Autism Slides

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Autism Slides

  1. 1. Steps Toward Supporting Behavior Positively<br />1. Understand the characteristics of autism that may influence the child’s ability to function in the learning environment.<br />2. Acknowledge that behavior serves a function, is related to context, and is a form of communication.<br />3. Use a functional behavior assessment to determine the basis of the behavior and as the place to begin development of a program of support.<br />
  2. 2. Positive Support (cont.)<br />4. Be proactive, think prevention, the time to address an inappropriate behavior is before it happens.<br />5. Collaborate with support team members (parents, educators, administrators, related service providers, etc.) to develop and implement long term prevention plans.<br />
  3. 3. Characteristics and IQ<br /> Severe Autism<br /> Social and behavioral difficulties<br /> Severely affected population<br />Cognitive skills in IQ Average or<br />LD/MR range above average<br />Poor academic skills -- Good Academic skills<br />Lack verbal skills -- verbal<br /> Mild Autism<br /> Social and Behavioral Difficulties<br />
  4. 4. “Iceberg Theory of Behavior”<br />Applying what we know about the “culture” of autism to help us understand the behaviors we observe.<br />
  5. 5. Cognition<br /><ul><li> Remembers dates, history facts
  6. 6. Gets stuck on details
  7. 7. “Forgets” homework or doesn’t </li></ul> turn it in<br /><ul><li> Needs adult prompt to get </li></ul> started on work<br /><ul><li> Doesn’t apply learned skills
  8. 8. Seems to lack “common sense”
  9. 9. Good rote memory
  10. 10. Lacks higher level thinking and comp. Skills
  11. 11. Limited problem solving ability
  12. 12. Images are concrete, difficulty with abstract </li></ul> thinking<br /><ul><li> Problems with organization, sequencing, and </li></ul> time<br /><ul><li> Difficulty generalizing what has learned
  13. 13. Poor social reasoning
  14. 14. Unable to filter out irrelevant information</li></li></ul><li>Communication<br /><ul><li> “Lost” in group discussions or </li></ul> with verbal directions<br /><ul><li> “Give and take” lacking in </li></ul> conversation<br /><ul><li> Doesn’t ask for help
  15. 15. Odd use of nonverbal </li></ul> communication (eye contact, <br /> facial expressions)<br /><ul><li> Confused by idioms
  16. 16. Problems in auditory processing and receptive </li></ul> language<br /><ul><li> Problems with pragmatic/social communication
  17. 17. Visual thinkers
  18. 18. Difficulty integrating verbal and nonverbal </li></ul> communication<br /><ul><li> Concrete/literal understanding
  19. 19. Speech abnormalities</li></li></ul><li>Social Interaction<br /><ul><li> On the fringe of groups
  20. 20. Active yet odd
  21. 21. “Out of sync”
  22. 22. Socially naive, teased by peers
  23. 23. Few or no friends
  24. 24. “Little lawyer,”or “Class policeman”
  25. 25. Egocentric
  26. 26. May prefer being alone
  27. 27. Wants friends but lacks skills for making them
  28. 28. Misses subtle social cues and meta rules
  29. 29. Problems taking other’s perspective, mind blindness
  30. 30. Poor incidental social learner
  31. 31. Unable to navigate new social situations
  32. 32. Narrow fund of social knowledge applied to all</li></ul> situations<br />
  33. 33. Restricted Interests and Behavior<br /><ul><li> Preoccupied with single topic
  34. 34. Upset with changes
  35. 35. Fussy about sounds, foods, clothing
  36. 36. Flips objects, flaps hands, unusual </li></ul> body movements<br /><ul><li> Repeats questions
  37. 37. Intense fixation on unusual things
  38. 38. Limited imagination
  39. 39. Overwhelmed by minimal change
  40. 40. Highly sensitive to environmental stressors
  41. 41. Attracted to sameness
  42. 42. Poor concept of time
  43. 43. Fatigue
  44. 44. Obsessive thoughts and compulsive behaviors
  45. 45. Anxiety increases when faced with anything new</li></li></ul><li>Motor Skills<br /><ul><li> Clumsy
  46. 46. Stiff, awkward gait
  47. 47. Awkward posture
  48. 48. Poor handwriting
  49. 49. Not good at team sports
  50. 50. Poor fine motor skills
  51. 51. Poor gross motor skills
  52. 52. Poor sense of balance and awareness of self in</li></ul> space<br /><ul><li> Poor motor planning
  53. 53. Sensory integration differences
  54. 54. Unable to coordinate own actions with that of</li></ul> peers<br />
