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Plant Notes Ch 21 24

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Transcript

  • 1. Plant Notes ch 21-24
  • 2. Introduction to Plants
    • What we have learned about plants so far this year:
    • 1. Eukaryotic
    • 2. Multicellular
    • 3. Autotroph
    • 4. Cell wall made of cellulose
    • 5. Has chloroplasts
  • 3. What plants need to live:
    • 1. Water
    • 2. Soil (nutrients)
    • 3. Sunlight
    • 4. carbon dioxide
  • 4. What plants give to us:
    • 1. Oxygen
    • 2. Energy
    • 3. Clothing
    • 4. Medicines
    • 5. Decorations, dyes, shelter for animals, industry: glue, furniture
  • 5. All plants have the following in common:
    • Multicellular
    • Eukaryotic
    • Cell walls made of cellulose
    • Photosynthesis
  • 6.
    • Plant Adaptations: Parts of all plants (leaves, stem, and roots)
    • 1A.The leaf –
    • 3parts:
    • Blade – where photosynthesis takes place (primary function of leaves)
    • Vein – carries water, minerals, and sugars through blade
    • Petiole – connects the leaf to the stem, transports fluids
  • 7. Leaf Type:
    • Simple : one blade that is not divided
    • Compound : When blade is divided into leaflets
  • 8. Leaf Arrangement: How the leaves are arranged on the stem
    • Alternate
    • Opposite
    • Whorled
  • 9. Leaf Venation: How the leaf veins occur
    • Parallel
    • Palmate
    • Pinnate
  • 10.
    • 3 parts:
    • Cuticle - waxy covering over the plant that prevents water loss.
    • Stomata – allows gas and water vapor in and out. (found in the dermal layer)
    • Guard cells – opens and closes stomata
  • 11. Section 23.2 Summary – pages 612-621 Leaf structure Stomata Guard cell Spongy mesophyll Lower epidermis Cuticle Upper epidermis Palisade mesophyll Vascular bundle Xylem Phloem
  • 12. Section 23.1 Summary – pages 605-611
    • Cells called guard cells control the opening and closing of stomata.
    Dermal tissues
    • The opening and closing of stomata regulates the flow of water vapor from leaf tissues.
  • 13.
    • Transpiration – the loss of water through the stomata
    • *Trichomes – give the stem or leaf a “fuzzy” appearance, helps reduce the evaporation of water from the plant.
  • 14. 2. The Stem
    • 3 types of tissue
    • Dermal Tissue – Outer layer of stems and leaves used for covering & protection
    • (like humans skin)
    • Ground Tissue – Storage, support, and photosynthesis
    • Vascular Tissue
      • xylem (dead cells) – carry water and minerals * Dead xylem makes rings of trees
      • phloem (living cells) – carry “food” (sugar produced by plant)
  • 15.
    • *Meristems – where new growth occurs
    • Merry stems grow 
  • 16. 3. The Root
    • absorbs water and minerals
    • anchors plant
    • some store food
    • root hairs = increase surface area for absorption
    • root tip – site of maximum absorption of water and minerals
  • 17. 2 root types:
    • taproot root - deep strong anchor for plant, gets ground water (carrots, beets)
    • fibrous root - found in upper soil, cover wide area, prevent erosion (grass)
  • 18. 4. Reproduction of Plants
    • Spores – A plant reproductive organ that requires water to be transported.
    • Seeds - a plant organ that contains an embryo, food supply, and has a protective coat
  • 19. To return to the chapter summary click escape or close this document. Diagram of a Seed
  • 20.
    • The Fruit – houses the seeds and aids in dispersal by wind, water, insects, and other organisms
      • Some have one seed – peach, plum
      • Some have several seeds – strawberry, tomato
  • 21.
    • 4. Life Cycle is called Alteration of Generations :
        • Switching back and forth between diploid and haploid stages.
  • 22. 5. How Plants Are Classified
  • 23. 6. Parts of Flowering Plants:
    • Structure
    • Review words:
    • Leaf – site of photosynthesis
    • Stem – supports leaves and flowers
    • New words:
    • Flower – reproductive organ
    • Internode – between nodes
    • Node - where the leaf attaches
  • 24. Flowering plants are divided into two groups : (page 595 – chart )
    • Distinguishing Characteristics of Monocots and Dicots
  • 25. Section 22.3 Summary – pages 588 - 597 Moncots and dicots Distinguishing Characteristics of Monocots and Dicots Seed Leaves Vascular Bundles in Leaves Vascular Bundles in Stems Flower Parts Monocots Dicots One cotyledon Usually parallel Scattered Multiples of three Two cotyledons Usually netlike Arranged in ring Multiples of four and five
  • 26. The Flower :
    • Female parts and function: The Pistil
    • 1.Ovule – develops the egg, turns into seed
    • 2. Ovary – forms the fruit, holds the egg, turns into fruit
    • 3. Style – slender stalk that connects the stigma to the ovary
    • 4. Stigma – receives the pollen
    • Male parts and function : The Stamen
    • 1. Anther – contains the pollen
    • 2. Filament – Supports the anther
  • 27. Flower Parts stigma style ovary ovule pistil anther filament stamen
  • 28. Flower Parts
  • 29. Adaptations in plants:
    • cacti – needle like leaves to prevent water loss and for protection
    • venus fly trap – trap insects because it lives in nutrient depleted soil
    • pitcher plant – leaves are made to trap insects
  • 30. Life Span:
    • annual – lives, reproduces, and dies in one year
    • biennial – lives, reproduces, and dies two years
    • perennial - lives, reproduces, and keeps growing year after year