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Horse Owner 101 : Things Every Horse Owner Needs to Know

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Presentation on the basic of horse care - Hoof care, Deworming Properly, Vaccination Strategies, and Emergency Preparations

Presentation on the basic of horse care - Hoof care, Deworming Properly, Vaccination Strategies, and Emergency Preparations

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  • 1. Horse Owner 101:Things EVERY Horse Owner Needs to Know
    Monday, January 24, 2011
    South Shore Equine Clinic & Diagnostic Center
    151 Palmer Road
    Plympton, MA
    www.ssequineclinic.com
  • 2. Welcome to SSEC Horse Owner Education Series !
    Mark T. Reilly, DVM, Diplomate ABVP (Equine)
    Linda J. Cimetti, DVM
    Travis M. Tull, DVM (surgeon)
    Rachel A. Oberholtzer, DVM (intern)
  • 3. TERMS and ANATOMY
    Foal
    Weanling
    Yearling
    Colt or Filly
    Stallion (Gelding)or Mare
    Senior
    Geriatric
  • 4. TERMS and ANATOMY
    3rd Phalanx - “Foot”
    1st & 2nd Phalanx - “Pastern”
    Fetlock - “Ankle”
    Shin - “Cannon Bone”
    Carpus - “Knee”
    Tarsus - “Hock”
    Stifle - “Stifle”
    Pelvis - “Croup”
    Chest - “Barrel”
  • 5. TERMS and ANATOMY
  • 6. BASIC INFORMATION
    Temperature : 98 – 101.5
    Heart Rate / Pulse : 28-44
    Respiratory Rate: 8-12
    Number of Teeth: 40 (44)
    **Know individual normals**
  • 7. AREAS TO BE COVERED
    Foot Care
    Deworming
    Vaccinating
    Emergency Care
  • 8. Foot Care
    Coronet = Germinal Layer
    Hoof = “Fingernail”
    Continuous Growth
    Conformation
    Trimming / Shoeing – every 5-8 weeks
  • 9. Foot Care
    Coronet = Germinal Layer
    Hoof = “Fingernail”
    Continuous Growth
    Conformation
    Trimming / Shoeing – every 5-8 weeks
  • 10.
  • 11. DEWORMERS
  • 12. DEWORMING
    1960’s – First dewormer developed
    Every 8 weeks (1966)
    1970’s & 80’s– New Drug Classes
    Rotational Deworming
    1990’s & 2000’s- Adaptations
    ERP shortened
    Resistance
    Small Strongyles > Large Strongyles
    2010’s – New Strategies based on EBM
  • 13. DEWORMING
    Evidence Based Medicine (EBM):
    The conscientious, explicit and judicious use of the current best evidence in making decisions about the care of individual patients.
    Improves the quality of care
    Improves the standard of care
  • 14. DEWORMING
    Example of EBM:
    Sick Horse with bacterial infection
    Therapy based on specific diagnosis and the veterinarian’s clinical experience and knowledge of the recommendations of experts.
    Ex: Antibiotic for the sick horse BUT not for the other horses – they could develop antibiotic resistance or develop an antibiotic induced problem (diarrhea).
  • 15. DEWORMING
    Example of EBM:
    Same Barn with no horses showing signs of parasites. What is appropriate therapy?
    Deworm all horses with the same dewormer every 6-8 weeks.
    Deworm with cheapest one (on sale?)
    Only deworm those that move on and off the premises
    Use EBM to formulate a plan
  • 16. DEWORMING
    Is there a clinical justification for treating this horse?
    What parasite am I trying to eliminate?
    What stages of that parasite are likely to be present?
    Why this dewormer? (3 classes of dewormers)
    Will it kill the desired parasite(s) and stage(s)?
    Will it work as expected? (Confidence)
    Are there better options?
    Are there any other management techniques that might help me achieve my goal?
  • 17. DEWORMING STRATEGY
    1960s: 90% of colics due to migrating stages
    1970s: S. vulgaris – 90-100% prevalent
    1960s and 70s: Interval dose program
    Prevent egg shedding by deworming every 8 weeks year round
    Worked against S. vulgaris (large strongyles)
  • 18. DEWORMING STRATEGY
    1980s: Large strongyles eliminated
    BUT……
    Now 100% of strongyles are now SMALL strongyles (a change in species)
    1990s: Recognize Drug Resistance
    Severe weight loss
    Chronic diarrhea and edema
  • 19. PARASITE RESISTANCE
    1983 – most recent dewormer drug class
    Name???
