Horse Owner 101:Things EVERY Horse Owner Needs to Know<br />Monday, January 24, 2011<br />South Shore Equine Clinic & Diag...
Welcome to SSEC Horse Owner Education Series !<br />Mark T. Reilly, DVM, Diplomate ABVP (Equine)<br />Linda J. Cimetti, DV...
TERMS and ANATOMY<br />Foal <br />Weanling<br />Yearling<br />Colt  or Filly<br />Stallion (Gelding)or Mare<br />Senior<br...
TERMS and ANATOMY<br />3rd Phalanx  	-	“Foot”<br />1st & 2nd Phalanx  -	“Pastern”<br />Fetlock 		 -	“Ankle”<br />Shin		-	“...
TERMS and ANATOMY<br />
BASIC INFORMATION<br />Temperature : 		98 – 101.5<br />Heart Rate / Pulse :	28-44<br />Respiratory Rate:	8-12<br />Number ...
AREAS TO BE COVERED<br />Foot Care<br />Deworming<br />Vaccinating<br />Emergency Care<br />
Foot Care<br />Coronet = Germinal Layer<br />Hoof = “Fingernail”<br />Continuous Growth<br />Conformation<br />Trimming / ...
Foot Care<br />Coronet = Germinal Layer<br />Hoof = “Fingernail”<br />Continuous Growth<br />Conformation<br />Trimming / ...
DEWORMERS<br />
DEWORMING<br />1960’s – First dewormer developed<br />Every 8 weeks (1966)<br />1970’s & 80’s– New Drug Classes<br />Rotat...
DEWORMING<br />Evidence Based Medicine (EBM):<br />The conscientious, explicit and judicious use of the current best evide...
DEWORMING<br />Example of EBM:<br />Sick Horse with bacterial infection<br />Therapy based on specific diagnosis and the v...
DEWORMING<br />Example of EBM:<br />Same Barn with no horses showing signs of parasites.  What is appropriate therapy?<br ...
DEWORMING<br />Is there a clinical justification for treating this horse?<br />What parasite am I trying to eliminate?<br ...
DEWORMING STRATEGY<br />1960s: 90% of colics due to migrating stages<br />1970s: S. vulgaris – 90-100% prevalent<br />1960...
DEWORMING STRATEGY<br />1980s: Large strongyles eliminated<br />BUT……<br />Now 100% of strongyles are now SMALL strongyles...
PARASITE RESISTANCE<br />1983 – most recent dewormer drug class<br />Name???<br />IVERMECTIN<br />Shortening ERP = 1st ste...
PARASITE RESISTANCE<br />ROTATION of DEWORMERS<br />Does NOT prevent resistance<br />2 of 3 classes already show high resi...
DEWORMING STRATEGY<br />IS THE DEWORMER EFFECTIVE?<br />FECAL EGG COUNT REDUCTION TEST<br />The ONLY way to know<br />Meas...
DEWORMING STRATEGY<br />Step 1 :  Fecal Egg Count (FEC) <br />Before deworming <br />Step 2 : FEC 2 weeks later<br />Tests...
FECAL EGG COUNT<br />Strongyle eggs<br />
DEWORMING STRATEGY<br />Which drugs are effective?<br />Which horses require less or more frequent treatment?<br />Evaluat...
DEWORMING STRATEGY<br />Refugia – unselected portions of population<br />Helps with parasite control<br />These are the wo...
DEWORMING STRATEGY<br />COST?<br />Dewormer is cheaper than a FEC program<br />Optimal Horse Health<br />Millions of tubes...
DEWORMING STRATEGY<br />Denmark – dewormers are prescription only since 1999<br />Requires a diagnosis<br />Disallows prop...
Strategic Vaccination<br />VACCINES MAKE THE IMMUNE <br />SYSTEM THINK IT HAS THE <br />DISEASE<br />
Strategic Vaccination<br />Types of Vaccines<br />Diseases to protect against<br />Time of Year <br />Identify Animals at ...
Strategic Vaccination<br />Types of Vaccines<br />Killed Vaccine – Dead portion of virus <br />Modified Live – Inactivated...
Strategic Vaccination<br />Types of Vaccines<br />Killed Vaccine<br />PROCON<br />Safety			       Adjuvant Required<br />B...
Strategic Vaccination<br />Types of Vaccine<br />Modified Live<br />PRO	CON<br />No adjuvant necessary        Short Shelf-...
Strategic Vaccination<br />Diseases to vaccinate against : <br />Influenza<br />Rhinopneumonitis (Herpes)<br />Rabies<br /...
Strategic Vaccination<br />Timing of Vaccination<br />Spring<br />Fall<br />Prior to Shipping<br />Prior to Exposure<br />...
Strategic Vaccination<br />Animals at Risk<br />Young or Naïve<br />Mature/Adult – resident<br />Mature/Adult – competitiv...
