Get out:   Ch 12 notes  Ch. 12 Review
Chapter 12.1 Pedigrees
I. Making a Pedigree <ul><li>A  _____PEDIGREE_____  is a diagram that represents genetic inheritance. (kind of like a fami...
<ul><li>A  ______HORIZONTAL_____  line connecting a circle and square indicates that the individuals are parents   </li></...
III – Why Study a Pedigree? <ul><li>Most  genetic  disorders are caused by the recessive allele. </li></ul><ul><li>By stud...
Section 12.1 Summary – pages 309 - 314 Pedigrees illustrate inheritance Male Female Affected male Affected female Mating P...
Section 12.1 Summary – pages 309 - 314 <ul><li>In a pedigree, a circle represents a female; a square represents a male. </...
Section 12.1 Summary – pages 309 - 314 <ul><li>Highlighted circles and squares represent individuals showing the trait bei...
Section 12.1 Summary – pages 309 - 314 <ul><li>Circles and squares that are not highlighted designate individuals that do ...
Section 12.1 Summary – pages 309 - 314 <ul><li>A half-shaded circle or square represents a  CARRIER , a heterozygous indiv...
Section 12.1 Summary – pages 309 - 314 1 2 1 1 1 3 2 2 2 4 3 3 5 4 4 5 ? I II III IV <ul><li>A horizontal line connecting ...
Section 12.1 Summary – pages 309 - 314 1 2 1 1 1 3 2 2 2 4 3 3 5 4 4 5 ? <ul><li>The generations are identified in sequenc...
Remember :
 
 
 
 
 
Section 1 Check I II III IV 1 2 1 1 1 3 2 2 4 3 Question 1 What does this pedigree tell you about those who show the reces...
Section 1 Check I II III IV 1 2 1 1 1 3 2 2 4 3 The pedigree indicates that showing the recessive phenotype for the diseas...
Section 1 Check Question 2 What must happen for a person to show a recessive phenotype?   Answer The person must inherit a...
Section 1 Check I II III IV 1 2 1 1 1 3 2 2 4 3 Question 3 How many females are in this pedigree?
Section 1 Check I II III IV 1 2 1 1 1 3 2 2 4 3 Question 4 How many males are in this pedigree?
Section 1 Check I II III IV 1 2 1 1 1 3 2 2 4 3 Question 5 How many affected females are in this pedigree?
Section 1 Check I II III IV 1 2 1 1 1 3 2 2 4 3 Question 6 How many affected males are in this pedigree?
Section 1 Check I II III IV 1 2 1 1 1 3 2 2 4 3 Question 7 How many carriers are in this pedigree?
IV.  Simple Recessive Heredity
<ul><li>Most genetic disorders are caused by recessive alleles.  Some common genetics disorders caused by recessive allele...
a. Cystic fibrosis (CF) -  <ul><li>A fairly common genetic disorder among white Americans. </li></ul><ul><li>Approximately...
b. Tay-Sachs Disease <ul><li>Disease is a recessive disorder of the central nervous system. </li></ul><ul><li>Page 312 – d...
Pedigree- Tay Sachs Disease
c. Phenylketonuria (PKU) <ul><li>is a recessive disorder that results from the absence of an enzyme that converts one amin...
Section 12.1 Summary – pages 309 - 314 Phenylketonuria Phenylketonurics: Contains Phenylalanine
V. Simple Dominant Heredity <ul><li>traits may be inherited just as the rule of dominance predicts, a single dominant alle...
May include: <ul><li>Hitchhickers Thumb </li></ul><ul><li>Widow’s Peak </li></ul><ul><li>Free hanging Earlobes </li></ul>
Huntington’s Disease <ul><li>*Huntington’s Disease  - lethal genetic disorder caused by a rare dominant allele. It results...
Pedigree- Huntington Disease
<ul><li>_____ recessive disorder that results form the absence of an enzyme required to break down lipids </li></ul><ul><l...
<ul><li>Page 314 : draw the pedigree and label each individuals genotype </li></ul><ul><li>Predict : </li></ul><ul><li>(us...
Chapter 12.2 & 12.3 notes When Heredity Follows Different Rules
 
I. Incomplete dominance : <ul><li>Appearance of a  __ INTERMEDIATE __  phenotype </li></ul><ul><li>Occurs when a heterozyg...
 
