• Share
  • Email
  • Embed
  • Like
  • Save
  • Private Content
Live in field experience (LFE) Final report
 

Live in field experience (LFE) Final report

on

  • 934 views

 

Statistics

Views

Total Views
934
Views on SlideShare
934
Embed Views
0

Actions

Likes
2
Downloads
0
Comments
0

0 Embeds 0

No embeds

Accessibility

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Adobe PDF

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

    Live in field experience (LFE) Final report Live in field experience (LFE) Final report Document Transcript

    • LFE Report - Spring, 2013Venue: Proshika, ManikganjBy Md.Matiur RahmanI n d e p e n d e n t U n i v e r s i t y , B a n g l a d e s h Page 1
    • LFE Report - Spring, 2013Venue: Proshika, ManikganjBy Md.Matiur RahmanI n d e p e n d e n t U n i v e r s i t y , B a n g l a d e s h Page 21.0 Introduction: Live-in-Field Experience:“LFE bridges the gap between our historical knowledge and the present through an empiricalstudy of the roots of our culture”We the people have a nature to look forward. Everyday we are getting dettached from our naturalbeauty to technological advancement. But we always forget that out true origin lies in the ruralbeauty. “So sometimes we have to stop and smell the roses”. Our University “The IndependentUniversity of Bangladesh” is the only university that arranges a unique program, LFE i.e “Life inField Experience”. We the young generation are the backbone of the country and we must knowhow the great majority of the people live. A large portion of our country are directly andinderictly related with the villgers. But it is also true that, the life blood of our country(Villagers) are afflected with Poverty, Malnutrition, Illiteracy and unconscious about health.LFE-Live-In Field Experience is one of the distinctive courses offered by IUB to its students.The course is designed to impress upon young minds the socio-economic realities of the ruralBangladesh as the majority portion of our population live in the village i.e. in the rural areas.Through this course, we have an opportunity to get direct encounter with rural people on whomthe country stands. Most of the young generation have little or no idea about gram bangla, afterdoing this LFE program, we get to know how the majority of the people live. We should alwaysbear in mind that the problem we face and observe in the urban areas does not reflect thesituation of the whole country. It is the rural areas which reflect the scenario of the wholecountry. LFE provides us the chance to overcome and minimize the gap of understanding andmake familiar with the rural areas. We are really grateful to the authority of IUB for providing usthe prospect to get this authentic experience.
    • LFE Report - Spring, 2013Venue: Proshika, ManikganjBy Md.Matiur RahmanI n d e p e n d e n t U n i v e r s i t y , B a n g l a d e s h Page 31.1 Objective:It is common to us that a person without an aim is like a ship without a rudder in the sea. Themain object of IUB to conduct LFE is to make familiar the students with the rural life and givesome personal real and field experience to them. To achieve the intent of LFE, IUB planned toconduct a research by its students in some rural areas. The IUB students has to be made aware ofthis situation, so that they began to think of ways to solve the problems and thereby openupopportunities for further social and economic development. The overall objectives of the LFE-201 courses are stated below.To sketch out the appropriate rural structure of our country by selecting a Para from aspecific village of Manikganj.To know the historical referencs of the selected Para about different paramaters ofsocial change process.To draw out the social stratification of rural area in terms of the wealth position withspecific determinants.To find out how villagers produce their crops in their field and various aspects ofrural production cycle.To followup the overall health and environmental condition of the rural area.Finally, to analyze the interaction place of surplus group and deficit group of peoplein the rural area i.e Market structure of the Rural are and other related issues.
    • LFE Report - Spring, 2013Venue: Proshika, ManikganjBy Md.Matiur RahmanI n d e p e n d e n t U n i v e r s i t y , B a n g l a d e s h Page 41.2 Limitations:To conduct each and every research the researcher has to face some problems which mayminimize the value of the work. Though we did not face any major problems but the mostcommon problem to all the groups is the shortage of time. Other than the problems we havefaced during conducting the research on individual study are mentioned in the individual chapter.1.3. Proshika (HRDC): At A GlanceBackground:The development process of PROSHIKA, one of the largest NGOs of Bangladesh, started in afew villages of Dhaka, Manikganj and Comilla districts in 1975, although the organizationformally took its first step in 1976. Much has changed since. From a very modest beginning,over the years, PROSHIKA has created 12.33 million employment/self-employmentopportunities for the poor and brought over one million households out of poverty while makingover one million people literate and planting nearly one billion trees towards the greening of ourcountry. The name „PROSHIKA‟ is an acronym of three Bangla words, which stand for training,education, and work. A constant analysis of the magnitude of poverty and its trends, thestrategies effective for its reduction and eventual elimination, and their meticulousimplementation has brought PROSHIKA where it is today. The central ethos has, however, allthe while remained the same-human development and empowerment of the poor who graduallystand tall to achieve freedom from poverty by themselves. Empowerment means that the poor areunited and organized, become aware of the real causes of their impoverishment, developleadership among themselves, mobilize their material resources, increase income andemployment, develop capacities to cope with natural disasters, become functionally literate, takebetter care of their health, become engaged in environmental protection and regeneration, getelected in local government bodies and community institutions, and have better access to publicand common property resources.
    • LFE Report - Spring, 2013Venue: Proshika, ManikganjBy Md.Matiur RahmanI n d e p e n d e n t U n i v e r s i t y , B a n g l a d e s h Page 5Vision:PROSHIKA envisions a society, which is economically productive and equitable, socially just,environmental sound, and genuinely democratic.Mission:PROSHIKA‟s mission is to conduct an extensive, intensive, and participatory process ofsustainable development through the empowerment of the poor.Objectives:PROSHIKA‟s objectives are: (i) structural poverty alleviation; (ii) environmental protection andregeneration; (iii) improvement in women‟s status; (iv) increasing people‟s participation inpublic institutions; and (v) enhancing people‟s capacity to gain and exercise democratic andhuman rights.What PROSHIKA Does:These objectives are achieved through a broad range of programmes in organization building,education and training leading to income and employment generation, health education, healthinfrastructure building, as well as environmental protection and regeneration. The programmesare supported by policy advocacy and research activities linking the poorest of the poor.Who PROSHIKA Works with:Spread in 21,272 villages and 2,380 urban slums in 55 districts, PROSHIKA now works withnearly 1.36 million men and women members drawn from rural and urban poor households.They have been organized into 104,295 primary groups. As there are on an average 1.3 memberfrom each household having 5.5 family members, this translates into over 5.77 millionprogramed beneficiaries of PROSHIKA.
    • LFE Report - Spring, 2013Venue: Proshika, ManikganjBy Md.Matiur RahmanI n d e p e n d e n t U n i v e r s i t y , B a n g l a d e s h Page 6People’s Organization Building:104,295 groups formed organizing the poor people living in rural and rural and urban areas.18,775 group federations formed at village, union, and upazila levels building a broadOrganizational network.Microcredit Programme:Tk. 45,039 million (4,504 crore) loans disbursed to 6.50 million (65.02 lakh) groupmembers.1.42 million (14.20 lakh) projects implemented by the group members.12.33 million (1.23 crore) employments self-employments created.1.24 million (12.36 lakh) households made poverty-free.PROSHIKA Savings Scheme:Tk. 54.71 million paid from the compensation fund of the PSS to the family members of8,604 deceased group members.Tk. 17.69 million distributed to 9,411 group members badly affected by various naturaldisasters.Economic and Social Security ProgrammeTk. 1.67 million paid to 327 meritorious students from the group members‟ families.Tk. 0.96 million paid to the poor group members for their treatment.Universal Education Programme:53,839 Adult Literacy Centers set up so far.1.14 million (11.43 lakh) poor people graduated with functional literacy skill.23,502 Non-Formal Primary Schools established.0.72 Million (7.17 lakh) children from the poor households enrolled in non-formalprimary schools.
    • LFE Report - Spring, 2013Venue: Proshika, ManikganjBy Md.Matiur RahmanI n d e p e n d e n t U n i v e r s i t y , B a n g l a d e s h Page 7Training Programme:20.58 million (2.06 crore) women and men received human development training fromPROSHIKA.1.16 million (11.55 lakh) women and men received skill develoment training fromPROSHIKA.Environmental Protection and Regeneration:93.80 Million (9.38 core) trees planted under the social forestry programme in denudedforest areas and roadsides.0.25 Million (2.47 lakh) acres of land brought under the organic agriculture programme.0.80 Million (8.04 lakh) farmers practicing organic agriculture using organic fertilizerand pesticide.Health Programme:2,931 health camps organized.167,858 patients received health services.1,845 women received traditional birth attendant training.1.57 million (15.74 lakh) people received health and nutrition and arsenic mitigationtraining.10 community surface water treatment plants and 23 arsenic removal plants installed forsafe drinking water.825,647 low-cost sanitary latrines installed.26,175 hand tube-wells installed.6,647 differently able people integrated into PROSHIKA‟S development activities.34,269 household filters distributed.
    • LFE Report - Spring, 2013Venue: Proshika, ManikganjBy Md.Matiur RahmanI n d e p e n d e n t U n i v e r s i t y , B a n g l a d e s h Page 8Housing Programme:31,757 houses constructed for homeless families.1,251 low-cost houses built in resettlement villages.People’s Cultural Programme:95,000 cultural events held on democracy, human rights, gender equality, goodgovernance, awareness about environmental protection.962 cultural troupes formed with group membersDevelopment Support Communication Programme:282 documentaries/videos/TV spots made.819 participatory video produced on democracy, human rights, gender equality, goodgovernance, and awareness about environmental protection.Programme on the Liberation War:2,390 members of the freedom fighters‟ families brought under PROSHIKA‟sdevelopment activities.65 women freedom fighters conferred with the PROSHIKA Muktijoddha Award-2003.25 women freedom fighters awarded a life-long pension amounting to Tk. 1, 00 permonth.Tk. 6,000 and Tk. 3,000 donated to 15 and 3 freedom fighters respectively for one time.
    • LFE Report - Spring, 2013Venue: Proshika, ManikganjBy Md.Matiur RahmanI n d e p e n d e n t U n i v e r s i t y , B a n g l a d e s h Page 9