Strategic Vaccination<br />Number of Visits Necessary to Complete Vaccination Series<br />“ANTIGEN” = foreign protein used...
Strategic Vaccination<br />Number of Visits Necessary to Complete Vaccination Series<br />“ANTIBODY” = Immune System Respo...
Strategic Vaccination<br />Number of Visits Necessary to Complete Vaccination Series<br />“ADJUVANT” = necessary to enhanc...
Strategic Vaccination<br />Goal in vaccination: <br />MAXIMIZE IMMUNE RESPONSE WITHOUT OVERLOADING IMMUNE SYSTEM<br />
Strategic Vaccination<br />Number of visits Necessary ??<br /># Adjuvants  -- limited to 2 or 3 per visit<br /># Antigens ...
Strategic Vaccination<br />EXAMPLES<br />Visit #1:	Influenza/Rhino, Rabies<br />Visit #2:	EWT, West Nile, (PHF)<br />Visit...
Strategic Vaccination<br />EXAMPLES<br />Visit #1:	West Nile, Rabies, Influenza<br />Visit #2:	EE/WE/Tetanus, Rhino, (PHF)...
Strategic Vaccination<br />EXAMPLES<br />Pregnant Mare<br />Visit #1:	3-5 months: Rhino<br />Visit #2:	7 months: Rhino<br ...
Strategic Vaccination<br />EXAMPLES<br />Foal<br />Visit #1:	4-6 months: Rhino (EHV-1 & 4)<br />Visit #2:	5-7 months: Rhin...
Strategic Vaccination<br />Vaccination Reactions<br />Expected or Adverse?<br />Individuals in a population?<br />Appropri...
Strategic Vaccination<br />History of Reactions<br />Which vaccine?  Adjuvant? Antibody? Manufacturer?<br />Number of vacc...
Strategic Vaccination<br />Vaccinate all horses in a herd<br />“Just a single<br />unprotected horse in a <br />herd can p...
Strategic Vaccination<br />	Preventing a disease through proper vaccination programs is far safer, easier, and moreeconomi...
EMERGENCY!!!<br />
EMERGENCY PLANNING<br />Rule #1 : STAY SAFE!!<br />Horses can be very dangerous when injured or panicked<br />You cannot h...
EMERGENCY PLANNING<br />Is it safe to approach the horse?<br />If so:<br />Catch and calm the horse.<br />If possible, tak...
EMERGENCY PLANNING<br />Phone numbers you need to have available:<br />A friend or neighbor who can assist you in an emerg...
EMERGENCY PLANNING<br />TRAILERING<br />If you do not own a trailer, make arrangements in advance for transportation in ca...
EMERGENCY PLANNING<br />It always helps to have assistance in times of an emergency.<br />Be sure to prepare and practice ...
EMERGENCY PLANNING<br />Halters on or off?<br />Knowledgeable handlers available?<br />Local Fire Department <br />
EMERGENCIES<br />Are they accident prone?<br />Behavior<br />Kicks<br />Lacerations<br />Abrasions<br />Fractures<br />Bit...
EMERGENCIES<br />Colic<br />Foaling Difficulty<br />Laceration/Hemorrhage<br />Illness/Fever<br />Seizures<br />Acute Lame...
EMERGENCIES<br /> As a horse owner you must know how to recognize serious problems, respond promptly and take appropriate ...
EMERGENCIESWhat you should know …<br />Temperature<br />Heart Rate<br />Respiratory rate<br />Abdominal sounds<br />Normal...
What you should know<br />Temperature<br />   < 101.5º F<br />	Taken rectally with digital or mercury thermometer<br />
What to know..<br />Heart Rate<br />	Normal:<br />	28 - 44 beats per minute<br />
What to know…<br />Respiratory Rate<br />Normal is 8-12 breaths per minute<br />**watch nostrils or sides<br />
What to know…<br />Manure <br />Gas<br />Gut sounds<br />(borborygmi)<br />Decreased<br />Increased<br />Absent<br />
What to know…<br />Mucous membranes <br />Color<br />Hydration<br />Capillary refill time (CRT)<br />
Normal values<br />Every horse is different<br />Keep a daily record<br />Wider range in foals<br />
When you think you may have an emergency note the following:<br />In addition to Temp, HR, RR, Gut sounds<br />Attitude<br...
More Obvious Signs<br />Rolling, pawing, strecthing, etc.<br />Sweating<br />Ataxia/Wobbly<br />Nasal Discharge<br />Labor...
Is it an EMERGENCY??<br />
OCULAR (EYE) TRAUMA<br />ANY problem related to the eye should be considered an emergency and should be seen by a vet prio...
OCULAR TRAUMA<br />INDICATIONS OF AN INJURY:<br />Squinting<br />Excessive Tearing<br />Eye(s) look cloudy<br />Mucous dis...