    IVERMECTIN
    Shortening ERP = 1st step in resistance
    1995 - MOXIDECTIN (Quest) = same class
    2005 - New drug class in cats and dogs (Emodepside)
    2009 - New drug class in ruminants in New Zealand (Monepantel)
  • 20. PARASITE RESISTANCE
    ROTATION of DEWORMERS
    Does NOT prevent resistance
    2 of 3 classes already show high resistance
    Potentially dangerous, if not illogical
    (www.getrotationright.com) = marketing
  • 21. DEWORMING STRATEGY
    IS THE DEWORMER EFFECTIVE?
    FECAL EGG COUNT REDUCTION TEST
    The ONLY way to know
    Measure levels before and 14 days after treatment
    Failure to achieve high levels of reduction = RESISTANCE on that farm
    2 of the 3 classes show high resistance
  • 22. DEWORMING STRATEGY
    Step 1 : Fecal Egg Count (FEC)
    Before deworming
    Step 2 : FEC 2 weeks later
    Tests for resistance (> 90%)
    If minimal reduction, change drug class and repeat
    Step 3 : FEC at Egg Reoccurence Period (ERP)
    4-5 weeks – Benzimadazoles (Panacur)
    6-8 weeks – Pyrantel (Strongid)
    8-10 weeks – Ivermectin/Moxidectin (Zimectrin, Quest)
  • 23. FECAL EGG COUNT
    Strongyle eggs
  • 24. DEWORMING STRATEGY
    Which drugs are effective?
    Which horses require less or more frequent treatment?
    Evaluate success by using FEC at regular intervals
    ** Small numbers of worms do not cause any significant health impairment (<100-200)
    ** All horses are not the same – 20% of horses harbor 80% of the worms
  • 25. DEWORMING STRATEGY
    Refugia – unselected portions of population
    Helps with parasite control
    These are the worms not exposed to drugs, or in horses not treated
    Do not make resistant genes
    = low FECs (<100-200) are ok
  • 26. DEWORMING STRATEGY
    COST?
    Dewormer is cheaper than a FEC program
    Optimal Horse Health
    Millions of tubes used each year that are killing very few parasites either because there are very few to kill, or because the drug is ineffective
  • 27. DEWORMING STRATEGY
    Denmark – dewormers are prescription only since 1999
    Requires a diagnosis
    Disallows prophylactic treatments
    Sweden, Finland, Netherlands now similar
    Rest of European Union to follow
  • 28.
  • 29. Strategic Vaccination
    VACCINES MAKE THE IMMUNE
    SYSTEM THINK IT HAS THE
    DISEASE
  • 30. Strategic Vaccination
    Types of Vaccines
    Diseases to protect against
    Time of Year
    Identify Animals at Risk
    Number of visits
    Reaction History?
  • 31. Strategic Vaccination
    Types of Vaccines
    Killed Vaccine – Dead portion of virus
    Modified Live – Inactivated virus
    Bacterin – Vaccine vs. Bacterial disease
  • 32. Strategic Vaccination
    Types of Vaccines
    Killed Vaccine
    PROCON
    Safety Adjuvant Required
    Broad Response
    No Replication
  • 33. Strategic Vaccination
    Types of Vaccine
    Modified Live
    PRO CON
    No adjuvant necessary Short Shelf-life
    Broad Response Safety in Pregnancy
    Limited Replication Revert to virulence
  • 34. Strategic Vaccination
    Diseases to vaccinate against :
    Influenza
    Rhinopneumonitis (Herpes)
    Rabies
    Eastern/Western Encephalitis
    West Nile Encephalitis
    Tetanus
    Potomac Horse Fever
    Strangles (Strep. Equi)
  • 35. Strategic Vaccination
    Timing of Vaccination
    Spring
    Fall
    Prior to Shipping
    Prior to Exposure
    After Exposure
    Annually vs. Biannually vs. Tri-annually
  • 36. Strategic Vaccination
    Animals at Risk
    Young or Naïve
    Mature/Adult – resident
    Mature/Adult – competitive/traveling
    Senior – isolated
    Breeding Stock
    Prior to Breeding
    During Pregnancy
  • 37. Strategic Vaccination
    Number of Visits Necessary to Complete Vaccination Series
    “ANTIGEN” = foreign protein used to promote immune response
  • 38. Strategic Vaccination
    Number of Visits Necessary to Complete Vaccination Series
    “ANTIBODY” = Immune System Response to foreign protein
  • 39. Strategic Vaccination
    Number of Visits Necessary to Complete Vaccination Series
    “ADJUVANT” = necessary to enhance the Antigen presentation and help drive the Immune Response. ***Causes INFLAMMATION***
  • 40. Strategic Vaccination
    Goal in vaccination:
    MAXIMIZE IMMUNE RESPONSE WITHOUT OVERLOADING IMMUNE SYSTEM
  • 41. Strategic Vaccination
    Number of visits Necessary ??