    • LFE Report - Spring, 2013Venue: Proshika, ManikganjBy Md.Matiur RahmanI n d e p e n d e n t U n i v e r s i t y , B a n g l a d e s h Page 102.0 Origin of the Report:The report is required to prepare as a partial fulfillment of the course Live-in-field Experience(LFE: 201) Spring 2013, under the supervision of our three honorable Teachers name: Mr. Md.Rajib Rahman, Mr. A.F.M. Mainul Ahsan and Mr. Chowdhury Kamrul Hasan Senior FacultySchool of Business and School of Environmental Science & Management (SESM), IndependentUniversity, Bangladesh.2.1 Methods & Methodology:There may be several types of methods to conduct a research but the researcher has to choosewhich particular methods will be used to finish the research and the proper accomplishment of aresearch largely depends on the methodology followed by the researcher. The methodologies wehave applied are described below.2.1.1 Research Type:According to the view point of objective, the research we have conducted is an applied researchas our main intention is to identify the overall socio-economic condition of the village.According to the view point of function, the research we have conducted is both descriptive andcausal research. Besides defining the area we have also tried to analyze some relationships ofsome major factors according with the changes in economic condition. The research is mainlyconducted on the basis of primary data. Besides, different data from secondary sources e.g. BBSReport, Books, websites, journals and newspapers are also analyzed for the better analysis. Bothqualitative and quantitative data are used in the research. Obviously it is a field research as wehave already visited the area for collecting information to accomplish the research.2.1.2 Data Collection:The success of a research mainly depends on the collection of proper and appropriateinformation. From the very beginning we were very aware about the collection of data to achieveour research objective. In our research we have applied different approaches for this purpose.The ways we have collected the information are described below:
    • LFE Report - Spring, 2013Venue: Proshika, ManikganjBy Md.Matiur RahmanI n d e p e n d e n t U n i v e r s i t y , B a n g l a d e s h Page 11Method 01: Questionnaire Survey:During our research a sample questionnaire has been provided by IUB which helped lot tocollect information about the demographic, socio-economic and hygiene condition of thevillagers. Moreover, it is used to collect their opinion about the social changes over time. Bothstructured and unstructured questions were used to collect information. It was a cross sectionalsurvey as the different segments of population was asked questions.Method 02: PRAParticipatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) is a way of enabling local people easy to share their ideasand views with the surveyor. It is a way of learning with and from communities in order toinvestigate, analyze and evaluate constraints and opportunities for future development of thecommunity. It helped us lot to collect information about different regards specially identifyingand locating the village resources.Method 03: FGDThough Focus Group Discussion is a useful technique of collecting information but we could notfollow this method regularly as it was very tough to make them together during the harvestingperiod. This technique was mainly used to draw the village map and collecting information fromthe female members about their hygiene condition.Method 04: Personal ObservationAs most of the villagers were very busy for harvesting the crops so sometime this was a helpfultechnique to collect information without disturbing the respondents. Even we have to use thistechnique to fill up some portion of the questionnaire.
    • LFE Report - Spring, 2013Venue: Proshika, ManikganjBy Md.Matiur RahmanI n d e p e n d e n t U n i v e r s i t y , B a n g l a d e s h Page 12Method 05: Informal DiscussionWe have collected lots of information through informal discussion with the villagers. It wasmainly used to collect information about the social changes and agricultural pattern of thevillages. We have discussed with the member and a number of villagers & farmers. In the KotiaBazaar we have discussed with different buyers and sellers to know about the distributionchannel and market structure etc.2.1.3 Sample Size:We have surveyed 09 families to fill up the questionnaire provided by IUB. We have interviewedfive farmers and five traders to know about their condition and problems regarding theirprofession.2.1.4 Data Analysis:All the information collected for the research will be meaningless unless and until they areproperly analyzed. So, data analysis has a significant impact on the triumph of a research report.The techniques we have applied for analyzing data are described below.2.1.5 Data Conversion:We have to converse lots of data from one unit to another unit e.g. Bighas to Decimals, Maund toKilogram for the better acceptance and understanding of the reader.2.1.6 Statistical Tool:Percentage, the most popular statistical tool is also used to analyze some data. Moreover, somegraphs and charts are illustrated in our research paper for better understanding.2.1.7 Secondary Data Analysis:We have also analyzed some data from secondary sources like BBS Report to compare with thedata we have collected from the villagers.
    • LFE Report - Spring, 2013Venue: Proshika, ManikganjBy Md.Matiur RahmanI n d e p e n d e n t U n i v e r s i t y , B a n g l a d e s h Page 13
    • LFE Report - Spring, 2013Venue: Proshika, ManikganjBy Md.Matiur RahmanI n d e p e n d e n t U n i v e r s i t y , B a n g l a d e s h Page 143.0 Introduction:Bangladesh is one of the hundreds of developing countries in the world it is one of the thirdworld countries and its population is near about 15.5 cores. There are 68,000 villages inBangladesh. An estimated 70% of the entire population of this country lives in the villages. Eventhe rest of 30% of the population that comprised the urban population, a majority of thoseoriginated from the village and were never totally detached from their rural homeland. Thepeople who live in the cities have also some linkage with their root, with the villages ofBangladesh. The origin of us lies in the villages. Socio Cultural Character of the people of thiscountry was dominated by its rural influence and rural way of life. Although Bangladesh hadbeen experiencing large influx of people from rural to urban areas in recent times and the rate ofurbanization had been high in the urban and suburb community. Still a large majority of thepopulation of this country calls the village their home. Rural society still places a strong role ininfluencing their lives and ways of thinking. According to the statistics of WHO and FAO 48%of rural people and 44% of urban people lie under poverty line. The study of the village life isnecessary for everyone. LFE is very important course for the students so that students knowabout the village life.3.1 Objectives of the village mapping:Mapping is very important and crucial when we want to know about a place. Village map isprepared for several objectives. The important objectives of village map as well as Para Map aregiven below:To know about the resources available in the village.To know about the life style of the people of village.To get an idea about the social condition of the village.To see the type of organizations and institutes those are involved with the developmentprocess of the people of village.
    • LFE Report - Spring, 2013Venue: Proshika, ManikganjBy Md.Matiur RahmanI n d e p e n d e n t U n i v e r s i t y , B a n g l a d e s h Page 153.2 Methodology:The village that we were assigned during our LFE at Manikganj was “Burundi”. As per schedulewe were supposed to draw the map of the village on the first day of LFE. The village map wasdrawn with the help of Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA). We gathered a few local peoplewho were well aware of their village and its boundaries. They had a clear idea of their villageand the prominent landmarks of it. Among the people who helped us out in drawing the villagemap was Mr. Mamun Vai. At first we drew a sketch of the village map on the ground usingbranches of tree. Then we highlighted different parts of this map with colors and seeds, whichwere provided to us by our instructors. After completing the drawing of this map on the ground,we copied it in our notepad. The day when we first drew the village map we also drew the Paramap with the help of the local people. After drawing the maps my group member divided itselfand explored the area to ensure the accurateness of the Para map drawn. This ground explorationhelped us to match the map with reality and to detect any deficiencies. A fresh map of the Parawas also drawn on our return on a chart paper. Both the maps are included in this report.3.3 Limitations:As we were unfamiliar with this type of research, we came across some problems. Thelimitations are as follows:Time constrain was one of the most important factors because to build a very goodrapport with the villagers we need to comparatively longer period of time than we wereallotted. Moreover we spent only one day for drawing the village map and one day fortransect map.Since we worked in morning, the villagers were very much busy with their own work atthat time. They were in hurry because they have to go to field. The ladies were busy withthe household chores.We could not collect information about the total amount of land of the village. Thepeople could not give us the correct information.
    • LFE Report - Spring, 2013Venue: Proshika, ManikganjBy Md.Matiur RahmanI n d e p e n d e n t U n i v e r s i t y , B a n g l a d e s h Page 163.4 Techniques that we follow for mapping of Para3.4.1 Location Selection:First of all we went to Proshika. The village was selected by Proshika where every group wasplaced in different Para of that village for carrying out research work. Our course instructoralong with the help of Proshika authority selected the villages. We were assigned to Burundivillage, and the para was Burundi Purbo. The village is on the east-south side of Proshika. It wasapproximately 3.5km away from Proshika and takes 15 min to reach. The village is situated rightbeside the Kotia-Noya dingi road.3.4.2 Rapport building:Rapport building is the most important aspect of PRA technique. Mamun vai, a guide fromProshika was sent with us to the Para. They gathered some people of various ages on a house -yard that was selected by us for drawing the map. Our group leader introduced us with the peopleof Para and explained the purpose of our visit. The environment was built by our group in such away that the people of Para were given more importance and they did not feel uncomfortable orhesitated to share the task of our group.
    • LFE Report - Spring, 2013Venue: Proshika, ManikganjBy Md.Matiur RahmanI n d e p e n d e n t U n i v e r s i t y , B a n g l a d e s h Page 173.4.3 Village map of Burundi:I with my Group partner helped me to draw the map and our village guide shows the differentresources like school, college, mosque, main road, sub-road etc. He symbolized those resourcesusing pencil. Then, we copied the map on a piece of paper and to symbolize different types ofresources we used legends. People were busy they were very friendly stay with us for a longperiod.3.4.4 Cross checking:When the map of Para was completed my group partner asked some other people of Para to go,once again, through the resource map. Our group also walked around the Para to verify thelocations of the resources.
    • LFE Report - Spring, 2013Venue: Proshika, ManikganjBy Md.Matiur RahmanI n d e p e n d e n t U n i v e r s i t y , B a n g l a d e s h Page 183.4.6 Location and boundary of the villageThe village is devided into two paras North and South. The village is surrounded by fourdifferent village. Like on the north side is the Proshika, on the east side is Molla para, on thewest side is Kotia road, and on the south side is Kathi bazaar.WKathi Bazaar – Sonadingi roadS NKathi Bazaar ProshikaEBurundi Purba ParaBurundiVillage
    • LFE Report - Spring, 2013Venue: Proshika, ManikganjBy Md.Matiur RahmanI n d e p e n d e n t U n i v e r s i t y , B a n g l a d e s h Page 193.5 Village Profile:Table – 3.1 Village profile at a glanceName of the village: Burundi VillageUnion KotiaThana: Noya dingiDistrict ManikganjDivision DhakaLocation 7 Km away from Manikganj SadarPost Office KathibazaarTotal population 3500Voter 2000No of House Hold Approx 350Gender Male-60%, Female-40%Religion 100% MuslimCo-Operative Society 2Source: LFE Field Survey, spring 2013The name of our assigned village is Burundi. It is 3.5 km away from Proshika. The village isunder Manikganj district. It is situated in Noyadingi Thana. The village is separated into twoparas the North para and South para. On the North hand side of the Proshika and in the southernside Kathi bazaar, beside this on the east hand side Molla para village and finally on the westernside an attached with Kathibazaar – Noyadingi Bazaar road. The “Burundi” village of ManikganjNorth has a population of about 3,500 with 60% Male and 40% Female.3.6 Findings from the Para Map:Major findings of “Burundi‟‟village are described below:3.6.1 Landmarks and Resources:“Burundi” village is full of resources. The sights and resources are described below:
    • LFE Report - Spring, 2013Venue: Proshika, ManikganjBy Md.Matiur RahmanI n d e p e n d e n t U n i v e r s i t y , B a n g l a d e s h Page 203.6.2 Village ResourceTable 3.2 Village resouceName of the Resources AmountTrees Palm, „supari‟, aakaashi,Shegun, rain tree,bamboo, , guava, banana, Coconut, ‟mahogany‟,jackfruit, mango, „jam‟, „Papaya tree‟, „Datetree.Vegetables Radish, Caulis flower, „Cabbage, „Gourd, Bean„Potato, Eggplant, Carrot, Tomato, Lentils,MustardPoultry Farm 2Pond 50 (approximately).Mosque 1School/Madrasa 1Post office 1Rice mill 0Deep tube well 35ASA office 1Grave yard 2Shops Tea stall, Pharmacy, Grocery store.Drainage system for irrigation The main branch starts from the Co-Operativesociety and is distributed throughout the village.„Pacca‟ road (main road) 1Types of Houses Brick House, Semi Pacca House, Mud House.Tube well Two to three families shared 1 tube well.
    • LFE Report - Spring, 2013Venue: Proshika, ManikganjBy Md.Matiur RahmanI n d e p e n d e n t U n i v e r s i t y , B a n g l a d e s h Page 21Echo Toilet 8Sanitary latrine Ring slab, Septic TankHouses Brick-built, tin-shade brick built, cottage.Electricity Facilities Present in most of the houses.Gas Facilities Present in few houses.Brick Field 1Source: LFE Field Survey, spring 20133.6.3 Road:In our assigning village the road system was good. The main road was mud road and it is theonly mud road of the village. There are many sub roads which branched from this road. After thedevelopment of the mud road the entire economic condition of the village improved immensely.3.6.4 Educational Institution, Madrasa:The whole village had only one school giving education to the village children. The name of theschool is „‟Burundi Primary School. The school was established in 2005-2006 by Govt. Thesame school in the evening from 3 to 5 gives Quran lessons to the children.3.6.5 Mosque and Eidgah:The village has only one mosque and eidgha. The name of the mosque is Poschim Burundi jamemosjid.3.6.6 Graveyard:In this village there are several graveyards. One is left side of the Burundi road. Two to threefamilies has their own graveyards.
    • LFE Report - Spring, 2013Venue: Proshika, ManikganjBy Md.Matiur RahmanI n d e p e n d e n t U n i v e r s i t y , B a n g l a d e s h Page 223.6.7 Communication and Transportation:The transport system is moderate in Burundi village. There was only one mud road and manymuddy sub roads. But the road is narrow that‟s why heave transports cannot enter into thevillage. People use rickshaw, bicycle, motor-cycle and van. But in the rainy season the villagershave to suffer a lot for the muddy road. There is a post office near the village “Kotia” postoffice‟. For that reason they can communicate with their relatives living outside of the village orcountry by mailing letters to them. Besides this, some of the villagers have cellular phone, bywhich they can communicate easily.
    • LFE Report - Spring, 2013Venue: Proshika, ManikganjBy Md.Matiur RahmanI n d e p e n d e n t U n i v e r s i t y , B a n g l a d e s h Page 233.6.8 Sources of water:The village consists with many pods and tube walls. The villagers mainly rely on tube walls fordrinking water. Two to three families share one tube well. The ponds are used for washing andbathing purposes. We got disappointed to the see the poor condition of the ponds. Most of theponds are dirty and unhygienic.
    • LFE Report - Spring, 2013Venue: Proshika, ManikganjBy Md.Matiur RahmanI n d e p e n d e n t U n i v e r s i t y , B a n g l a d e s h Page 243.6.9 Sanitation:The village has good sanitation system. As our village was developed most people had ring-slabs. Some brick houses had septic tanks as well. A new kind of biological toilet has recentlybeen established name ECO-TOILET. With the help of Canada sponsors Proshika along with thevillagers established these new kinds of toilets which transformed manures into fertilizers. Thereare eight of their kind in the village.
    • LFE Report - Spring, 2013Venue: Proshika, ManikganjBy Md.Matiur RahmanI n d e p e n d e n t U n i v e r s i t y , B a n g l a d e s h Page 253.6.10 Health Care:Unfortunately the health care system is poor in the Burundi village. There is no health carecenter in this village. Doctors pay visits at regular intervals in co-operative society which islocated within the village. By the virtue of the cooperative society and BARD the village is100% vaccinated. There are two pharmacies in the village; people usually go there for cough andcold. At child delivery time midwives come from nearby villages.3.6.11 Trees and plants:Different kinds of trees and plants can be found in “Burundi village‟‟. These are mango trees,jack-fruit trees, banana trees, coconut trees, banyan tree, date trees, Akashi trees, papaya, lau,brinjal etc. Other important trees are Bamboo bush. All over the village there are many Bamboobushes.
    • LFE Report - Spring, 2013Venue: Proshika, ManikganjBy Md.Matiur RahmanI n d e p e n d e n t U n i v e r s i t y , B a n g l a d e s h Page 263.6.12 Birds and Animals:Almost all families have domestic animals like cows. Some of the villagers sale the milk of theircows to bazaar and earn money. Other animals like dog, cat are found moving around the places.In “Burundi” village there are different kinds of birds. There are kingfishers, magpie robin,shalik etc and domestic birds are duck, chicken etc. Astonishingly there are many differentspecies of ducks in the village.
    • LFE Report - Spring, 2013Venue: Proshika, ManikganjBy Md.Matiur RahmanI n d e p e n d e n t U n i v e r s i t y , B a n g l a d e s h Page 273.6.13 Agriculture and Cultivation:The village comprises mainly of cultivating lands. Paddy is the main source of cultivation.Different types of seasonal vegetation are cultivated as well like Irri, amon, aoush crops, paddy,sugarcane, mustard, chili, jute etc. Some are cultivated for their own consumption and the excessare sold in the market. The soil type of the village is sandy loam, which is very suitable for thecultivation. In the village the farmers use deep tub well for irrigation process. Farmers of thevillage use different types of properties for the cultivation such as lagoon, tractor, seeds,fertilizers, pesticides etc. the farmers do their own works in the field and sometimes they uselabor for helping them. The labor usually comes at seasonal times from north bengal.
    • LFE Report - Spring, 2013Venue: Proshika, ManikganjBy Md.Matiur RahmanI n d e p e n d e n t U n i v e r s i t y , B a n g l a d e s h Page 283.6.14 Bazaar and Haat:There are two glossariesstores in the village. Onspecific week days peoplegoes to haat. Other thanthat people buy theirregular commodities fromnearby village markets.3.7 Basic Demographic information of Burundi villageThe basic demographic information of “Burundi” has been collected during our field survey.3.7.1 Inhabitants:There are about 350 households and total population is about 3500.60% of which is male and40% is female. About 70% are farmers and the rest are involved in other occupations. In recenttimes many villagers are residing in foreign countries. The women are involved in variouscooperative society activities.3.7.2 Religion:100% of the villagers are „MUSLIMS‟ in “Burundi”.
    • LFE Report - Spring, 2013Venue: Proshika, ManikganjBy Md.Matiur RahmanI n d e p e n d e n t U n i v e r s i t y , B a n g l a d e s h Page 293.7.3 Age and Sex Distribution:In Burundi we surveyed 9 families. The members of household were most helpful and they gaveus all the information about their age and all other things. From our questionnaire survey wefound that the population of Burundi is mostly centralized in adult range. Number of male andfemale adult population almost equivalent that we can see from shows the Age & SexDistribution of Study Population.Table – 3.3 Age and sex distribution of BurundiAge Groups Male FemaleFrequency % Frequency %0-10 10 22 10 1810-15 7 15 6 1115-20 8 17 12 2120-50 15 33 22 4050-Above 5 11 5 9Source: LFE Field Survey, spring 2013Our sample size is 9 household. We considered 50 as our population the number of males is 25and the number of female is 25.From the age group of 0-10 we found 22% male and 18%female.10-15, 15% is male and 11% is female. From the age group of 15-20 the male is 17% andthe female is 21%. From the age group of 20-50 the male is 33% and the female is 40%. Andfrom 50 and above we found 11% and 5%.
    • LFE Report - Spring, 2013Venue: Proshika, ManikganjBy Md.Matiur RahmanI n d e p e n d e n t U n i v e r s i t y , B a n g l a d e s h Page 30Age & sex distribution of female18%11%21%41%9%0-1015-Oct15-2020-5050-AboveAge & Sex distribution of male22%15%17%35%11% 0-1015-Oct15-2020-5050-Above3.7.4 Marital statusTable: 3.4 Marital StatusesMarital Status Male FemaleNO % NO %Married 28 62 33 60Unmarried 14 31 15 27Widow/Widower 3 7 5 9Divorced N/A - N/A -Separated/Abandoned N/A - 2 4Source: LFE Field Survey, spring 2013From the survey we found that 62% of male and 60% of female are married. The number offemales is greater, because most of the male members are working in the field when we went outfor the survey.31%male and 27%female are unmarried. 7% of male and 9% of female arewidows. Since divorces are still not acceptable in our society the number of divorce is nil.
    • LFE Report - Spring, 2013Venue: Proshika, ManikganjBy Md.Matiur RahmanI n d e p e n d e n t U n i v e r s i t y , B a n g l a d e s h Page 313.7.5 Family typeTable: 3.5 Family TypesFamily Type NO %Nuclear 8 32Joint 17 68Total 25 100Source: LFE Field Survey, spring 2013Table 3.5 shows the family type of “Burundi”. After our survey of 09 households, we havefound that in our assigned area the number of joint family is more than nuclear family.3.7.6 Occupation:Table: 3.6 Primary OccupationsOccupation Male FemaleNO % NO %Income Earner 28 62 - -House Wife - - 29 53Student 8 18 12 22Unemployed 2 4 - -Dependent (Children) 5 11 9 16Dependent (Adult) 2 4 5 9Source: LFE Field Survey, spring 2013Form the above table 3.6 we can see the percentages of occupation of the villagers. From oursurvey of 9 households we found that among 25 males 62% are income earners. Among 25females 53% are housewives. The percentage of female student is 22% which is higher than thepercentage of male students. Unemployed male is 4%, dependent children (excluding thestudents) are 11% and dependent (adult) is 4% of total 45 males of our assigned area. The
    • LFE Report - Spring, 2013Venue: Proshika, ManikganjBy Md.Matiur RahmanI n d e p e n d e n t U n i v e r s i t y , B a n g l a d e s h Page 32villagers have now realized importance of female education so they are now educating theirdaughters.3.7.7 Literacy rate:At recent times the percentage rate of female and male are almost same. Even though thepercentage is same but the families seem to be more interested to educate their daughters. The33% villagter5s are literate and 98% can only sight their names.3.7.8 Income:Table: 3.7 Total Family IncomesSocial Class Income Range/MonthlyUpper Class 20000 - 25000Upper middle Class 15000 – 20000Middle Class 8000 - 12000Lower Class 3000 - 6000Source: LFE Field Survey, spring 2013As we have surveyed 9 households we divided the household into 4 classes. We have categorizedtheir income level monthly. Our village moderately seemed to be well-off. Many members of thefamilies are working abroad and their living standard has increased because of foreignremittance.
    • LFE Report - Spring, 2013Venue: Proshika, ManikganjBy Md.Matiur RahmanI n d e p e n d e n t U n i v e r s i t y , B a n g l a d e s h Page 333.8 Major Findings:After our observation we have found thatIt is a CVDP villageThe main occupation of the village is Farming. Besides this other occupations includesmall business, daily labor, many are working in foreign countries.100% people are „Muslims‟.100% sanitation facility100% vaccinationElectricity and gas readily availableFemale education is increasing day by day.Poor conditions of the pondsA culvert is badly needed in entrance of the village.Requirements of Health care center and high school.3.9 OpportunitiesDuring our survey at Burundi we have found some opportunities for the peoples. Suchopportunities are:As women are becoming more aware of their status in the society, Women Empowermentis increasing.A lot of women are working as volunteers in the Co-operative society.As it is CVDP village under Proshika, the rate of development is impressive.Farmers are experimenting with new variety of paddy in order to increase the cropproduction.One of the reasons for village development is Foreign Remittance.As the village besides the Noyadingi – Kathi bazaar Trunk road, the communicationsystem for villager is developed.
