What is an EPIC POEM?<br /><ul><li> a long, narrative poem about a legendary hero
a complex story that involves many characters and spans many years
epic poems are often part of a culture’s mythology – a set of stories about a particular person or event</li></li></ul><li>What is an EPIC HERO?<br /><ul><li> a character who is intelligent, clever, and brave, and can solve the problems he encounters
the epic hero undertakes a dangerous voyage and demonstrates traits valued by his society
In The Odyssey, Odysseus is the epic hero</li></li></ul><li>Who is HOMER?<br /><ul><li> a storyteller who lived around 1200 B.C.–700 B.C.
a Greek poet; author of The Illiadand The Odyssey
a very important figure in Greek culture – considered their BEST poet</li></li></ul><li>The Illiad<br /><ul><li> the story of the last year of the Trojan War
the ten-year war between the Trojans and the Greeks happened sometime around 1000 B.C.
the war started when Greeks went to Troy to reclaim Helen</li></li></ul><li>The Trojan Horse<br />Troy was defeated when Odysseus and his men were able to get inside the walls of Troy concealed within the body of the Trojan horse.<br />
The Odyssey<br /><ul><li> The story of the ten-year journey of Odysseus and his men trying to get home after the Trojan War.
an epic poem about humans on the journey of life overcoming temptations along the way.
We will read portions of Books IX-XII</li></li></ul><li>
Characters<br /><ul><li> Odysseus – a Greek; king of Ithaca
the men forget to go home when they taste the Lotus
Odysseus ties them up and takes them home</li></li></ul><li>“The Cyclops” – Practice Quiz<br />What do Odysseus’ men want to do when they find the cave?<br />How does Polyphemus reply to the request for help?<br />What do the men create to hurt Polyphemus?<br /> Why does Odysseus call himself “Nobody”?<br />How do the men manage to get out of the cave?<br />How does Odysseus taunt Polyphemus?<br />How does Polyphemus respond?<br />Explain the prayer to Poseidon.<br />What good / bad character traits does Odysseus show in this particular story?<br />
Part 4: The Cyclops<br /><ul><li> in the land of the brutal and ignorant Cyclops
stabbed in the eye while he is drunk and asleep</li></li></ul><li>Part 4: The Cyclops (3)<br /><ul><li> other Cyclopes come to help, but Polyphemus says that “Nobody” has tricked him!
Polyphemus blocks the door so the men can’t escape
Odysseus ties the sheep together; one man is tied underneath each middle sheep; escape when they are let out to pasture</li></li></ul><li>Part 4: The Cyclops (4)<br /><ul><li> Odysseus taunts Polyphemus after the escape
Polyphemus responds by heaving rocks, almost destroying the ship
Poly. says that a wizard once predicted this incident
Cyclops prays to Poseidon that Odysseus lose his men and only return home after many dark years – an accurate prophesy!</li></li></ul><li>Part 5: The Land of the Dead (1)<br /><ul><li> men are almost home, but a storm drives them back to Aeolia, where they are cast out by Aeolus
after seven days they get to the land of the Laestrygonians, cannibals – destroy all ships but one
escape to Circe’s home Aeaea – she turns half of the men to swine</li></li></ul><li>Part 5: The Land of the Dead (2)<br /><ul><li> Circle says that to get home, Odysseus must journey to the land of the dead (Hades) and consult Tiresias</li></li></ul><li>Part 5: The Land of the Dead<br />Q: What is the “region of the Men of Winter”?<br />A: This is the land of the dead souls.<br />Q: Who told the men to go to this place? Why?<br />A: Circe; to consult the prophet Tiresias<br />Q: Why do the men “pour libations” and kill a heifer and lamb?<br />A: They are making sacrifices to the gods.<br />
Part 5: The Land of the Dead<br />Q: Who is Elpenor?<br />A: One of Odysseus’ soldiers who died in Circe’s hall.<br />Q: What does he want Odysseus to do when he gets back to Aeaea Island?<br />A: Cremate and bury him properly<br />Q: What could Elpenor’s death be a symbol of?<br />A: Foolish behavior (he dies as the result of stupidity and drunkenness)<br />
Part 5: The Land of the Dead<br />Q: Who is Anticlea?<br />A: Odysseus’ mother; he sees her dead soul<br />Q: Who appears next?<br />A: Tiresias<br />Q: According to Tiresias, why is Poseidon angry with Odysseus?<br />A: For blinding his son, Polyphemus<br />
Part 5: The Land of the Dead<br />Q: What does Tiresias tell Odysseus to avoid?<br />A: The grazing cattle belonging to Helios<br />Q: What does Tiresias say Odysseus will find at home?<br />A: Men eating his livestock and courting his wife<br />Q: After he has returned home, who should Odysseus make a sacrifice to?<br />A: Lord Poseidon<br />
Part 5: The Land of the Dead (3)<br />Tiresias offers information:<br /><ul><li> escape the Sirens