 
II. Codominance : <ul><li>Expression of  both  alleles </li></ul><ul><li>Occurs when you have  _ 2 _  dominant alleles and...
 
 
III. Multiple alleles <ul><li>Occurs when  ___MORE__  than  __ONE__  alleles control a trait.  (Can be 3 to 100 alleles pe...
 
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Ch 12 1&2 Ppt 07

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Ch 12 1&2 Ppt 07

  1. 1. Get out: Ch 12 notes Ch. 12 Review
  2. 2. Chapter 12.1 Pedigrees
  3. 3. I. Making a Pedigree <ul><li>A _____PEDIGREE_____ is a diagram that represents genetic inheritance. (kind of like a family tree) </li></ul><ul><li>II. Symbols of a pedigree female = male = </li></ul><ul><li> = female non carrier = male non carrier </li></ul><ul><li> = female that shows the trait = male that shows the trait </li></ul><ul><li> = female carrier =male carrier </li></ul><ul><li>**Carrier – someone who has a recessive allele for a specific trait. (heterozygous) </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>A ______HORIZONTAL_____ line connecting a circle and square indicates that the individuals are parents </li></ul><ul><li>A _______VERTICAL_____ line connects parents with their offspring </li></ul><ul><li>**** Roman numerals represent each different generation </li></ul>
  5. 5. III – Why Study a Pedigree? <ul><li>Most genetic disorders are caused by the recessive allele. </li></ul><ul><li>By studying pedigrees, the individual will be able to determine the likelihood that he/she carries the allele . </li></ul><ul><li>Information on other members of the family can also be studied by looking at a pedigree. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Section 12.1 Summary – pages 309 - 314 Pedigrees illustrate inheritance Male Female Affected male Affected female Mating Parents Siblings Known heterozygotes for recessive allele Death
  7. 7. Section 12.1 Summary – pages 309 - 314 <ul><li>In a pedigree, a circle represents a female; a square represents a male. </li></ul>Female Male ? I II III IV 1 2 1 1 1 3 2 2 2 4 3 3 5 4 4 5 Female Male
  8. 8. Section 12.1 Summary – pages 309 - 314 <ul><li>Highlighted circles and squares represent individuals showing the trait being studied. Also, can be shaded in. </li></ul>? I II III IV 1 2 1 1 1 3 2 2 2 4 3 3 5 4 4 5
  9. 9. Section 12.1 Summary – pages 309 - 314 <ul><li>Circles and squares that are not highlighted designate individuals that do not show the trait. Also, can be blank or not shaded in. </li></ul>? I II III IV 1 2 1 1 1 3 2 2 2 4 3 3 5 4 4 5
  10. 10. Section 12.1 Summary – pages 309 - 314 <ul><li>A half-shaded circle or square represents a CARRIER , a heterozygous individual. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Section 12.1 Summary – pages 309 - 314 1 2 1 1 1 3 2 2 2 4 3 3 5 4 4 5 ? I II III IV <ul><li>A horizontal line connecting a circle and a square indicates that the individuals are parents, and a vertical line connects parents with their offspring. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Section 12.1 Summary – pages 309 - 314 1 2 1 1 1 3 2 2 2 4 3 3 5 4 4 5 ? <ul><li>The generations are identified in sequence by Roman numerals, and each individual is given an Arabic number. </li></ul>I II III IV
  13. 13. Remember :
  14. 19. Section 1 Check I II III IV 1 2 1 1 1 3 2 2 4 3 Question 1 What does this pedigree tell you about those who show the recessive phenotype for the disease?
  15. 20. Section 1 Check I II III IV 1 2 1 1 1 3 2 2 4 3 The pedigree indicates that showing the recessive phenotype for the disease is fatal.
  16. 21. Section 1 Check Question 2 What must happen for a person to show a recessive phenotype? Answer The person must inherit a recessive allele for the trait from both parents.
  17. 22. Section 1 Check I II III IV 1 2 1 1 1 3 2 2 4 3 Question 3 How many females are in this pedigree?
  18. 23. Section 1 Check I II III IV 1 2 1 1 1 3 2 2 4 3 Question 4 How many males are in this pedigree?
  19. 24. Section 1 Check I II III IV 1 2 1 1 1 3 2 2 4 3 Question 5 How many affected females are in this pedigree?
  20. 25. Section 1 Check I II III IV 1 2 1 1 1 3 2 2 4 3 Question 6 How many affected males are in this pedigree?
  21. 26. Section 1 Check I II III IV 1 2 1 1 1 3 2 2 4 3 Question 7 How many carriers are in this pedigree?