EYE INJURIES<br />INDICATIONS OF AN INJURY:<br />Holding eye closed or sensitive to light<br />Swelling around eye or eyel...
EYE INJURIES<br />DO NOT ATTEMPT TO TREAT <br />Could be devastating<br />They only have 2 eyes!!!<br />
EYE INJURIES<br />WAIT FOR VETERINARY EVALUATION<br />
EYE INJURIES<br />WAIT FOR VETERINARY EVALUATION<br />Treating a corneal ulcer with a single dose of a steroid will delay ...
EYE INJURIES<br />WAIT FOR VETERINARY EVALUATION<br />They only have 2 eyes and delay of treatment can be devastating and ...
WOUNDS<br />Horses frequently get cuts and scrapes<br />It is important to know which wounds need veterinary attention<br ...
WOUNDS<br />Examples of wounds that need immediate attention<br />Puncture wounds<br />Deep Lacerations (where you can see...
WOUNDS<br />Examples of wounds that need immediate attention<br />Wounds near joints or tendons<br />Severely contaminated...
WOUNDS<br />Examples of wounds that need immediate attention<br />Wounds near joints or tendons<br />Severely contaminated...
WOUNDS<br />Examples of wounds that need immediate attention<br />Puncture wounds<br />Large OR small<br />
PUNCTURE WOUNDS<br />If possible penetrating objects should be left in place until you contact your vet<br />Removal could...
PUNCTURE WOUNDS<br />If possible penetrating objects should be left in place until you contact your vet<br />Leave nail in...
PUNCTURE WOUNDS<br />If possible penetrating objects should be left in place.<br />If removed:<br />Mark exact point of en...
WOUNDS<br />BLEEDING<br />Blood squirting or flowing steadily from a wound needs to be controlled<br />Apply a sterile or ...
WOUNDS<br />BLEEDING<br />Keep Pressure applied for 30 minutes<br />If blood soaks through, add more padding over top and ...
LAMENESS<br />Acute, severe lameness<br />Abscess (most common)<br />Fractures<br />Laminitis<br />Tendon Injury<br />Nail...
LAMENESS<br />Call your veterinarian immediately if….<br />Your horse cannot bear any weight on the affected limb<br />The...
LAMENESS<br />Laminitis<br />Very painful condition caused by inflammation within the hoof<br />Can result in detachment o...
LAMINITIS<br />Signs<br />Horse is unwilling to walk forward or has “walking on eggshell” gait<br />May rock back on hind ...
LAMINITIS<br />Numerous causes<br />Unpredictable course of disease<br />Early medical attention yields better outcome<br ...
HYPERSENSITIVITY REACTIONS<br />Allergic Reactions<br />Common Causes: <br />Bee Sting <br />Snake bite<br />Medication <b...
HYPERSENSITIVITY REACTIONS<br />Allergic Reactions – Signs<br />Hives<br />Swollen face/muzzle<br />Difficulty, noisy or l...
HYPERSENSITIVITY REACTIONS<br />Allergic Reactions – Treatment<br />Corticosteroids<br />Antihistamine<br />Epinephrine<br...
COLIC<br />Term used to describe abdominal pain usually indicating a digestive disorder<br />Can be life threatening<br />...
COLIC<br />Common signs:<br />Repeatedly lying down and getting up<br />Rolling<br />Pawing<br />Looking at  or biting fla...
COLIC<br />Common signs:<br />Curling upper lip or grinding teeth<br />Depression<br />Loss of appetite<br />Sweating<br /...
COLIC<br />Key medications to have on hand:<br />BANAMINE<br />MILK OF MAGNESIA<br />Be prepared to trailer if necessary<b...
COLIC<br />Important to call the vet at the first signs noticed<br /> prior to giving any oral meds or feeding<br />Be sur...
Emergency Preparedness:Have a plan of action!!<br />STAY CALM<br />Have a list of friends who may be able to assist you if...
Emergency Preparedness:<br />Things  to tell the vet:<br />Recent changes<br />Significant medical info<br />TPR, Gut soun...
Emergency Preparedness:Action Plan<br />Prepare a first aid kit<br />Good lighting available<br />Running water<br />
Emergency Preparedness:First Aid Kit<br />Commercially prepared<br />Home made kits<br />Veterinary Supplies<br />
Emergency Preparedness:First Aid Kit<br />PLEASE<br />REMEMBER TO<br />STAY OFF THE<br />PHONE!!<br />
SUMMARY<br />By acting promptly you can help  minimize the risk of an injury or illness<br />
SUMMARY<br />Your horse’s health and well being depend on you!<br />
QUESTIONS??  COMMENTS??<br />Drawing of Emergency Kit – Donated by Equine Essentials – Route 53 Kingston<br />SSEC Emergen...