    • LFE Report - Spring, 2013Venue: Proshika, ManikganjBy Md.Matiur RahmanI n d e p e n d e n t U n i v e r s i t y , B a n g l a d e s h Page 343.10 Conclusion:The focal point of this chapter is to collect information from the village, through differenttechniques such as Rapport Building with the villagers, Village Resource Mapping and TransectMapping. The Village Resource Map and Transect Map of “Burundi North” gave us anoverview, an idea of the village as a whole. We got an idea of their lifestyle, demographics,economy and other aspects. We learned many interesting things. We got lot of information,which helped us to carry out to prepare the later sections of the study.
    • LFE Report - Spring, 2013Venue: Proshika, ManikganjBy Md.Matiur RahmanI n d e p e n d e n t U n i v e r s i t y , B a n g l a d e s h Page 35
    • LFE Report - Spring, 2013Venue: Proshika, ManikganjBy Md.Matiur RahmanI n d e p e n d e n t U n i v e r s i t y , B a n g l a d e s h Page 364.1 Introduction:The economy of Bangladesh is primarily dependent on agricultural production which we getfrom rural areas and this agricultural production propels the growth of rural development of oureconomy. About 84 percent (20011/2012 Statistical Yearbook of Bangladesh) of the totalpopulation live in rural areas and are directly or indirectly engaged in a wide range ofagricultural activities. Moreover, 21 percent of total GDP, in 2011/2012(2012 Budget) atconstant (1995/96) prices, comes from agricultural production. Of the agricultural GDP, the cropsub sector contributes 71 percent, followed fisheries at 10 percent and livestock at 9 percent. Thesector generates 63.2 percent of total national employment. This statistics shows how importantis agriculture for our rural development which I also found true while I was studying one remotevillage Burundi of our economy. Literally, people of Burundi village are directly or indirectlydependent on agriculture and their standard of living depend on agriculture. Here, I have studiedone village named Burundi which is under Noyadingi Thana. It is in Manikganj. I studied theirsource of income, amount of income, seasonal variation of agricultural production, ruralproduction etc. I wanted to have true idea of economic activities of this village and how theireconomy moves forward. I feel live-in-Field Experience is a great platform to learn our ruraleconomy which is conducted by Independent University, Bangladesh.4.2 ObjectiveIdentify the issues that affect the economy of the Burundi East Para.Illustrate the different classes of villagers according to their economic condition.Effect of agriculture on the economy.Ranking the wealth life style and identify the different classes of people in the Para.Categories the crops produced in different season in the profession of the people living inthe Para.How people cope up with different limitations and seasons.How technologies and development influences different group of people.
    • LFE Report - Spring, 2013Venue: Proshika, ManikganjBy Md.Matiur RahmanI n d e p e n d e n t U n i v e r s i t y , B a n g l a d e s h Page 374.3 MethodologyParticipatory rural appraisal groups no 54 of 5 members we conducted a study assigned forBurundi East Para, Manikganj. PRA was conducted among the villagers, which is groupapproach to study an area that provides ample opportunity for participation.4.4 LimitationsFirstly, of all, there was hardly any reliable person to give accurate and reliable data.Secondly, the time we have visited the areas was the period of plantation seasons, so most ofthem were very busy in the field and was not interested to talk to us.Thirdly, the data given by the villagers were always confusing especially the numerical values sowe had to cross-check the data again and again and it took more time.4.5 Economic Condition of Burundi EastBangladesh is an agricultural country. But, the surprising thing is that contribution of agricultureto our GDP is 30% (according to national budget 2012) whereas contribution of our industrialproducts is 29 %( according to national budget 2012). If I consider the employment, agricultureis giving an agribusiness as a whole then we would get the real contribution of agriculture in oureconomy. People of Burundi East Para are not directly farmers. They lease their land to poorfarmers and daily labor. Their main source of income is agriculture which is creating some jobopportunity to other poor farmers. Many household are blessed with remittance. Some people dobusiness along with farming land.4.5.1 OccupationMost of the people of Bangladesh depend on the agriculture. Our Para is no exception. As theinfrastructure of the Para is changing day by day, people of diversified activities are found in thePara. The situation of the Burundi East Para is discussed along with table below.
    • LFE Report - Spring, 2013Venue: Proshika, ManikganjBy Md.Matiur RahmanI n d e p e n d e n t U n i v e r s i t y , B a n g l a d e s h Page 38Table 4.1 Primary and Secondary Profession of the Income Earning MembersProfession In theVillageIn otherDistrictsOutside theCountryNo No NoAgriculture 25 0 0Poultry Rearing 0 0 0Cattle Rearing 0 0 0Petty Business/Shop 1 1 0Vendor 1 0 0Transport Worker 2 0 0Construction Worker 0 0 1Garments Factory 0 9 0Service 1 0 12Industry 0 4 0Others 2 0 0Total 32 14 13Source: Field Survey, spring 2013From the above table, it is depicted that most of the people who stay in the village are doing theagriculture activities. Some people have shop in the village. As the transportation system hasimproved after the liberation war, people are working in other districts. In our sample, we findthat people are going to the other districts to alter their fortune. They are engaging in otherdistrict in different service like Mr. Kamrul Hasan Siddque, who is doing job in square spinningmill. It is seen that people are going outside the country and it is playing a great role in theprogress ofthe village.
    • LFE Report - Spring, 2013Venue: Proshika, ManikganjBy Md.Matiur RahmanI n d e p e n d e n t U n i v e r s i t y , B a n g l a d e s h Page 394.5.2 House TypeHouse type of a family is an indicator of how much economical and financial stability the familyhas. Because on the basis of house type we can consider in what social class they are belonging.During our survey we tried to identify the various types of houses of different family. Our mainintention is to find out a relation of house type with the change of economic condition ofdifferent class.Table – 4.2 House TypeSource: Field Survey, spring 2013According to our survey about 72% villagers use tin for roof and only 16% use concrete forcovered the roof. On the other hand 56% houses‟ wall made by bamboo, 36% use concrete andonly 8% use earth for house wall purpose. The floor of almost 44% is made of earth and the floorof rest 16% houses are made of concrete. Normally the family who are financially solvent use tinand concrete as roof and concrete as wall.Type Roof Wall FloorNo % No % No %Tin 18 72 2 8 -- --Bamboo -- -- 14 56 -- --Wood -- -- -- -- -- --Concrete 4 16 9 36 4 16Earth -- -- 2 8 11 44
    • LFE Report - Spring, 2013Venue: Proshika, ManikganjBy Md.Matiur RahmanI n d e p e n d e n t U n i v e r s i t y , B a n g l a d e s h Page 404.5.3. Domestic AnimalsTable 4.3: Domestic animalsType Yes No TotalNo % No % No %Cow 11 44 14 56 25 100Ox 4 16 21 84 25 100Goat 5 20 20 80 25 100Pigeon 5 20 20 80 25 100Chicken 12 48 13 52 25 100Duck 5 20 20 80 25 100Source: Field Survey, spring 2013It is the traditional culture of the rural people to rear the cow, goat or poultry birds. They rear thisfor the sake of their daily needs of the milk or eggs. Our village is also not exception. We seethat upper and upper middle class people rear the cows and goats simultaneously. Most of thepoor class people have one or two chicken. They basically try to sell the eggs to the near shop tobuy the some other necessary goods. In our sample 44% people have cows. Again we see that48% people rear the chicken.
    • LFE Report - Spring, 2013Venue: Proshika, ManikganjBy Md.Matiur RahmanI n d e p e n d e n t U n i v e r s i t y , B a n g l a d e s h Page 414.6 Wealth ranking of Burundi EastWealth Ranking‟ means determining the positions of different people in a particular area on thebasis of their assets, income sources, quality of life and social well-being. Basically, „WealthRanking‟ is one of the Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) techniques through which we canpredict the economic condition of a particular area. Objective wealth ranking is to have a clearidea about economic activity of the villagers. It captures differences in their living standard. Todo this analysis 09 families have been selected to conduct the study and for analysis simplerandom sampling is used.To identify the economic condition and class division some factors are being used. These are:The yearly income of the familyAmount of land and assets belonging to themDifferences in lifestyle.Number of livestock of the family.Luxury items the families‟ possess.Based on the above determinants the people of the villages have been divided into four differentclasses.Rich ClassUpper Middle ClassMiddle ClassLower ClassThe table is going to illustrate the income level of the surveyed different family. Based on thisincome, the light has tried to shed upon the class hierarchy of the society. On the basis of thesurvey, the people of the Para have been categorized to the four different income levels.
    • LFE Report - Spring, 2013Venue: Proshika, ManikganjBy Md.Matiur RahmanI n d e p e n d e n t U n i v e r s i t y , B a n g l a d e s h Page 42Table 4.4 Income groups of the Burundi East ParaIncome Range (Yearly) Number PercentageBelow 35000 (Poor Class) 5 2096000-144000 (Middle Class) 8 32180000-240000 (Upper Middle Class) 10 40Above 300000(Rich Class) 2 8Total 25 100Source: Field Survey, spring 2013In the survey, only 8% people were rich. They have huge amount of cultivable land. They try tomake their family members educated. In this case, one person who has business in Dhaka has gotadmitted his child in a School of Dhaka. Another family where mother is the head of the family.It is happened because father had died in this family. One of the sons of this family went toMiddle East and is doing job over there. This son sends remittance for the family every singlemonth. The big portion of the Para, 40% are earning 180000-240000. All these families havesubstantial amount of the cultivable land. The Head of the family spends a lot of time to lookafter the crops. The housewives of the families are engaging to rear the poultry birds to generateeggs, milk for the domestic consumption. 32% of the families of our sample size in the Burundinorth Para are earning Tk. 96000-144000. They have the little amount of the cultivable land.Family members are working in different service industries. On the other hand housewives arerearing poultry birds to sell eggs, milk to increase the family income. Rest portion of the samplesize has little income. They do not have enough land to cultivate. They only have the homesteadlands. They have to continue their life in a hardship condition.
    • LFE Report - Spring, 2013Venue: Proshika, ManikganjBy Md.Matiur RahmanI n d e p e n d e n t U n i v e r s i t y , B a n g l a d e s h Page 434.7 Class profile based on the incomeFrom the above income bracket, the class profile of the Para is demonstrated as the paperproceeds. This profile is necessary to understand different income group closely. This will helpto imagine the real scenario of the different class in the Para, which is quite different from theurban life. The profile is going to illustrate from the rich class end with the poor class.4.7.1 Rich ClassThis Class earns above Tk.300000. In the Para, it is not so powerful class. But they have enoughmoney and properties to lead a luxurious life. They are the people who give “Borga” to the otherpeople.ProfessionThe main profession of this class is agriculture and business. There is a businessperson who hasa shoe shop in the Dhaka City. He has an enough cultivable land. Though he is not directlyrelated with cultivation, he has given people to cultivate his land through “Borga”. Some peopleof this class work in foreign country and earn foreign currency.Amount of the Owned LandThis class not only has a great amount of cultivable land but also has a big amount of homesteadland. This people have a yard in front of their house. They have a big amount of land where theyplant Mahogony for the future generation. This class has occupied 6 Bighas of cultivable landand 1 bigha = 33 Decimals of homestead land.Furniture and Luxurious itemsAs they have money, they possess many luxurious thing in respective to the whole Para. Thethings are electric fan, Television, cassette player etc. They have dining table, sofa, and readingtables for their kids.