  22. 27. IV. Simple Recessive Heredity
  23. 28. <ul><li>Most genetic disorders are caused by recessive alleles. Some common genetics disorders caused by recessive alleles are: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cystic Fibrosis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tay-Sach </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>PKU </li></ul></ul></ul>
  24. 29. a. Cystic fibrosis (CF) - <ul><li>A fairly common genetic disorder among white Americans. </li></ul><ul><li>Approximately one in 28 white Americans carries the recessive allele, and one in 2500 children born to white Americans inherits the disorder. </li></ul><ul><li>Due to a defective protein in the plasma membrane, cystic fibrosis results in the formation and accumulation of thick mucus in the lungs and digestive tract. </li></ul>
  25. 30. b. Tay-Sachs Disease <ul><li>Disease is a recessive disorder of the central nervous system. </li></ul><ul><li>Page 312 – draw in pedigree and label each persons genotype. </li></ul><ul><li>**What is the genotype of individual II-3? </li></ul>
  26. 31. Pedigree- Tay Sachs Disease
  27. 32. c. Phenylketonuria (PKU) <ul><li>is a recessive disorder that results from the absence of an enzyme that converts one amino acid, phenylalanine, to a different amino acid, tyrosine. </li></ul><ul><li>Because phenylalanine cannot be broken down, it and its by-products accumulate in the body and result in severe damage to the central nervous system. </li></ul>
  28. 33. Section 12.1 Summary – pages 309 - 314 Phenylketonuria Phenylketonurics: Contains Phenylalanine
  29. 34. V. Simple Dominant Heredity <ul><li>traits may be inherited just as the rule of dominance predicts, a single dominant allele inherited from one parent is all that is needed for a person to show the dominant trait. </li></ul>
  30. 35. May include: <ul><li>Hitchhickers Thumb </li></ul><ul><li>Widow’s Peak </li></ul><ul><li>Free hanging Earlobes </li></ul>
  31. 36. Huntington’s Disease <ul><li>*Huntington’s Disease - lethal genetic disorder caused by a rare dominant allele. It results in a breakdown of certain areas of the brain. </li></ul>
  32. 37. Pedigree- Huntington Disease
  33. 38. <ul><li>_____ recessive disorder that results form the absence of an enzyme required to break down lipids </li></ul><ul><li>_____ lethal genetic disorder caused by a dominant allele </li></ul><ul><li>_____most common genetic disorder among white Americans </li></ul><ul><li>_____recessive disorder that results from the absence of an exzyme that converts one amino acid into another one </li></ul><ul><li>____ widow’s peak and hitch hiker’s thumb </li></ul><ul><li>Cystic Fibrosis d. Huntington’s disease </li></ul><ul><li>Simple dominant traits e. PKU (phenylketonuria </li></ul><ul><li>Tay-Sachs disease </li></ul>C D A E B
  34. 39. <ul><li>Page 314 : draw the pedigree and label each individuals genotype </li></ul><ul><li>Predict : </li></ul><ul><li>(using a Punnett Square) </li></ul><ul><li>the probability of II – 4 and 5 having children with Huntington’s disease. </li></ul>
  35. 40. Chapter 12.2 & 12.3 notes When Heredity Follows Different Rules
  36. 42. I. Incomplete dominance : <ul><li>Appearance of a __ INTERMEDIATE __ phenotype </li></ul><ul><li>Occurs when a heterozygous individual is __________________________ between those of two homozygotes. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: red flowers and white flowers = pink flowers or animal coat color </li></ul>
  37. 45. II. Codominance : <ul><li>Expression of both alleles </li></ul><ul><li>Occurs when you have _ 2 _ dominant alleles and both are expressed. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: Black hen (B) x white hen (W) = black and white hen or human blood types (A, B, AB, O) </li></ul><ul><li>Disorder in humans: Sickle cell anemia – different size red blood cell can lead to slowing of blood flow, tissue damage, blockage of blood vessels. (p. 324) </li></ul>
  38. 48. III. Multiple alleles <ul><li>Occurs when ___MORE__ than __ONE__ alleles control a trait. (Can be 3 to 100 alleles per trait) </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: Pigeon color (p.317) </li></ul><ul><li>Use in humans: Blood Typing (important for blood transfusions) </li></ul>
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