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  • 1. Vocabulary is all the words known and used by aparticular personAs vocabulary is reduced , so are the number of feelings you can express, thenumber of events you can describe, the number of the things you canidentify! Not only understanding is limited, but also experience. Man growsby language. Whenever he limits language he retrogresses!“The limits of my language are the limits of my mind. All I know is what Ihave words for.” - Ludwig Wittgenstein
  • 2. PARADIGM /ˈ / pær.ə.daɪm Definition : a model of something, or a very clear and typical example ofsomethingSynonyms : ideal, model.Usage : Some of these educators are hoping to producea change in the current cultural paradigm.
  • 3. CALM /kɑˈm/Definition : without hurried movement, worry or noiseSynonyms : peaceful, quietAntonyms : excited, fierce, wildUsage : After a night of fighting, the streets are nowcalm.
  • 4. SUBTLE /ˈ / sʌt.l ̩Definition : not loud, bright, noticeable or obvious in any waySynonyms : nice, quiet, delicateAntonyms : hard, harsh, noisyUsage : The room was painted a subtle shade of pink.
  • 5. CONSCIOUS /ˈkɒn.t ʃəs/Definition : to notice that a particular thing or person exists or ispresentSynonyms : alert, awakeAntonyms : ignorant, unconscious, senselessUsage : I think shes very conscious of being the onlyperson in the office who didnt have a universityeducation
  • 6. AUSTERE /ɔˈˈstɪər /Definition : very strict and unfriendly in mannerSynonyms : serious, harsh, stiffAntonyms : calm, gentleUsage : He was a tall, austere, forbidding figure.
  • 7. ECSTASY /ˈ .si/ əDefinition : a state of extreme happiness, especiallywhen feeling pleasureSynonyms : happiness, joy, delightAntonyms : despair, sorrow, unhappinessUsage : She threw her head back as if in ecstasy.
  • 8. COMBATIVE /ˈkɒm.bə.tɪv/Definition : eager to fight or argueSynonyms : aggressive, quarrelsomeAntonyms : agreeable, compromising, peacefulUsage : The prime minister was in a combative mood,twice accusing the opposition of gross incompetence.
  • 9. OBNOXIOUS /əbˈnɒk.ʃəs/Definition : very unpleasant or rudeSynonyms : offensive, repulsiveAntonyms : nice, pleasant, softUsage : Some of his colleagues say that hes loud andobnoxious.
  • 10. EVANESCENT /ˈ vəˈnes. nt/ iˈ. əDefinition : lasting for only a short timeSynonyms : disappearance, vanishingUsage : Too much is said about the evanescent natureof an actors fame.
  • 11. SATURNINE /ˈsæt.ə.naɪn/Definition : serious and unfriendlySynonyms : gloomy, desolateAntonyms : happy, nice, pleasantUsage : He seems to have been unattractiveand saturnine, and later on proved himself both craftyand brutal.
  • 12. ENDURE /ɪnˈdj ər / ʊDefinition : to suffer something difficult, unpleasant or painfulSynonyms : accustom, face, tolerateAntonyms : resist, quitUsage : We had to endure a nine-hour delay at theairport.
  • 13. PRECIPITOUS /prɪˈs ɪp.ɪ.təs/Definition : very steepSynonyms : abrupt, sharpAntonyms : gradualUsage : Over the past 18 months, there has been aprecipitous fall in car sales.
  • 14. CIRCUMVENT /ˈsɜˈ. əmˈvent k /Definition : to avoid something, especially cleverly or illegallySynonyms : fool, dodge, evadeAntonyms : allow, assist, helpUsage : Ships were registered abroad to circumventemployment and safety regulations.
  • 15. PROSPERITY /prɒsˈper. .ti/ ɪDefinition : the state of being successful and having a lot ofmoneySynonyms : affluence, good fortuneAntonyms : failure, loss, poornessUsage : The war was followed by a long period ofpeace and prosperity.
  • 16. EXACERBATE /ɪgˈzæs. .beɪt/ əDefinition : to make something which is already bad worseSynonyms : infuriate, make worseAntonyms : comfort, aid, sootheUsage : This attack will exacerbate the already tenserelations between the two communities.
  • 17. SUBJUGATE /ˈsʌb.dʒʊ.geɪt/Definition : to defeat people or a country and rule themin a way which allows them no freedomSynonyms : overpower, defeatAntonyms : free, liberateUsage : Israel is going back into Egypt to subjugate it.
  • 18. CONVOLUTED /ˈsʌb.dʒʊ.geɪt/Definition : very twistedSynonyms : complicated, confusedAntonyms : simple, straightforwardUsage : a very convoluted route/knot
  • 19. COVERT /ˈkəʊ.vɜˈt /Definition : hidden or secretSynonyms : private, undercoverAntonyms : open, overtUsage : The government was accused of covertmilitary operations against the regime.
  • 20. RELUCTANT /rɪˈl k.tənt/ ʌDefinition : not willing to do somethingSynonyms : unenthusiastic, unwillingAntonyms : enthusiastic, ready, willingUsage : She persuaded her reluctant husband to takea trip to Florida with her.