    # Adjuvants -- limited to 2 or 3 per visit
    # Antigens – limited to 4 or 5 per visit
    Use of combinations and similar products
    Visits no sooner than 12 to 14 days apart
  • 42. Strategic Vaccination
    EXAMPLES
    Visit #1: Influenza/Rhino, Rabies
    Visit #2: EWT, West Nile, (PHF)
    Visit #3: Strangles
    (Rhino & Influenza boosters every 3 to 6 months)
    (EWT boosters at 6 months, if necessary)
  • 43. Strategic Vaccination
    EXAMPLES
    Visit #1: West Nile, Rabies, Influenza
    Visit #2: EE/WE/Tetanus, Rhino, (PHF)
    Visit #3: Strangles
    (Rhino & Influenza boosters every 3 to 6 months)
    (EWT boosters at 6 months, if necessary)
  • 44. Strategic Vaccination
    EXAMPLES
    Pregnant Mare
    Visit #1: 3-5 months: Rhino
    Visit #2: 7 months: Rhino
    Visit #3: 9 months: Rhino
    Visit #4: 10 months: EWT, Influenza, West Nile
  • 45. Strategic Vaccination
    EXAMPLES
    Foal
    Visit #1: 4-6 months: Rhino (EHV-1 & 4)
    Visit #2: 5-7 months: Rhino #2
    Visit #3: 6 months: EWT, West Nile, Rabies
    Visit #4: 7 months: EWT#2,West Nile #2,Rabies #2
    Visit #5: 9 months: Influenza, Strangles, Rhino #3
    Visit #6: 10 months: Influenza #2, Strangles #2
    Visit #7: 11 months: Influenza #3
    (spaced by 2 weeks, where necessary)
  • 46. Strategic Vaccination
    Vaccination Reactions
    Expected or Adverse?
    Individuals in a population?
    Appropriate Immune Response?
    2 – 3 days or longer?
  • 47. Strategic Vaccination
    History of Reactions
    Which vaccine? Adjuvant? Antibody? Manufacturer?
    Number of vaccines given at same time?
    Lump?
    Fever?
    Does Pre-treatment Help?
    Any other horses affected?
    Help from the Pharmaceutical Company?
  • 48. Strategic Vaccination
    Vaccinate all horses in a herd
    “Just a single
    unprotected horse in a
    herd can provide a
    reservoir of infection to
    all the others.”
  • 49. Strategic Vaccination
    Preventing a disease through proper vaccination programs is far safer, easier, and moreeconomical than treating the disease after the horse is already sick.
  • 50.
  • 51. EMERGENCY!!!
  • 52. EMERGENCY PLANNING
    Rule #1 : STAY SAFE!!
    Horses can be very dangerous when injured or panicked
    You cannot help your horse if you are injured
    The most important thing is your SAFETY and the safety of those around you
  • 53. EMERGENCY PLANNING
    Is it safe to approach the horse?
    If so:
    Catch and calm the horse.
    If possible, take the horse to a safe place such as a stall or paddock.
    Get someone to help you.
  • 54. EMERGENCY PLANNING
    Phone numbers you need to have available:
    A friend or neighbor who can assist you in an emergency.
    Your veterinarian, including how to reach after hours.
    Your insurance company.
  • 55. EMERGENCY PLANNING
    TRAILERING
    If you do not own a trailer, make arrangements in advance for transportation in case of an emergency.
    Know how to hitch up, road worthy.
    Make sure your horse is well accustomed to loading and riding
    Keep a well maintained First-Aid Kit in the truck or trailer.
  • 56. EMERGENCY PLANNING
    It always helps to have assistance in times of an emergency.
    Be sure to prepare and practice your plans.
    This will help you to act calmly and efficiently during times of an emergency.
  • 57. EMERGENCY PLANNING
    Halters on or off?
    Knowledgeable handlers available?
    Local Fire Department
  • 58. EMERGENCIES
    Are they accident prone?