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Horse Owner 101 : Things Every Horse Owner Needs to Know

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Presentation on the basic of horse care - Hoof care, Deworming Properly, Vaccination Strategies, and Emergency Preparations

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Horse Owner 101 : Things Every Horse Owner Needs to Know

  1. 1. Horse Owner 101:Things EVERY Horse Owner Needs to Know<br />Monday, January 24, 2011<br />South Shore Equine Clinic & Diagnostic Center<br />151 Palmer Road<br />Plympton, MA<br />www.ssequineclinic.com<br />
  2. 2. Welcome to SSEC Horse Owner Education Series !<br />Mark T. Reilly, DVM, Diplomate ABVP (Equine)<br />Linda J. Cimetti, DVM<br />Travis M. Tull, DVM (surgeon)<br />Rachel A. Oberholtzer, DVM (intern)<br />
  3. 3. TERMS and ANATOMY<br />Foal <br />Weanling<br />Yearling<br />Colt or Filly<br />Stallion (Gelding)or Mare<br />Senior<br />Geriatric<br />
  4. 4. TERMS and ANATOMY<br />3rd Phalanx - “Foot”<br />1st & 2nd Phalanx - “Pastern”<br />Fetlock - “Ankle”<br />Shin - “Cannon Bone”<br />Carpus - “Knee”<br />Tarsus - “Hock”<br />Stifle - “Stifle”<br />Pelvis - “Croup”<br />Chest - “Barrel”<br />
  5. 5. TERMS and ANATOMY<br />
  6. 6. BASIC INFORMATION<br />Temperature : 98 – 101.5<br />Heart Rate / Pulse : 28-44<br />Respiratory Rate: 8-12<br />Number of Teeth: 40 (44)<br />**Know individual normals**<br />
  7. 7. AREAS TO BE COVERED<br />Foot Care<br />Deworming<br />Vaccinating<br />Emergency Care<br />
  8. 8. Foot Care<br />Coronet = Germinal Layer<br />Hoof = “Fingernail”<br />Continuous Growth<br />Conformation<br />Trimming / Shoeing – every 5-8 weeks<br />
  9. 9. Foot Care<br />Coronet = Germinal Layer<br />Hoof = “Fingernail”<br />Continuous Growth<br />Conformation<br />Trimming / Shoeing – every 5-8 weeks<br />
  10. 10.
  11. 11. DEWORMERS<br />
  12. 12. DEWORMING<br />1960’s – First dewormer developed<br />Every 8 weeks (1966)<br />1970’s & 80’s– New Drug Classes<br />Rotational Deworming<br />1990’s & 2000’s- Adaptations<br />ERP shortened<br />Resistance<br />Small Strongyles > Large Strongyles<br />2010’s – New Strategies based on EBM<br />
  13. 13. DEWORMING<br />Evidence Based Medicine (EBM):<br />The conscientious, explicit and judicious use of the current best evidence in making decisions about the care of individual patients.<br />Improves the quality of care<br />Improves the standard of care<br />
  14. 14. DEWORMING<br />Example of EBM:<br />Sick Horse with bacterial infection<br />Therapy based on specific diagnosis and the veterinarian’s clinical experience and knowledge of the recommendations of experts.<br />Ex: Antibiotic for the sick horse BUT not for the other horses – they could develop antibiotic resistance or develop an antibiotic induced problem (diarrhea).<br />
  15. 15. DEWORMING<br />Example of EBM:<br />Same Barn with no horses showing signs of parasites. What is appropriate therapy?<br />Deworm all horses with the same dewormer every 6-8 weeks.<br />Deworm with cheapest one (on sale?)<br />Only deworm those that move on and off the premises<br />Use EBM to formulate a plan<br />
  16. 16. DEWORMING<br />Is there a clinical justification for treating this horse?<br />What parasite am I trying to eliminate?<br />What stages of that parasite are likely to be present?<br />Why this dewormer? (3 classes of dewormers)<br />Will it kill the desired parasite(s) and stage(s)?<br />Will it work as expected? (Confidence)<br />Are there better options?<br />Are there any other management techniques that might help me achieve my goal?<br />
  17. 17. DEWORMING STRATEGY<br />1960s: 90% of colics due to migrating stages<br />1970s: S. vulgaris – 90-100% prevalent<br />1960s and 70s: Interval dose program<br />Prevent egg shedding by deworming every 8 weeks year round<br />Worked against S. vulgaris (large strongyles)<br />
  18. 18. DEWORMING STRATEGY<br />1980s: Large strongyles eliminated<br />BUT……<br />Now 100% of strongyles are now SMALL strongyles (a change in species)<br />1990s: Recognize Drug Resistance<br />Severe weight loss<br />Chronic diarrhea and edema<br />