    • LFE Report - Spring, 2013Venue: Proshika, ManikganjBy Md.Matiur RahmanI n d e p e n d e n t U n i v e r s i t y , B a n g l a d e s h Page 44Livestock and poultryThey rear cows, goats, and poultry birds. They consume the milk, eggs. If there is any excess ofthese things, they sell it to the villagers.House typesThe richest person in the village has the house made of brick built wall, concrete made floor andtin made roof. This type of house is the typical example of “Paka Bari” &„Semi Paka Baari‟.4.7.2 Upper-middle classThis class enjoys almost same level of facility like the rich person. Income range of this class isTk.180000-240000. The class profile of this income group is illustrated below:OccupationAlmost all of them are engaging agriculture activities. Some of them are doing their owncultivation. Again some of them give “Borga”. And some of them are doing the combination ofboth.Amount of the owned landIn this income group, the average homestead land is 22 decimal. The average cultivable land is 4bighas.Livestock and poultryThey have cows and poultry birds. They basically consume the eggs and milk.
    • LFE Report - Spring, 2013Venue: Proshika, ManikganjBy Md.Matiur RahmanI n d e p e n d e n t U n i v e r s i t y , B a n g l a d e s h Page 45House typesWe have got both two types of houses in this group people. Some of them are Semi paka, brickbuilt wall made roof and concrete made floor. Some are tin made wall and roof and concrete orearth made floor.5.7.3 Middle ClassThe struggling class in every society is the middle class. They have to continue the life throughbalancing their hopes and desire with the ability. The people of our Para are not exception. Theincome range of this class is yearly Tk.96000 - 144000. 32% of our sample size is under thisclass.ProfessionThis income group engages in agricultural activity. Some family cultivates their own land. Mostof the family takes land from the rich class as “Borga”. In this income group has shop or tea stall.Amount of the owned landThese families have the negligible amount of cultivable land. The homestead land is not bigenough like the rich class. The average homestead land is 41 decimal.Furniture and Luxurious itemsThese families have very little amount of the luxurious items. They have the bed to rest. Theymay have wood chair or table in their drawing room.Livestock and poultryMost of the families don‟t have any cow or goat. Very few families of this income range have acow. Most of them have the poultry birds. They sell the eggs and milk to the market. They rearthe cow or poultry birds as their income source.
    • LFE Report - Spring, 2013Venue: Proshika, ManikganjBy Md.Matiur RahmanI n d e p e n d e n t U n i v e r s i t y , B a n g l a d e s h Page 46House typesHouse is basically made of like the upper middle class. Sometime it is found that the wall ismade of bamboo. The roof is made of tin. Floor builds with the earth.4.7.4 Poor ClassThe under-privileged society of this Para is poor class. They live hand to mouth. Basically, theydon‟t have any land. They are struggling with the life for food. They even cannot think beyondone of the fundamental rights like food.ProfessionThey are basically peasants who take the “Borga”. There are some people who are day laborer.Amount of owned landThey have only homestead land. They don‟t have any cultivable land. They cultivate the lands ofothers.Furniture and Luxurious itemsThis income group has only bed to sleep. It is dream for this people to have any extra items inthe house.Livestock and poultry: These families have one or two poultry birds. They sell the eggs toThe other
    • LFE Report - Spring, 2013Venue: Proshika, ManikganjBy Md.Matiur RahmanI n d e p e n d e n t U n i v e r s i t y , B a n g l a d e s h Page 47Response of borrowing76%24%BorrowedNever BorrowedHouse typesFig 5.4: Typical Burundi Villages HouseThe houses also reflect the condition of this poor people. The wall is made by tin when the roofis made of tin or straw people.4.8 Borrowings & SavingsBorrowings & savings is an importantissue for the villagers. In order tomitigate the excess demand villagers hasto borrow money from different sourcesespecially from their relatives and friendsor from the co-operative societies and soon. From the questionnaire survey wehave found that about 76% villagers hadto borrow the money and rest 24% hadnever borrowed money from any sourcesFig- 4.5 Response ofborrowingTable – 4.5 Sources of Loan and Interest rateSources Amount Borrowed (In Thousand Tk.)1 - 2 2 - 3 3 – 4 5 - 6 6+ No %Co-operativeSociety-- 8 2 1 -- 1114 -16Relatives/Friends 9 7 2 -- -- 18 0Source: Field Survey, spring 2013
    • LFE Report - Spring, 2013Venue: Proshika, ManikganjBy Md.Matiur RahmanI n d e p e n d e n t U n i v e r s i t y , B a n g l a d e s h Page 48Graph – 4.1 Variation of interest rate0 5 10 15 20Members of cooperative societyNon Members of cooperative societyFriends/RelativesSeries1 14 16 0Members ofcooperativeNon Membersof cooperativeFriends/Relatives4.8.1 Borrowing from Co-operative societyThe Co-operative society doesn‟t take any collateral from the borrower for the loan. But theycharge interest on the loan. The interest charged is 14% for the members and 16% for thenonmembers. If the members borrow from the cooperative society instead of retuning inmonitory value they return a set amount of paddy that is for six months they have to return 20Kg paddy and for 1 year one mound. And the maximum limit of borrowing loan is fixed on thebasis of borrower financial ability.4.8.2 Borrowing from Relatives / FriendsAccording to our survey we found that villagers like to borrow money from their relatives orfriends. The reason behind this that they don‟t need to pay any interest rate or collateral for theloan. Normally the payback period depends on the mutual understanding of the both parties.According to our survey 60% villagers borrowed money from their relatives and friends withoutany interest and collateral.
    • LFE Report - Spring, 2013Venue: Proshika, ManikganjBy Md.Matiur RahmanI n d e p e n d e n t U n i v e r s i t y , B a n g l a d e s h Page 494.8.3 SavingsSavings is a very important issue for the villagers to develop their lifestyle. During our surveywe found that all most every villagers deposit their money to the local Co-operative society. Andthe most interesting thing is that small children those who study in the school they also save theirmoney to the co-operative society. For this savings they don‟t get any interest. Some of thevillagers have fixed deposit account for save their money to the govt. bank because of highinterest4.9 Poverty lineThere are several methods to identify poverty line. Expenditure method is the most popularmethodExpenditure MethodCost of Basic NeedsCalorie Intake – 1800 Kilo CalTable – 4.6 Costs of Basic NeedsRice Vegetables TotalTk. 30 Tk. 22 52*2 =Tk.104So, yearly 104 * 365 = Tk.37960So I can say poor class is under poverty line for Burundi East Para.
    • LFE Report - Spring, 2013Venue: Proshika, ManikganjBy Md.Matiur RahmanI n d e p e n d e n t U n i v e r s i t y , B a n g l a d e s h Page 504.10 Agricultural Rural Production Cycle of Burundi East ParaFood is essential for every human being. Till today, there is no alternative of foods other thancultivation or vegetation. The source of our food is agriculture. Man learned agriculture fromprimitive age. We are not apart from this. And thus Bangladesh is an agro based country. Amaxium portion, about 80 % of our total population is directly or indirectly depends onagriculture to earn their bread and butter. Agriculture plays an important role in our economy,though the amount is now been reduced. But still we can‟t ignore the importance of agriculturein our economy. In this part we have described the seasonal calendar of Burundi East Para.Seasonal calendar is the timeline that indicates different events in different seasons like cropproduction, crop pricing, natural events such as rainfall, flood etc. Here we have described theseasonal cropping pattern, the production cycle.4.11 Factors Affecting Rural Agricultural Production4.11.1 LandOne of the most important factors of production is Land. The more land a farmer possess, themore he can produce crops. In our country, due to huge increase in population, per capita land isgradually decreasing. As population is increasing day by day, land for cultivation is decreasing.As a result, most of the farmer uses different types of fertilizer to increase production. Ultimatelytheir marginal revenue is decreasing day by day as they have to spend more money in fertilizer,but their amount of production is not increasing at the same rate. On the other hand due to use ofvarious types of fertilizer, land also loss its own fertility. Thus farmer wants to charge high ratefor their production. Burundi East Para of Burundi village is not exception from this pattern.When we talked with farmers, most of the person says their argument in this area.
    • LFE Report - Spring, 2013Venue: Proshika, ManikganjBy Md.Matiur RahmanI n d e p e n d e n t U n i v e r s i t y , B a n g l a d e s h Page 514.11.2 LaborThe second important factor of production is labor. Labor can be various types: Owner of a landcan provide labor in his land. “Borga” farmer provides their full labor in other‟s land and get aportion of total production. There is some farmer, who put their labor only in the seasonal timecalled „Seasonal Farmer‟. On the other hand, some people don‟t possess any land but providetheir labor in others land all the year known as „Kamla‟. In our assigned Para, labor is one of theimportant factors in their cultivation of crops. People who cultivate their own land and peoplewho also cultivate land as „Borga‟ need extra labor during sowing of seeds and harvestingperiod. In Burundi East Para, as most of the farmers possess their own land, they need extra laborduring sowing and harvesting period. As a result, they have to pay extra money for labor.4.11.3 CapitalCapital is the third most important factors of production in cultivating crops. In every steps ofproduction farmer has to invest their money mostly for buying seeds, providing labor cost,putting various types of fertilizer. Farmers those who cultivate their own land mostly financetheir cost of production from their own. Sometimes „Borga‟ farmer needs to take loan for buyingfertilizer or paying labor cost. Most of the cases, farmers try to take this loan from their relatives,if they fail to take loan from relatives then they go to their co-operative society In our assignedPara, most of the farmers finance their cost of production from their own. In extreme cases theyhave to take loan from their relatives.
    • LFE Report - Spring, 2013Venue: Proshika, ManikganjBy Md.Matiur RahmanI n d e p e n d e n t U n i v e r s i t y , B a n g l a d e s h Page 524.12 Seasonal crops mapping of Burundi EastOur agriculture depends on the season. For this season, theclimate, soil types have great impact what the peasants willcultivate in the lands. In different season, different climateexists. It is informed that paddy production is the main job forthe peasants. Nevertheless it is acknowledged that other cropshave been produced which creates handsome return for thepeasants. Sometime the return of the some seasonal product hasthe skyrocketing return like cabbage in winter season. The allkinds of activity of the peasants are done calculating theBengali Month. Paddy is main dream for the peasants. Thehappiness and woes of the peasants mainly depends on this crop. The main income comes fromthis paddy production. This Paddy is produced in two different seasons. One is Boro Season andanother is Amon Season.4.12.1 BoroThe appropriate timing for sowing of this type of paddy is Agrahayan. The seedbed has toprepare in the beginning of the Kartik. Then the seedlings are planted to another land in Magh.This paddy is harvested in Baishak. Different varieties of Boro such as BRRI -28, 29, Maina,Hira, Tiya, and Anamika etc. are cultivated here.4.12.2 AmonThe proper timing for sowing is very crucial for achieving the expected level of production. Theperfect timing for sowing of Amon is Bhadro. The seedbed needs to be prepared properly beforesowing. The seedbed preparation begins in the beginning of the Ashar. Then the seedlings areplanted to the land in Ashin. Then the paddy is harvested in Agrahayan.