    Behavior
    Kicks
    Lacerations
    Abrasions
    Fractures
    Bite wounds
  • 59. EMERGENCIES
    Colic
    Foaling Difficulty
    Laceration/Hemorrhage
    Illness/Fever
    Seizures
    Acute Lameness
    Ocular Trauma
  • 60. EMERGENCIES
    As a horse owner you must know how to recognize serious problems, respond promptly and take appropriate action while waiting for the vet to arrive.
  • 61. EMERGENCIESWhat you should know …
    Temperature
    Heart Rate
    Respiratory rate
    Abdominal sounds
    Normal behavior
  • 62. What you should know
    Temperature
    < 101.5º F
    Taken rectally with digital or mercury thermometer
  • 63. What to know..
    Heart Rate
    Normal:
    28 - 44 beats per minute
  • 64. What to know…
    Respiratory Rate
    Normal is 8-12 breaths per minute
    **watch nostrils or sides
  • 65. What to know…
    Manure
    Gas
    Gut sounds
    (borborygmi)
    Decreased
    Increased
    Absent
  • 66. What to know…
    Mucous membranes
    Color
    Hydration
    Capillary refill time (CRT)
  • 67. Normal values
    Every horse is different
    Keep a daily record
    Wider range in foals
  • 68. When you think you may have an emergency note the following:
    In addition to Temp, HR, RR, Gut sounds
    Attitude
    BAR, lethargic, anxious, painful, quiet, etc.
    Appetite/H20 consumption
    Manure production
  • 69. More Obvious Signs
    Rolling, pawing, strecthing, etc.
    Sweating
    Ataxia/Wobbly
    Nasal Discharge
    Labored breathing
    Bleeding
    Lameness
  • 70. Is it an EMERGENCY??
  • 71. OCULAR (EYE) TRAUMA
    ANY problem related to the eye should be considered an emergency and should be seen by a vet prior to treatment
  • 72. OCULAR TRAUMA
    INDICATIONS OF AN INJURY:
    Squinting
    Excessive Tearing
    Eye(s) look cloudy
    Mucous discharge
  • 73. EYE INJURIES
    INDICATIONS OF AN INJURY:
    Holding eye closed or sensitive to light
    Swelling around eye or eyelid
    Laceration of the eyelid
  • 74. EYE INJURIES
    DO NOT ATTEMPT TO TREAT
    Could be devastating
    They only have 2 eyes!!!
  • 75. EYE INJURIES
    WAIT FOR VETERINARY EVALUATION
  • 76. EYE INJURIES
    WAIT FOR VETERINARY EVALUATION
    Treating a corneal ulcer with a single dose of a steroid will delay healing for up to 3 weeks
    Could result in rapid decline and loss of the eye even with surgical intervention
  • 77. EYE INJURIES
    WAIT FOR VETERINARY EVALUATION
    They only have 2 eyes and delay of treatment can be devastating and have long lasting negative effects
    Uveitis, cataracts, scarring
  • 78.
  • 79. WOUNDS
    Horses frequently get cuts and scrapes
    It is important to know which wounds need veterinary attention
    If you do not know, then you should call your vet
  • 80. WOUNDS
    Examples of wounds that need immediate attention
    Puncture wounds
    Deep Lacerations (where you can see bone, tendons, etc.)
  • 81. WOUNDS
    Examples of wounds that need immediate attention
    Wounds near joints or tendons
    Severely contaminated wounds
  • 82. WOUNDS
    Examples of wounds that need immediate attention
    Wounds near joints or tendons
    Severely contaminated wounds
  • 83. WOUNDS
    Examples of wounds that need immediate attention
    Puncture wounds
    Large OR small
  • 84. PUNCTURE WOUNDS
    If possible penetrating objects should be left in place until you contact your vet
    Removal could result in further damage
    Blood loss
  • 85. PUNCTURE WOUNDS
    If possible penetrating objects should be left in place until you contact your vet
    Leave nail in place if stepping on it will not drive it further into the foot
    Vet may want to x-ray prior to removal
  • 86. PUNCTURE WOUNDS
    If possible penetrating objects should be left in place.
    If removed:
    Mark exact point of entry on foot
    Mark exact depth of penetration on object (nail) removed
    Clean and bandage area
  • 87. WOUNDS
    BLEEDING
    Blood squirting or flowing steadily from a wound needs to be controlled
    Apply a sterile or clean pad and apply firm pressure (vet wrap/polo/belt)
  • 88. WOUNDS
    BLEEDING
    Keep Pressure applied for 30 minutes
    If blood soaks through, add more padding over top and continue with pressure until veterinarian gets there
  • 89.
