaters
        • Omnivore (eats either other animals or plants)
        • Decomposers
      All of these vary over space/time
    • Trophic Level – each step in the food chain
    • Succession is the natural transition of plant species from a "pioneer stage" to a "climax community" Beginning Stage Climax Community – End point (equilibrium)
      • Earth can be divided into Biomes
      • Occupy large regions
      • Plants & animals
      • Have specific climate with
      • similar plants and animal
      • adaptations
    • Note: Many of the locations of these biomes on the map correspond to patterns of the annual precipitation and annual temperatures --->
      • Forest
      • Savanna
      • Grassland
      • Desert
      • Tundra
      • * Some biomes and climate types share the same names
    •  
      • Found only in Northern Hemisphere
      • Very short growing season
      • Mosses, lichens, no trees
      • Permafrost restricts root growth.
      • Reason for small plants.
    •  
      • Low & Midlatitudes
      • Widely spaced plants
      • Plants store
      • water (cacti)
      • Many types of animals, well adapted
    •  
      • Midlatitude
      • Names: Steppe, prairie, plain, etc.
      • Temperate & Tropics similar
      • Unbroken sea
      • of grass
      • Grazing adapted plants
    •  
      • Wet & Dry Seasons
      • Tropical grassland
      • Scattered trees and shrubs
      • Herds of grazing animals
      • Spreading
    •  
      • Tree covered
      • Determined by types of trees
        • Temperate Forests
          • Deciduous
          • Coniferous
          • Mixed
          • Boreal (Northern)
          • Mediterranean Forest
        • Tropical Rain Forests
      Deciduous Forests Tropical Rain Forests Coniferous Forests
    •  
      • Which biome covers most of the U.S.?
        • Tundra
        • Deciduous Forests
        • Coniferous Forests
        • Grassland
      • Which biome does not exist in the U.S.?
        • Tundra
        • Rain Forests
        • Deserts
        • Savannas
    • A study published in 1999 concluded that there are 150 different "ecoregions" in North America alone.
      • All living things – plants, animals, and humans, - are interrelated in the biosphere.
      • Biogeochemical cycles always involve equilibrium states: a balance in the cycling of the element between compartments
      • Carbon is the basis of life on Earth.
      • Soil provides the nutrients plants needs to grow and survive.
      • Biomes are the various regions of our planet which can best be distinguished by their climate, fauna and flora.