    • LFE Report - Spring, 2013Venue: Proshika, ManikganjBy Md.Matiur RahmanI n d e p e n d e n t U n i v e r s i t y , B a n g l a d e s h Page 534.12.3 Vegetable productionPeasants produce different types of vegetable. Some types of vegetables have been produced fortheir own consumption. They produce some vegetables for the business purpose. In this case thefamous vegetable is cabbage. The production process is described below.CabbageCabbage is the seasonal vegetable. It is found basically in winter. The seedbed for theCabbage is prepared at the beginning of the Bhadro. At the beginning of the kartik, theseedlings are grown. Labour is needed to prepare the land and transferring the saplingsfrom the seedbed. At this time fertilizers are used. The saplings are planted in Kartik.After 20-25 days, the weeds are removed and vitamin is given to the plants. In the mid ofthe production, the pesticides is used. They harvest this vegetable at the end of the Maghor at the beginning of the Falgun.PotatoThe cultivation process starts from the last week of Agrahayan month and ends in 1stweek of Chaitra. For a 4 bigha of land 16 labours needed for weeding the straws (Nara)from the field. After that, the fertilizers are given. For the same land T.S.P- 40 kg,UREA- 40 kg, Potassium- 40 kg, Zinc- 2kg and Boron- 2 kg are used as fertilizer. For a 1bigha of land, 4 mounds of seeds need to sow in the field by row order. It needs 4 numberof irrigation within three months. After three months, 50 mounds of potato produce from1 bigha of land.4.12.4 FertilizerThe production of crops largely depends on the proper usage of fertilizers. The usage offertilizers is increasing day by day. Previously the farmers used cow dung only and produceddesired amount of crops. But as the lands are becoming more infertile so they have to usedifferent fertilizers to increase the production. Among the different fertilizers UREA, TSP,Potash is the most popular.
    • LFE Report - Spring, 2013Venue: Proshika, ManikganjBy Md.Matiur RahmanI n d e p e n d e n t U n i v e r s i t y , B a n g l a d e s h Page 544.12.5 IrrigationFarmer use water from Deep tube-well in their land. The Co-Operative society has built upcanals for supplying water in the fields. The Co-operative society charges Tk 300 for membersand Tk 400 for nonmembers for supplying water, which has been mentioned earlier in chapter 1.4.12.6 Insect and pesticidesTo protect the spoilt of crops due to various harmful insects the farmers have to use differenttypes of insecticides and pesticides in the land also. Few years ago they used D.D.T. at a largeamount, but recently government banned it due to its negative effect on nature.4.12.7 Storage facilityStorage of crops is one of the major concerns of theagriculture. Mainly the villagers use granary i.e.“Gola” and “Macha” for storing the crops. Fewfarmers use a basket made of bamboo which in knownas “Lai” to the villagers. The amount can be stored ina granary depends on its size. Most of the time thefarmer has to sell the crops to the Bepari in the fielddue to shortage of storage facilities. Moreover a largeamount of crops are spoiled by rat and other insects inthe granary. People also used some others storagefacilities such as – sack, macha, drum. And some donot store.Fig 4.8: The picture of “Gola”
    • LFE Report - Spring, 2013Venue: Proshika, ManikganjBy Md.Matiur RahmanI n d e p e n d e n t U n i v e r s i t y , B a n g l a d e s h Page 55Chart: 4.2 Storage Facilities of Farm Products4.12.8 Land agreement systemDifferent types of land agreement occur in the rural area. It is the only way for the poor class toproduce the crops. In our Para, two types of land agreement occur. Those are the followings.4.12.8.1 Borga SystemBorga agreement occurs between the rich classes or upper middle classes and the poor class i.e.the owner of the land and the sharecroppers. The rich class or upper middle class leases the landto the poor class. How much crops will be returned to owners depends on the agreement.Sometimes the half of the pie has to give to the owner. Sometimes one third of the pie has to giveto the owner. In this case the peasants have to give the all kinds of cost. In agriculture, irrigationis one of the main factors. If the peasants need water they buy from the samity.4.12.8.2 Contractual agreementIn this system the owners of the land give the land to the person for the agreed amount of themoney. When the person gives the money to the owner, he has the authority to produce whateverhe wants. This agreement will continue as long as the owner will not repay the money.Storage Facility84%16%Have Dont HaveStorage Type43%33%14%10%Gola Macha Macha & Gola LaiSource: Field Survey, spring 2013
    • LFE Report - Spring, 2013Venue: Proshika, ManikganjBy Md.Matiur RahmanI n d e p e n d e n t U n i v e r s i t y , B a n g l a d e s h Page 564.12.9 Labor Migration and wageDuring the harvesting and cultivating period, there is high demand for the labor. It is difficult tofind the people. They hire labor from Uttarbanga to work, these people are known as „Kamla‟.This time, the peasants have to pay higher amount of money for the cultivation and harvesting.The Wage rate for the different time of the paddy production is given below.Table 4.7 Wage rate at different timePeriod of paddy production Wage RateNormal time Tk.100-150/dayDuring the Cultivation Tk.150-200/dayDuring the Harvest Tk.140-160/day4.13 Costs versus Benefit AnalysisFarmers mostly produce Boro because it is quite profitable. They feel proud to produce theirmain food. Besides, a great enthusiasm is also observed among the farmers about the cultivation.Table 4.8: Cost versus Benefit Analysis of Four Major CropsParticularsCropsBoro Aus Amon VegetablesLand PreparationRent of Tractor 1100 1200 1200 0Labor 925 1100 1050 500Fertilizer 1050 1000 1000 350Pesticides 125 150 100 200WeedingLabor 600 800 750 0
    • LFE Report - Spring, 2013Venue: Proshika, ManikganjBy Md.Matiur RahmanI n d e p e n d e n t U n i v e r s i t y , B a n g l a d e s h Page 57Irrigation 1200 1200 1200 300HarvestingLabor 2700 3000 3000 500Total Cost of Production 7700 8450 8300 1850Total Production 25 Maund 20 Maund 19Maund 2300 Pcs.Producers Profit 8500 5000 4500 3500Beparis Purchase Cost 16200 13450 12800 5350Beparis Profit 4500 2500 2300 1950Wholesalers PurchaseCost20700 15950 15100 7300Wholesalers Profit 3200 1900 1500 850Retailers Purchase Cost 23900 17850 16600 8150Retailers Profit 2200 2150 1440 450Cost of End User 26100 20000 18040 8600Price Per Unit 1044/Maund 1000/Maund 949/Maund 3.74/Pcs.According to the data collected through FGD with the farmers and marketers we have analyzedthe cost versus benefit of four major crops produced in our assigned area. All these data arecomputed for the production from 1 bigha of land. And it is seen that the cultivation of boro ismore profitable compared to cultivation of paddy. For the recent years the cost of production issomewhat stable. The cost of fertilizer decreased at a certain amount because this year thefertilizers are sold through the government approved dealer and the retailers cannot chargehigher price from the farmers. But the advantage of lower cost of fertilizers is completely offsetdue to the increment of the labor cost.
    • LFE Report - Spring, 2013Venue: Proshika, ManikganjBy Md.Matiur RahmanI n d e p e n d e n t U n i v e r s i t y , B a n g l a d e s h Page 584.14 Findings and AnalysisMost of the people on Burundi East are engaged in agriculture. They use moderate technlogy intheir cultivation and the samity provides them every support they need. It is considered that theprogress of the village is the dream of Proshika plays a very important role in the villagedevelopment. It is seen that in most of the houses income depends on foregin remitance this alsohas played a very major role in the development of village. While doing the survey I also foundthat few people are below the proverty line and the village condition is improving.4.15 ConclusionWe know that Bangladesh is primarily an agrarian economy. Agriculture is the single largestproducing sector of economy since it comprises about 21% of countries GDP. Meeting thenation‟s food requirement remains the key objective of the government and in recent years therehas been substantial increase in production.Cooperative use of modern machinary is graduallygaining popularity Agricultural development of Bangladesh has positive relation with povertyreduction. . Directly or indirectly, agricultural development has reduced the poverty of BurundiEast. As agriculture is the main backbone of our country, the government should pay head intheir agro business and its relative derivatives.
    • LFE Report - Spring, 2013Venue: Proshika, ManikganjBy Md.Matiur RahmanI n d e p e n d e n t U n i v e r s i t y , B a n g l a d e s h Page 59
    • LFE Report - Spring, 2013Venue: Proshika, ManikganjBy Md.Matiur RahmanI n d e p e n d e n t U n i v e r s i t y , B a n g l a d e s h Page 605.1 IntroductionFrom the very beginning of mankind, human being is directed by their needs and thereforewants. If they can manage to satisfy their wants, they need to have the power to acquire or buythe things they want. So their wants will be converted into demand in terms of their buyingpower. But what will meet the demand? The answer is supply. So, to meet the demand theremust be the supply of goods. Then the question remains how and where? There must be atransaction between the buyer and seller. Consumer will pay the price for the product and sellerwill sell the offering with the given price. And this transaction is held in a place where thedemander and the supplier meet which is called the market. Market reflects the economy of anycountry. To understand the economic condition of any state, it is essential to analysis the market.Market can be situated both in urban areas and rural areas. But the problem is, as most of us werebrought up in urban areas we did not have any idea about rural market and rural production. Wehardly think about the rural economy, we tend to forget that 80% of our total population lives inthe rural area. The rural market‟s main mode of production has been the agricultural productionthat has a great impact on the country‟s economy. It is the place where people of different villagegather. That‟s why rural market can be called “The heart” of any village. It is the place ofmeeting or junction for any village. Rural market is a place where villagers of any village meetwith each other for any kind of discussion, gossip, and problem or to exchange each other‟sproduct, thoughts or things. Therefore, the study of rural life is incomplete without the analysisof its markets. Rural markets provide an insight to many aspects of the villagers‟ life. Our reportcovers a total analysis of the important aspects of the rural market. Discussion has been made inregard to different types of market place and market price structure. The product categoriesavailable in haat and their distribution channel have been adequately covered in our analysis.Various parties in the trading process and problem faced by them have been also identified.