  19. 19. PARASITE RESISTANCE<br />1983 – most recent dewormer drug class<br />Name???<br />IVERMECTIN<br />Shortening ERP = 1st step in resistance<br />1995 - MOXIDECTIN (Quest) = same class<br />2005 - New drug class in cats and dogs (Emodepside)<br />2009 - New drug class in ruminants in New Zealand (Monepantel)<br />
  20. 20. PARASITE RESISTANCE<br />ROTATION of DEWORMERS<br />Does NOT prevent resistance<br />2 of 3 classes already show high resistance<br />Potentially dangerous, if not illogical<br />(www.getrotationright.com) = marketing<br />
  21. 21. DEWORMING STRATEGY<br />IS THE DEWORMER EFFECTIVE?<br />FECAL EGG COUNT REDUCTION TEST<br />The ONLY way to know<br />Measure levels before and 14 days after treatment<br />Failure to achieve high levels of reduction = RESISTANCE on that farm<br />2 of the 3 classes show high resistance<br />
  22. 22. DEWORMING STRATEGY<br />Step 1 : Fecal Egg Count (FEC) <br />Before deworming <br />Step 2 : FEC 2 weeks later<br />Tests for resistance (> 90%)<br />If minimal reduction, change drug class and repeat<br />Step 3 : FEC at Egg Reoccurence Period (ERP)<br />4-5 weeks – Benzimadazoles (Panacur)<br />6-8 weeks – Pyrantel (Strongid)<br />8-10 weeks – Ivermectin/Moxidectin (Zimectrin, Quest)<br />
  23. 23. FECAL EGG COUNT<br />Strongyle eggs<br />
  24. 24. DEWORMING STRATEGY<br />Which drugs are effective?<br />Which horses require less or more frequent treatment?<br />Evaluate success by using FEC at regular intervals<br />** Small numbers of worms do not cause any significant health impairment (<100-200)<br />** All horses are not the same – 20% of horses harbor 80% of the worms<br />
  25. 25. DEWORMING STRATEGY<br />Refugia – unselected portions of population<br />Helps with parasite control<br />These are the worms not exposed to drugs, or in horses not treated<br />Do not make resistant genes<br />= low FECs (<100-200) are ok<br />
  26. 26. DEWORMING STRATEGY<br />COST?<br />Dewormer is cheaper than a FEC program<br />Optimal Horse Health<br />Millions of tubes used each year that are killing very few parasites either because there are very few to kill, or because the drug is ineffective<br />
  27. 27. DEWORMING STRATEGY<br />Denmark – dewormers are prescription only since 1999<br />Requires a diagnosis<br />Disallows prophylactic treatments<br />Sweden, Finland, Netherlands now similar<br />Rest of European Union to follow<br />
  28. 28.
  29. 29. Strategic Vaccination<br />VACCINES MAKE THE IMMUNE <br />SYSTEM THINK IT HAS THE <br />DISEASE<br />
  30. 30. Strategic Vaccination<br />Types of Vaccines<br />Diseases to protect against<br />Time of Year <br />Identify Animals at Risk<br />Number of visits<br />Reaction History?<br />
  31. 31. Strategic Vaccination<br />Types of Vaccines<br />Killed Vaccine – Dead portion of virus <br />Modified Live – Inactivated virus<br />Bacterin – Vaccine vs. Bacterial disease<br />
  32. 32. Strategic Vaccination<br />Types of Vaccines<br />Killed Vaccine<br />PROCON<br />Safety Adjuvant Required<br />Broad Response<br />No Replication<br />
  33. 33. Strategic Vaccination<br />Types of Vaccine<br />Modified Live<br />PRO CON<br />No adjuvant necessary Short Shelf-life<br />Broad Response Safety in Pregnancy<br />Limited Replication Revert to virulence<br />
  34. 34. Strategic Vaccination<br />Diseases to vaccinate against : <br />Influenza<br />Rhinopneumonitis (Herpes)<br />Rabies<br />Eastern/Western Encephalitis<br />West Nile Encephalitis<br />Tetanus <br />Potomac Horse Fever<br />Strangles (Strep. Equi)<br />
  35. 35. Strategic Vaccination<br />Timing of Vaccination<br />Spring<br />Fall<br />Prior to Shipping<br />Prior to Exposure<br />After Exposure<br />Annually vs. Biannually vs. Tri-annually<br />
  36. 36. Strategic Vaccination<br />Animals at Risk<br />Young or Naïve<br />Mature/Adult – resident<br />Mature/Adult – competitive/traveling<br />Senior – isolated<br />Breeding Stock<br />Prior to Breeding<br />During Pregnancy<br />
  37. 37. Strategic Vaccination<br />Number of Visits Necessary to Complete Vaccination Series<br />“ANTIGEN” = foreign protein used to promote immune response<br />
  38. 38. Strategic Vaccination<br />Number of Visits Necessary to Complete Vaccination Series<br />“ANTIBODY” = Immune System Response to foreign protein<br />
  39. 39. Strategic Vaccination<br />Number of Visits Necessary to Complete Vaccination Series<br />“ADJUVANT” = necessary to enhance the Antigen presentation and help drive the Immune Response. ***Causes INFLAMMATION***<br />