  • 90. LAMENESS
    Acute, severe lameness
    Abscess (most common)
    Fractures
    Laminitis
    Tendon Injury
    Nail/Foreign Body Puncture
  • 91. LAMENESS
    Call your veterinarian immediately if….
    Your horse cannot bear any weight on the affected limb
    The leg is being held at an abnormal angle
    Bone is protruding out of the skin or hoof
    *Try to keep the horse calm
  • 92. LAMENESS
    Laminitis
    Very painful condition caused by inflammation within the hoof
    Can result in detachment of the coffin bone from the hoof wall
  • 93. LAMINITIS
    Signs
    Horse is unwilling to walk forward or has “walking on eggshell” gait
    May rock back on hind end (saw horse stance)
    Shifting weight
    Lying down a lot
    Heat in feet and coronary bands
    Increased digital pulses
  • 94. LAMINITIS
    Numerous causes
    Unpredictable course of disease
    Early medical attention yields better outcome
    Call your vet if you suspect your horse has laminitis or any other severe, acute onset of lameness
  • 95.
  • 96. HYPERSENSITIVITY REACTIONS
    Allergic Reactions
    Common Causes:
    Bee Sting
    Snake bite
    Medication
    Toxin ingestion (plant, mold, etc.)
  • 97. HYPERSENSITIVITY REACTIONS
    Allergic Reactions – Signs
    Hives
    Swollen face/muzzle
    Difficulty, noisy or labored Breathing
    Sweating
    Colic
    **Call your vet immediately if you notice any of these signs
  • 98. HYPERSENSITIVITY REACTIONS
    Allergic Reactions – Treatment
    Corticosteroids
    Antihistamine
    Epinephrine
    *Severe hypersensitivity reaction can be life threatening
    *Usually responds well to treatment
  • 99. COLIC
    Term used to describe abdominal pain usually indicating a digestive disorder
    Can be life threatening
    Every colic should be taken seriously
  • 100. COLIC
    Common signs:
    Repeatedly lying down and getting up
    Rolling
    Pawing
    Looking at or biting flanks
    Stretching out as if to urinate
  • 101. COLIC
    Common signs:
    Curling upper lip or grinding teeth
    Depression
    Loss of appetite
    Sweating
    Increased heart or respiratory rates
    Decreased gut sounds/manure production
  • 102. COLIC
    Key medications to have on hand:
    BANAMINE
    MILK OF MAGNESIA
    Be prepared to trailer if necessary
    Withhold all food – follow instructions
    Write it down!!
    Remember: 90% of colics resolve without surgical intervention
  • 103. COLIC
    Important to call the vet at the first signs noticed
    prior to giving any oral meds or feeding
    Be sure to tell the vet about any changes in feed, housing, medications, etc.
  • 104.
  • 105. Emergency Preparedness:Have a plan of action!!
    STAY CALM
    Have a list of friends who may be able to assist you if needed
    Phone chain
    Trailer if needed
  • 106. Emergency Preparedness:
    Things to tell the vet:
    Recent changes
    Significant medical info
    TPR, Gut sounds
    Manure in last 24 hours
    DO NOT GIVE ANY MEDICATION OR HOME REMEDY UNLESS OK’D by your veterinarian
  • 107. Emergency Preparedness:Action Plan
    Prepare a first aid kit
    Good lighting available
    Running water
  • 108. Emergency Preparedness:First Aid Kit
    Commercially prepared
    Home made kits
    Veterinary Supplies
  • 109. Emergency Preparedness:First Aid Kit
    PLEASE
    REMEMBER TO
    STAY OFF THE
    PHONE!!
  • 110. SUMMARY
    By acting promptly you can help minimize the risk of an injury or illness
  • 111. SUMMARY
    Your horse’s health and well being depend on you!
  • 112. QUESTIONS?? COMMENTS??
    Drawing of Emergency Kit – Donated by Equine Essentials – Route 53 Kingston
    SSEC Emergency Kits – 10% discount tonight
    For Attending tonite, in your packet is a coupon:
    20% off a Farm Call OR 10% off SSEC Wellness Plan
    Next Talk – Monday, February 7th
    Unveiling the Mysteries of Foot Lameness : Laminitis, Navicular Disease, Coffin Joints

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