    • LFE Report - Spring, 2013Venue: Proshika, ManikganjBy Md.Matiur RahmanI n d e p e n d e n t U n i v e r s i t y , B a n g l a d e s h Page 615.2 ObjectivesThere are certain objectives to analyze the rural market in Live-in-Field Experience. This aregiven below-Identifying the basic concepts and characteristics of rural market.Identifying the major differences of haat and bazaar.Identifying the different aspects of our assigned market (Haat)Identifying the classification of products in the haat.Identifying the inward and outward products of the haat.Identifying the pricing policy in the market.Identifying the types of promotional activities in the marketIdentifying the distribution channel of products in the market.Identifying the value chain analysis of products.5.3 LimitationsThere were certain limitations we faced while conducting our research. When we collectedinformation and data for our analysis, they somewhat varied farmer to farmer and trader totrader. Then again, when we conducted the survey at the haat, the traders were busy in tradingand were reluctant to give us adequate information.5.4 MethodologyIn our LFE course, one of the most important parts is the rural market analysis. To fulfill theobjectives we both used primary and secondary data. For basic concepts and characteristics wetook help of some books. And overall to analyze the different aspects of rural market wesurveyed the rural market and we use the PRA method. We also took interviews from theshopkeepers and village people; these are all sources of collecting primary data.
    • LFE Report - Spring, 2013Venue: Proshika, ManikganjBy Md.Matiur RahmanI n d e p e n d e n t U n i v e r s i t y , B a n g l a d e s h Page 625.5 Rural MarketThe scenario of rural market is different than the urban market. The idea of marketing applies inthe village market in different manner. In economies point of view village market is a purelycompetitive market where buyers and sellers meet. In the village market there are very hugenumber of producers, produce undifferentiated products. Competition is very high in the villagemarket. Because of large numbers of farmers produce only one common product.A rural market can be defined in two parts:1. The permanent market/ Bazaar2. The temporary market/Haat5.5.1 Permanent Market / BazaarIn Permanent market sellers sell their products every day. Here consumers can purchase theirproduct every day. These are retail outlets where products are furnished in shelve for availabilityand display. But in the village permanent market, products are actually being on the shelves forselling.
    • LFE Report - Spring, 2013Venue: Proshika, ManikganjBy Md.Matiur RahmanI n d e p e n d e n t U n i v e r s i t y , B a n g l a d e s h Page 635.5.2 Temporary Market / HaatTemporary village also named by “Haat”. It is a particular place where buyers and sellers comein some particular days to exchange products, services, goods, ideas, and thoughts. Except someparticular days a haat doesn‟t exist. A haat can sit for 1 to 2 days per week. It can be bigger eventen times more than a bazaar. Haat plays a crucial role for their internal trade - most of the bigtrade of their goods performs on this day and villagers bring their most precious product to sellon „haat bar‟. Generally haat takes place in such a place where people can go very easily like atthe joining point of two or more villages. Our Kotia bazaar is the combination of both Haat andBazaaar, because there some shops which are permenantly doing business in the market and onthe other hand there are few temporarily sellers who do not have fixed shops, they are allbasically producer who produce and come to sell their product in this market, this Haat sits only2 days in the week Sunday and tuesday.5.5.3 Major differences of Haat and BazaarTopic HAAT BAAZARNo. of availableproducts andservicesHigher number of products andservicesComparatively lower number ofproducts and servicesNo. of Middle Man Middle men are few There are higher number ofmiddle manPrice Prices are low Prices are comparatively higherFrequency Two days in a week Every day in a weekNo. of buyers andsellersHigher number of buyers andsellersLower number of buyers andsellersBuyers and sellerscome fromFrom many distant places From nearby placesSitting Place forSellersSitting place for sellers are notfixedSitting place for sellers arealways fixedDominator Buyers dominate the market Sellers dominate the market
    • LFE Report - Spring, 2013Venue: Proshika, ManikganjBy Md.Matiur RahmanI n d e p e n d e n t U n i v e r s i t y , B a n g l a d e s h Page 645.6 Description of Kotia BazaarWe have been assigned to do our marketing activities at Kotia bazzar. From Proshika, we have toenter in Bazaar, this market is situated 4 km far the Proshika. Kotia Bazar is not perfectly abaazar as well as its not a market also, professional says its in between bazaar and market. Asthis bazaar is situated beside the Kathi bazaar – Sonadingi road. This bazaar was established in1980, it is run by the committee of Kotia somaj Porishad with the total number of members are11. President of this market is MR. Abdur Rauf. Presently there are 150 shops (approx)are doingBusiness.5.6.1 at a Glance Kotia BazaarLocation- Kotia BazaarEstd – Since 1980Committee Run by – Kotia Somaj Porishod BoardNo of members – 11President – Mr. Abdur RaufShops – 150 Approx.5.7 Product Cataloging From Consumers View PointIn terms of types of consumer, products and services are classified into two categories and whichwould be used to describe the several types of products found in Kotia Bazaar.Consumer Products.Industrial Products.Under those two broad classes there are several types of products, which are discussed below.
    • LFE Report - Spring, 2013Venue: Proshika, ManikganjBy Md.Matiur RahmanI n d e p e n d e n t U n i v e r s i t y , B a n g l a d e s h Page 655.7.1 Consumer ProductsConsumer products are those bought by final consumers for personal consumption (Refprinciples of Marketing; Philip Kotler & Gary Armstrong). Marketers usually classify thesegoods further based on how consumers go about buying them5.7.1.1 Convenience ProductsConvenience products and services are that the customer buys frequently, immediately, and witha minimum of comparison and buying effort. We found that in Kotia Bazaar these types of staplegoods are rice, vegetables, fish, egg, milk, salt sugar, oil, toothpaste, soap, tea, cigarette etc.which are bought frequently, at lower price and with a minimum of comparison and buyingeffort by the villagers. Impulse products like candies; ice cream, soft drink (coke, sprite, fanta,seven up), sweets (locally made) and also emergency goods like medicine are also available here
    • LFE Report - Spring, 2013Venue: Proshika, ManikganjBy Md.Matiur RahmanI n d e p e n d e n t U n i v e r s i t y , B a n g l a d e s h Page 665.7.1.2 Shopping productsThe shopping products are bought less frequently and need much planning and shopping effort,such as garments (Ready-made clothing (shirt, saree, lungi, dress, shalwar kameez, trouser),furniture, shoe, shampoo (sunsilk, clear), detergent (Tibbet, wheel), soap (lux, aromatic,lifebuoy, keya), Beauty cream (Tibbet Snow, Fair and Lovely, Henolux), Coconut oil (Aromatic,Hash marka, Keya), lipsitick and kajal, razor, shaving cream other cosmetics etc. The villagersget those products from Kotia Bazaar.5.7.1.3 Specialty productsSpecial products like cow for cultivation, fertilizer, seeds, pesticides, etc were found at KotiaBazaar. In terms of the villagers buying behavior. When they buy these products, they giveemphasis on brand preferences and special purchase effort.5.7.1.4 Unsought productsAs we know that, consumer products that the consumers either do not know about or don‟t thinkof buying normally are unsought products. We found some products in the village; birth controlpills, condoms and some other medicines used for gynecological problem are such products, asthe villagers feel shy to buy them.5.7.2 Industrial ProductsProducts bought by individuals and organizations for further processing or for use in conductinga business. (Ref: Principles of Marketing Philip kotler & Gary Armstrong). It was found thatRickshaw van, tractor, deep tube-well, etc. are industrial products of Baminia.5.8 Product Cataloging From Sellers View PointFrom seller‟s viewpoint, products can be classified into 4 groups:
    • LFE Report - Spring, 2013Venue: Proshika, ManikganjBy Md.Matiur RahmanI n d e p e n d e n t U n i v e r s i t y , B a n g l a d e s h Page 675.8.1 Variable ProductsThese are the products the villagers buy as daily and weekly basis from both the bazaar and haat.They are bread, tea, refreshments, biscuits, candy, oil, rice, meat, fish, fruit, vegetables, salt,sugar, kitchen tools, and many others. For these goods, the sellers can charge varying pricesaccording to demand.5.8.2 Brand ProductsThese are the products the sellers get from the brand companies and sell them in the bazaar. Theyare LUX, Coca cola, Pepsi, RC cola, Fair & Lovely, Keya soap, medicines etc. The sellers arebound to sell them at company rate.5.8.3 Seasonal ProductsThese are the products available in varying seasons in both the bazaar and haat. They areumbrella, rubber shoes during rainy season; jacket, maflar, cardigan, “gur”, and vegetablesduring winter, “Kastey”, baskets, “aagoiul” during harvesting season and others. The on-seasonand end-season prices of these products are comparatively high.
    • LFE Report - Spring, 2013Venue: Proshika, ManikganjBy Md.Matiur RahmanI n d e p e n d e n t U n i v e r s i t y , B a n g l a d e s h Page 685.8.4 Irregular ProductsThese are the products available during Eid, Pooja, village fair, “Zatra” and other occasions.They are toys, flute, mouth organ, bracelet, earrings, necklace, “Sarees, cosmetics, “Aalta”, nailpolish, lipstick and others. The prices of these products are relatively low than the regular bazaar.5.9 Inward and Outward Products5.9.1 Inward ProductsProducts those are coming from different areas to Kotia Bazar are known as inward products.The following products found as inward products.Places (To) ProductInwardPlaces (From)KotiaBazaarVegetables LaxmipurSpices SavarFishes Dhaka, CtgDry fish ChittagongTin ChittagongDal Dhaka, Ctg
    • LFE Report - Spring, 2013Venue: Proshika, ManikganjBy Md.Matiur RahmanI n d e p e n d e n t U n i v e r s i t y , B a n g l a d e s h Page 695.9.2 Outward ProductsProducts those are supplying from Kotia Bazar to other areas are known as outward products.The above products found as outward products.5.10 ServiceServices are intangible “deeds, processes and performances”. Service providers must interacteffectively with customers to create superior value during the service customers. The servicesrendered in the Kotia Bazaar are that of the cobbler, saloon, day laborers, transportation serviceselectronics item repairing shops and tailoring shop. One of the important services provided in thehaat are the transportation services. Trucks are used to transport bulk quantities of produce intothe haat. Van carts are used for carrying vegetables, fish and other products of small quantitiesinto and out of the haat. Another important service provider is the day laborers. They play animportant role in loading and unloading goods from and into vehicles. The existence of tailorshops makes it easier for women to avail stitched clothing without having to do them bythemselves.Places (From) ProductOutwardPlace (To)KotiaBazaarEgg Ctg., Feni,Noakhali, Dhaka,Laxmipur,ShylhetCabbageTomatoPotatoMaiza
    • LFE Report - Spring, 2013Venue: Proshika, ManikganjBy Md.Matiur RahmanI n d e p e n d e n t U n i v e r s i t y , B a n g l a d e s h Page 705.11 Distribution ChannelDistribution channel can be referred to as “a set of interdependent organization involved in theprocess of making a product or service available for use or consumption by the customer orbusiness user”. When a product is produced it needs to reach the hands of end-user forconsumption. Distribution is a mechanism or path through which a product comes from theproducer to the hand of the end user.5.11.1 Importance of a Distribution ChannelDistribution channel plays a very important role in the delivery process of products. Forexample, after the harvest of corn it needs to be taken to the haat. A question may arise: why itis necessary to take the produce in the haat? It is necessary because the producer will earn moneyby selling the produce to the market. Now if he wants to sell it, then he has to take it to themarket at first. That means he has to select a distribution channel for sending those products inthe market. Either the farmer himself takes the produce to the haat or sells to the bepari in bulk.Now, after the corn reaches the haat it is bought by wholesalers who resell it to the retailer and inthis way it will go to the hand of end-user. Thus the selection of distribution channel is veryimportant. And without a proper distribution channel distribution of goods from one place toanother and one party to another is rather impossible.5.11.2 Parties Involved In a Distribution ChannelLots of parties are involved in a distribution channel of a product. Though it may vary product toproduct but the most common parties are: producer, bepari or paikar, dealer or distributor,wholesaler and retailer.5.11.2.1 ProducerProducers are farmers or cultivators involved in growing or cultivating agricultural produce intheir own land or works as a Borgachasi. Usually they sell their produce to the beparis or paikars.But sometimes they sell it directly to the end-user.