  40. 40. Strategic Vaccination<br />Goal in vaccination: <br />MAXIMIZE IMMUNE RESPONSE WITHOUT OVERLOADING IMMUNE SYSTEM<br />
  41. 41. Strategic Vaccination<br />Number of visits Necessary ??<br /># Adjuvants -- limited to 2 or 3 per visit<br /># Antigens – limited to 4 or 5 per visit<br />Use of combinations and similar products<br />Visits no sooner than 12 to 14 days apart<br />
  42. 42. Strategic Vaccination<br />EXAMPLES<br />Visit #1: Influenza/Rhino, Rabies<br />Visit #2: EWT, West Nile, (PHF)<br />Visit #3: Strangles<br />(Rhino & Influenza boosters every 3 to 6 months)<br />(EWT boosters at 6 months, if necessary)<br />
  43. 43. Strategic Vaccination<br />EXAMPLES<br />Visit #1: West Nile, Rabies, Influenza<br />Visit #2: EE/WE/Tetanus, Rhino, (PHF)<br />Visit #3: Strangles<br />(Rhino & Influenza boosters every 3 to 6 months)<br />(EWT boosters at 6 months, if necessary)<br />
  44. 44. Strategic Vaccination<br />EXAMPLES<br />Pregnant Mare<br />Visit #1: 3-5 months: Rhino<br />Visit #2: 7 months: Rhino<br />Visit #3: 9 months: Rhino<br />Visit #4: 10 months: EWT, Influenza, West Nile<br />
  45. 45. Strategic Vaccination<br />EXAMPLES<br />Foal<br />Visit #1: 4-6 months: Rhino (EHV-1 & 4)<br />Visit #2: 5-7 months: Rhino #2<br />Visit #3: 6 months: EWT, West Nile, Rabies<br />Visit #4: 7 months: EWT#2,West Nile #2,Rabies #2<br />Visit #5: 9 months: Influenza, Strangles, Rhino #3<br />Visit #6: 10 months: Influenza #2, Strangles #2<br />Visit #7: 11 months: Influenza #3<br />(spaced by 2 weeks, where necessary)<br />
  46. 46. Strategic Vaccination<br />Vaccination Reactions<br />Expected or Adverse?<br />Individuals in a population?<br />Appropriate Immune Response?<br />2 – 3 days or longer?<br />
  47. 47. Strategic Vaccination<br />History of Reactions<br />Which vaccine? Adjuvant? Antibody? Manufacturer?<br />Number of vaccines given at same time?<br />Lump?<br />Fever?<br />Does Pre-treatment Help?<br />Any other horses affected?<br />Help from the Pharmaceutical Company?<br />
  48. 48. Strategic Vaccination<br />Vaccinate all horses in a herd<br />“Just a single<br />unprotected horse in a <br />herd can provide a <br />reservoir of infection to <br />all the others.”<br />
  49. 49. Strategic Vaccination<br /> Preventing a disease through proper vaccination programs is far safer, easier, and moreeconomical than treating the disease after the horse is already sick.<br />
  50. 50.
  51. 51. EMERGENCY!!!<br />
  52. 52. EMERGENCY PLANNING<br />Rule #1 : STAY SAFE!!<br />Horses can be very dangerous when injured or panicked<br />You cannot help your horse if you are injured<br />The most important thing is your SAFETY and the safety of those around you<br />
  53. 53. EMERGENCY PLANNING<br />Is it safe to approach the horse?<br />If so:<br />Catch and calm the horse.<br />If possible, take the horse to a safe place such as a stall or paddock.<br />Get someone to help you.<br />
  54. 54. EMERGENCY PLANNING<br />Phone numbers you need to have available:<br />A friend or neighbor who can assist you in an emergency.<br />Your veterinarian, including how to reach after hours.<br />Your insurance company.<br />
  55. 55. EMERGENCY PLANNING<br />TRAILERING<br />If you do not own a trailer, make arrangements in advance for transportation in case of an emergency.<br />Know how to hitch up, road worthy.<br />Make sure your horse is well accustomed to loading and riding<br />Keep a well maintained First-Aid Kit in the truck or trailer.<br />
  56. 56. EMERGENCY PLANNING<br />It always helps to have assistance in times of an emergency.<br />Be sure to prepare and practice your plans.<br />This will help you to act calmly and efficiently during times of an emergency.<br />
  57. 57. EMERGENCY PLANNING<br />Halters on or off?<br />Knowledgeable handlers available?<br />Local Fire Department <br />
  58. 58. EMERGENCIES<br />Are they accident prone?<br />Behavior<br />Kicks<br />Lacerations<br />Abrasions<br />Fractures<br />Bite wounds<br />
  59. 59. EMERGENCIES<br />Colic<br />Foaling Difficulty<br />Laceration/Hemorrhage<br />Illness/Fever<br />Seizures<br />Acute Lameness<br />Ocular Trauma<br />