  55. 55. Adaptive Skills<br /><ul><li> Poor money skills
  56. 56. Poor concept of time
  57. 57. Disorganized approach to simple </li></ul> chores and self care<br /><ul><li> May need more assistance than </li></ul> expected given cognitive <br /> abilities<br /><ul><li> Cognition difficulties, organizational difficulties
  58. 58. Impressive vocabulary, poor comprehension
  59. 59. Ineffective thinking strategies
  60. 60. Difficulty scanning information, visually
  61. 61. Limited social understanding, problems taking </li></ul> others’ perspectives<br />
  62. 62. Pyramid of Support<br />Task Structure<br />Routines & Strategies<br />Work Systems<br />Schedules<br />Physical Structure<br />
  63. 63. Physical StructureHow is my classroom organized?<br />Refers to the way that you arrange the furniture and materials to add meaning and context to the area or environment<br />
  64. 64. Physical Structure<br />Clear visual and physical boundaries<br />Minimize auditory and visual distractions<br />Develop basic teaching areas<br />1:1 or teacher area<br />Independent work<br />Leisure, calm, safe spot<br />Group instruction<br />Transition <br />
  65. 65. Physical Structure<br />With a shoulder partner, discuss ways that you might add physical structure to your current classroom environment<br />Share<br />
  66. 66. SchedulesWhat happens during my school day?<br /><ul><li>A visual system that tells student what activities will occur and in what sequence
  67. 67. A visual system which allows student to predict what will happen next
  68. 68. Individualized to maximize meaning and independence</li></li></ul><li>Types of schedules<br /><ul><li>Transition objects
  69. 69. Picture or photograph schedule
  70. 70. Pictures with words
  71. 71. Symbolic drawings
  72. 72. Written
  73. 73. Schedules vary in initiation, length, and manipulation</li></li></ul><li>Object schedule<br />
  74. 74. Symbolic Drawing<br />
  75. 75. Written/Text Schedule<br />
  76. 76. Work SystemsHow do I do my work?<br /><ul><li>Provides a student with a systematic way to approach work that needs to be completed
  77. 77. Work system builds independent work skills
  78. 78. Answers:
  79. 79. How much work?
  80. 80. What work?
  81. 81. Concept of finished and progress
  82. 82. What happens next?</li></li></ul><li>Types of Work Systems<br />Right there<br />Left to right (top to bottom)<br />Matching<br />Written<br />
  83. 83. Right There<br />
  84. 84. Right There<br />
  85. 85. Right There<br />
  86. 86. Matching<br />
  87. 87. Matching<br />
  88. 88. Matching<br />
  89. 89. Matching using high interest<br />
  90. 90. Written<br />
  91. 91. Routines and Strategies<br />Promote generalization of skills by using same or similar materials in a variety of ways<br />Incorporate special interests <br />Incorporate routines into daily events <br />
  92. 92. Visual Structure of Tasks<br />Definition: The process of incorporating concrete visual cues into a task or activity.<br />Purpose: To capitalize on visual strengths, while minimizing reliance on weaker auditory processing skills.<br />
  93. 93. 32<br /> Three Key Elements<br />Visual instructions<br />Visual organization<br />Visual clarity<br />
  94. 94. 33<br />A. Visual Instructions<br />Show how to combine and organize a series of parts to obtain the desired outcome<br />Provide the necessary information to put parts or details of a task together in a systematic and meaningful way<br />Promote the use of the child’s strong visual skills in a functional way<br />
  95. 95.
  96. 96. 35<br />B. Visual Organization<br />Modulates sensory input by organizing materials and space within the work environment<br />Placement of distinct materials into separate containers helps reduce distractions<br />Limiting the work area space helps direct focus to relevant details<br />
  97. 97. Visual Organization<br />
  98. 98. 37<br />C. Visual Clarity<br />Further clarification of relevant information and key materials<br />Emphasizes significant parts of visual instructions<br />Shifts child’s focus to relevant details:<br />Colors<br />Pictures<br />Numbers<br />Words<br />Removal of unnecessary or extra materials<br />
  99. 99. Lacking Visual Clarity<br />
  100. 100. Visual Clarity<br />
  101. 101. 57 Questions to Ask Yourself:<br />Physical structure<br />Scheduling<br />Task demands<br />Communication issues<br />

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