    • LFE Report - Spring, 2013Venue: Proshika, ManikganjBy Md.Matiur RahmanI n d e p e n d e n t U n i v e r s i t y , B a n g l a d e s h Page 715.11.2.2 Bepari or PaikarA bepari is a person who buys crops from the farmer from their land or home. If not the farmer,the beparis normally market a crop for the first time. This is why their profit margin iscomparatively higher than the wholesalers and retailers.5.11.2.3 Distributor or DealerThey may operate on a national and regional basis. They buy the produce in bulk from thebeparis and provide transport and warehousing services before the produce reaches thewholesalers. They require a larger amount of capital to finance such activities.5.11.2.4 WholesalerThey normally buy from the distributors and re-sell the produce to the retailers. Sometimes theysell the produce directly to the end-user also. Sometimes they create artificial demand by storingproduct to seek higher profit from the customers.5.11.2.5 RetailerThey re-sell the produce to the consumer. They are the final link to the end-user. Thus, they havea better understanding of the demand of the end-user and situation prevailing in the market. Theirprofit margin is the lowest among all the parties involved in the distribution channel.5.11.2.6 Factors Influence The Distribution Channel of A Product:The use of distribution channel largely depends on certain factors. The distribution channels ofproducts vary in terms of place of trade, type and stage of product and time of trade.
    • LFE Report - Spring, 2013Venue: Proshika, ManikganjBy Md.Matiur RahmanI n d e p e n d e n t U n i v e r s i t y , B a n g l a d e s h Page 725.11.2.7 Market PlaceThe distribution channel of a product varies largely upon the market place. In other words, amarket place is a place where the products would be traded. For example, if a produce is to besold in Kotia Bazaar, it would be either directly sold by the farmers to the end-user or sold by thefarmer to the beparis. But it would not be similar if the same produce is to be sold in KawranBazar, Dhaka.5.11.2.8 Product Type & CategoryThe distribution channel also depends on the type/ nature of the product. For example, melonmust be sold quickly as it is of perishable nature. Thus, the farmer might choose to sell directlyto the end-user. Whereas, this is not the case with Gur.5.11.2.9 Different Stages of a Same Product:In the case of mangoes, if the mangoes and green mangoes they can be stored and need not besold immediately at the haat but can be sold to other districts. But it would not be the same withvery ripe mangoes.5.11.3 Distribution Channel of Some Products Traded in Kotia Bazaar5.11.3.1 Distribution Channel of PaddyThe same product can be distributed in the market in different ways. The figure below shows thethree different ways of distributing Paddy to the end-user.PRODUCER END-USERWHOLESALERBEPARI RETAILERLERRETAILER
    • LFE Report - Spring, 2013Venue: Proshika, ManikganjBy Md.Matiur RahmanI n d e p e n d e n t U n i v e r s i t y , B a n g l a d e s h Page 731stRoute: The farmers sell directly to the end-user at the haat. Here, the farmer enjoys the profitalone.2ndRoute: The farmers sell to the retailer who in turn sells to the end-user. Here, the profits areshared between the farmers and the retailer.3rdRoute: This is the most extensive route for the Paddy to reach the end-user. Here, profit isbeing shared between the farmer, bepari, wholesaler and retailer. Thus, the profit the farmer getsis less than the profit generated in the 1stand 2ndroute and the market price is also higher thanthe above mentioned routes as, with the costs the profits of all parties involved is inclusive to seta market price.5.113.2 Distribution Channel of LuxIn the above flow chart the distribution procedure of Lux soap is shown. Unilever sends thecartoon of soaps to the Local Dealers though its assigned distributors. Then the local dealers sellto the wholesalers, who in turn sell to the retailer at the bazar. Finally, the retailer sells to theend-user. In the distribution process from the manufacturers to end-user the distributor havemore dominance of power and takes the advantage of dictating terms and conditions. This isbecause; it is up to the distributors to reach the goods safely at the right time to the local dealer;as it is impossible for Unilever to cater for all local dealers nationwide. After analyzing thedistribution channels of different products, it can be concluded that the distribution channel varyfrom product to product.Unilever Distributor Local DealerEnd-User Retailer Wholesaler
    • LFE Report - Spring, 2013Venue: Proshika, ManikganjBy Md.Matiur RahmanI n d e p e n d e n t U n i v e r s i t y , B a n g l a d e s h Page 745.16 Fake productsIt is a matter of great regret that lots of fake products are traded in the market. As most of therural people are illiterate so they can‟t identify thosefake products and the producers of those products takethis advantage. Though it is known to the sellers butthey sell these fake products because of higher profitmargin which is very much unexpected and unethical.Through the field survey we were found some fakeproducts, which is like the original product like –Tange, the fake product was Tinge, The originalproduct is Ponds but the fake product is Pons, Batawas Bala, Oral- B toothbrush was Oral- V etc.Fig5.7 - Fake products5.17 Interview of TradersTrader 01: Mr. Abu TaiubMr. Abu Taiub is 35 years old. He has a family comprising of four members inclusive of hismother. Mr. Taiub is a permanent seller of clothes for both male and female. He buys clothingfrom Bongo Bazar, Dhaka and sells those in Kotia Bazaar, which takes place all day in a week.His income from the sale of clothing is Tk. 2500-Tk.3000 per day which makes a monthlyincome of Tk. 7500-Tk8500. In this interview, he said he is content with is present situation buthe plans to establish a big permanent shop for clothes at the bazaar in the near future.
    • LFE Report - Spring, 2013Venue: Proshika, ManikganjBy Md.Matiur RahmanI n d e p e n d e n t U n i v e r s i t y , B a n g l a d e s h Page 75Trader 02: Mr. Rashid AliMr. Rashid Ali aged 45 has a family of four. He has two sons. His eldest son is an agri-labor andthe other one is a student. Mr. Ali buys Taal Gurs from faridpur and brings them to BurundiBazaar via trucks for sale. He purchases Taal Gurs at Tk. 25/Kg. and the slling price is Tk.33-Tk.35/Kg. His daily sale is around 1-1.5 Maund. The transport cost he has to incur isTk.100/Maud. Since he is a temporary seller, on other days of the week he cultivates crops in hisown land.Trader 03: Mr. Abul MansoorMr. Abul Mansoor is 40 years old. He has a family of 6 members. His parents also stay with him.Mr.Mansoor is a Beapri of all kinds of vegetables making a monthly profit of Tk. 5000-Tk.6000.He is business for almost seven years and owns three vans. He sells the fresh produce to thewholesalers of Dhaka Kawran Bazar. The selling pice of certain produces are: Cucumber:Tk.12/Kg, Potol: Tk.10/Kg, Brinjal: Tk.14/Kg, Potato: Tk.12/Kg. and Ladies finger: Tk.8/Kg.He plans to buy a truck in future.Trader 04: Mr. Jamal MiahMr. Jamal Miah, aged 45 has a family of five. He is blessed with two sons. Both of them arestudents. He wishes to get his daughter married in a prestigious family. Mr. Miah sells toiletries(Lux, Sunsilk, Lifebuoy etc.) and stationeries (Khata, Pen, Pencil etc.) and other products such asMortein Coils, Chocolate, Cigarettes (Navy, Abul Biri etc.) at the bazar. He gets the suppliersfrom the local dealer once a week. His daily sale is Tk. 1500 and monthly profit is Tk. 7500
    • LFE Report - Spring, 2013Venue: Proshika, ManikganjBy Md.Matiur RahmanI n d e p e n d e n t U n i v e r s i t y , B a n g l a d e s h Page 76Trader 05: Mr. Kartik karmakarMr. Kartik Karmakar, aged 38 is an owner of tea-stall. He has a family of threes. He is blessedwith a son, who is in class seven. Mr. Kartik is operating the tea-stall for last eight years. Besidestea, he sells Biscuits, Bun, Bread, Banana, Pan, Biri and Cigarettes. He wishes to expand therange of products avaiable in the shop. His daily sale is Tk.300 –Tk.400 on regular days, andTk.700-Tk.1000 on Haat days. His monthly profit is around Tk. 3500. He obtains the suppliesfrom wholesales.5.18 Findings from the farmerGenerally the farmers who produce vegetables have another occupation like-van pulling, chatal business, poultry etc.Peasants are less interested in taking loans from NGO‟s. They feel it difficult topay back loan with high interest, rather they took loan from the cooperativesociety.Most of the farmers have their own land where they produce the crops.The farmers who grow paddy prefer to sell the paddy to the comilla town to thelocal wholesalers.The farmers can easily manage the fertilizers and pesticides from coopertivesociety and from different organizations.For irrigation purpose they have the deep tube-well.The farmers buy daily necessities with the money they get for selling their ownproducts.According to the farmers the productivity of the land is much lower than beforebecause different kinds of pesticides are used, which creates soil pollution.
    • LFE Report - Spring, 2013Venue: Proshika, ManikganjBy Md.Matiur RahmanI n d e p e n d e n t U n i v e r s i t y , B a n g l a d e s h Page 775.19 Findings From The tradersThe popular companies such as- Keya, Aromatics, Lever Brothers have distributionchannel which distributes their products to the retailers. In case of local brands theretailers have to go to the town to collect the products.Most of them are small entrepreneurs and their profit margin is 10% to 20% on an average inrespect of their nature of the business.5.20 ConclusionVillage market is a very frequently heard phenomenon but the underlying mechanics of thisphrase is not as simple as it sounds. This is not only a place where the villagers commit theireconomic activities but it is the place where we can hear the ever-beating symphony of theconventional rural life By analyzing the market of Kotia Bazaar we got an idea about thetraditional rural market. By analyzing the rural market we have learned about the properdistinction between the HAAT and BAZAAR, about the product inward and outward, sources ofthe product, distribution channel of those products, pricing strategy, promotion al activities,value chain of the local products. Now-a-days, lots of urban products are available in the ruralmarket. We have seen some changes in the mind of the consumers. Now villagers are moreconscious about the brands because of the mass media promotional activities. Price plays animportant role in the village market. While buyers make any decision regarding any product,price is most considerable thing in the buyers mind in rural market. We have seen that the HAATis buyer dominated where the BAZAAR is seller dominated. One thing is remarkable is that inthe rural market the farmers, peasants are in the hand of the channel members or middlemen. Inrural markets middlemen always enjoy the higher benefit. Kotia Bazaar is very closer to Dhakaand Chittagong which is a great advantage for it. The market can be an ideal rural market whichwill not only help the villagers to improve their economic condition but also the economiccondition of the country.
    • LFE Report - Spring, 2013Venue: Proshika, ManikganjBy Md.Matiur RahmanI n d e p e n d e n t U n i v e r s i t y , B a n g l a d e s h Page 785.21 REFERENCES / BIBLIOGRAPHY Kabir, Md. Shamsul; Bangladesher Arthonity; University Grant Comission- Dhaka,Bangladesh; 11th Edition ; July 2012 Mr. Md. Mamun vai (Our Village Guied) Kotler, Philip & Armstrong, Gray; Principles of Marketing, prentice-Hall of India privateLtd. – Delhi, India; 18th Edition; February 1999 Bangladesh Bureaucratic Statictics: 2011 [http://www.bbs.gov.bd] http://www.discoverybangladesh. com/meetbangladesh/agriculture.html http://www.bangladeshgateway.org/agricultureresearch.php http://www.wekipidia.com