  60. 60. EMERGENCIES<br /> As a horse owner you must know how to recognize serious problems, respond promptly and take appropriate action while waiting for the vet to arrive.<br />
  61. 61. EMERGENCIESWhat you should know …<br />Temperature<br />Heart Rate<br />Respiratory rate<br />Abdominal sounds<br />Normal behavior<br />
  62. 62. What you should know<br />Temperature<br /> < 101.5º F<br /> Taken rectally with digital or mercury thermometer<br />
  63. 63. What to know..<br />Heart Rate<br /> Normal:<br /> 28 - 44 beats per minute<br />
  64. 64. What to know…<br />Respiratory Rate<br />Normal is 8-12 breaths per minute<br />**watch nostrils or sides<br />
  65. 65. What to know…<br />Manure <br />Gas<br />Gut sounds<br />(borborygmi)<br />Decreased<br />Increased<br />Absent<br />
  66. 66. What to know…<br />Mucous membranes <br />Color<br />Hydration<br />Capillary refill time (CRT)<br />
  67. 67. Normal values<br />Every horse is different<br />Keep a daily record<br />Wider range in foals<br />
  68. 68. When you think you may have an emergency note the following:<br />In addition to Temp, HR, RR, Gut sounds<br />Attitude<br />BAR, lethargic, anxious, painful, quiet, etc.<br />Appetite/H20 consumption<br />Manure production<br />
  69. 69. More Obvious Signs<br />Rolling, pawing, strecthing, etc.<br />Sweating<br />Ataxia/Wobbly<br />Nasal Discharge<br />Labored breathing<br />Bleeding<br />Lameness<br />
  70. 70. Is it an EMERGENCY??<br />
  71. 71. OCULAR (EYE) TRAUMA<br />ANY problem related to the eye should be considered an emergency and should be seen by a vet prior to treatment<br />
  72. 72. OCULAR TRAUMA<br />INDICATIONS OF AN INJURY:<br />Squinting<br />Excessive Tearing<br />Eye(s) look cloudy<br />Mucous discharge<br />
  73. 73. EYE INJURIES<br />INDICATIONS OF AN INJURY:<br />Holding eye closed or sensitive to light<br />Swelling around eye or eyelid<br />Laceration of the eyelid<br />
  74. 74. EYE INJURIES<br />DO NOT ATTEMPT TO TREAT <br />Could be devastating<br />They only have 2 eyes!!!<br />
  75. 75. EYE INJURIES<br />WAIT FOR VETERINARY EVALUATION<br />
  76. 76. EYE INJURIES<br />WAIT FOR VETERINARY EVALUATION<br />Treating a corneal ulcer with a single dose of a steroid will delay healing for up to 3 weeks<br />Could result in rapid decline and loss of the eye even with surgical intervention<br />
  77. 77. EYE INJURIES<br />WAIT FOR VETERINARY EVALUATION<br />They only have 2 eyes and delay of treatment can be devastating and have long lasting negative effects <br />Uveitis, cataracts, scarring<br />
  78. 78.
  79. 79. WOUNDS<br />Horses frequently get cuts and scrapes<br />It is important to know which wounds need veterinary attention<br />If you do not know, then you should call your vet<br />
  80. 80. WOUNDS<br />Examples of wounds that need immediate attention<br />Puncture wounds<br />Deep Lacerations (where you can see bone, tendons, etc.)<br />
  81. 81. WOUNDS<br />Examples of wounds that need immediate attention<br />Wounds near joints or tendons<br />Severely contaminated wounds<br />
  82. 82. WOUNDS<br />Examples of wounds that need immediate attention<br />Wounds near joints or tendons<br />Severely contaminated wounds<br />
  83. 83. WOUNDS<br />Examples of wounds that need immediate attention<br />Puncture wounds<br />Large OR small<br />
  84. 84. PUNCTURE WOUNDS<br />If possible penetrating objects should be left in place until you contact your vet<br />Removal could result in further damage<br />Blood loss<br />
  85. 85. PUNCTURE WOUNDS<br />If possible penetrating objects should be left in place until you contact your vet<br />Leave nail in place if stepping on it will not drive it further into the foot<br />Vet may want to x-ray prior to removal<br />
  86. 86. PUNCTURE WOUNDS<br />If possible penetrating objects should be left in place.<br />If removed:<br />Mark exact point of entry on foot<br />Mark exact depth of penetration on object (nail) removed<br />Clean and bandage area<br />
  87. 87. WOUNDS<br />BLEEDING<br />Blood squirting or flowing steadily from a wound needs to be controlled<br />Apply a sterile or clean pad and apply firm pressure (vet wrap/polo/belt)<br />
  88. 88. WOUNDS<br />BLEEDING<br />Keep Pressure applied for 30 minutes<br />If blood soaks through, add more padding over top and continue with pressure until veterinarian gets there<br />
  89. 89.
  90. 90. LAMENESS<br />Acute, severe lameness<br />Abscess (most common)<br />Fractures<br />Laminitis<br />Tendon Injury<br />Nail/Foreign Body Puncture<br />
  91. 91. LAMENESS<br />Call your veterinarian immediately if….<br />Your horse cannot bear any weight on the affected limb<br />The leg is being held at an abnormal angle<br />Bone is protruding out of the skin or hoof<br />*Try to keep the horse calm<br />
  92. 92. LAMENESS<br />Laminitis<br />Very painful condition caused by inflammation within the hoof<br />Can result in detachment of the coffin bone from the hoof wall<br />
  93. 93. LAMINITIS<br />Signs<br />Horse is unwilling to walk forward or has “walking on eggshell” gait<br />May rock back on hind end (saw horse stance)<br />Shifting weight<br />Lying down a lot<br />Heat in feet and coronary bands<br />Increased digital pulses<br />
  94. 94. LAMINITIS<br />Numerous causes<br />Unpredictable course of disease<br />Early medical attention yields better outcome<br />Call your vet if you suspect your horse has laminitis or any other severe, acute onset of lameness<br />
  95. 95.
  96. 96. HYPERSENSITIVITY REACTIONS<br />Allergic Reactions<br />Common Causes: <br />Bee Sting <br />Snake bite<br />Medication <br />Toxin ingestion (plant, mold, etc.)<br />
  97. 97. HYPERSENSITIVITY REACTIONS<br />Allergic Reactions – Signs<br />Hives<br />Swollen face/muzzle<br />Difficulty, noisy or labored Breathing<br />Sweating<br />Colic<br />**Call your vet immediately if you notice any of these signs<br />
  98. 98. HYPERSENSITIVITY REACTIONS<br />Allergic Reactions – Treatment<br />Corticosteroids<br />Antihistamine<br />Epinephrine<br />*Severe hypersensitivity reaction can be life threatening<br />*Usually responds well to treatment<br />
  99. 99. COLIC<br />Term used to describe abdominal pain usually indicating a digestive disorder<br />Can be life threatening<br />Every colic should be taken seriously<br />
  100. 100. COLIC<br />Common signs:<br />Repeatedly lying down and getting up<br />Rolling<br />Pawing<br />Looking at or biting flanks<br />Stretching out as if to urinate<br />
  101. 101. COLIC<br />Common signs:<br />Curling upper lip or grinding teeth<br />Depression<br />Loss of appetite<br />Sweating<br />Increased heart or respiratory rates<br />Decreased gut sounds/manure production<br />
  102. 102. COLIC<br />Key medications to have on hand:<br />BANAMINE<br />MILK OF MAGNESIA<br />Be prepared to trailer if necessary<br />Withhold all food – follow instructions<br />Write it down!!<br />Remember: 90% of colics resolve without surgical intervention<br />
  103. 103. COLIC<br />Important to call the vet at the first signs noticed<br /> prior to giving any oral meds or feeding<br />Be sure to tell the vet about any changes in feed, housing, medications, etc.<br />
  104. 104.
  105. 105. Emergency Preparedness:Have a plan of action!!<br />STAY CALM<br />Have a list of friends who may be able to assist you if needed<br />Phone chain<br />Trailer if needed<br />
  106. 106. Emergency Preparedness:<br />Things to tell the vet:<br />Recent changes<br />Significant medical info<br />TPR, Gut sounds<br />Manure in last 24 hours<br />DO NOT GIVE ANY MEDICATION OR HOME REMEDY UNLESS OK’D by your veterinarian<br />
  107. 107. Emergency Preparedness:Action Plan<br />Prepare a first aid kit<br />Good lighting available<br />Running water<br />
  108. 108. Emergency Preparedness:First Aid Kit<br />Commercially prepared<br />Home made kits<br />Veterinary Supplies<br />
  109. 109. Emergency Preparedness:First Aid Kit<br />PLEASE<br />REMEMBER TO<br />STAY OFF THE<br />PHONE!!<br />
  110. 110. SUMMARY<br />By acting promptly you can help minimize the risk of an injury or illness<br />
  111. 111. SUMMARY<br />Your horse’s health and well being depend on you!<br />
  112. 112. QUESTIONS?? COMMENTS??<br />Drawing of Emergency Kit – Donated by Equine Essentials – Route 53 Kingston<br />SSEC Emergency Kits – 10% discount tonight<br />For Attending tonite, in your packet is a coupon: <br /> 20% off a Farm Call OR 10% off SSEC Wellness Plan<br />Next Talk – Monday, February 7th<br />Unveiling the Mysteries of Foot Lameness : Laminitis, Navicular Disease, Coffin Joints<br />
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