Horse Owner 101 : Things Every Horse Owner Needs to Know
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Presentation on the basic of horse care - Hoof care, Deworming Properly, Vaccination Strategies, and Emergency Preparations

Presentation on the basic of horse care - Hoof care, Deworming Properly, Vaccination Strategies, and Emergency Preparations

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    Horse Owner 101 : Things Every Horse Owner Needs to Know Horse Owner 101 : Things Every Horse Owner Needs to Know Presentation Transcript

    • Horse Owner 101:Things EVERY Horse Owner Needs to Know
      Monday, January 24, 2011
      South Shore Equine Clinic & Diagnostic Center
      151 Palmer Road
      Plympton, MA
      www.ssequineclinic.com
    • Welcome to SSEC Horse Owner Education Series !
      Mark T. Reilly, DVM, Diplomate ABVP (Equine)
      Linda J. Cimetti, DVM
      Travis M. Tull, DVM (surgeon)
      Rachel A. Oberholtzer, DVM (intern)
    • TERMS and ANATOMY
      Foal
      Weanling
      Yearling
      Colt or Filly
      Stallion (Gelding)or Mare
      Senior
      Geriatric
    • TERMS and ANATOMY
      3rd Phalanx - “Foot”
      1st & 2nd Phalanx - “Pastern”
      Fetlock - “Ankle”
      Shin - “Cannon Bone”
      Carpus - “Knee”
      Tarsus - “Hock”
      Stifle - “Stifle”
      Pelvis - “Croup”
      Chest - “Barrel”
    • TERMS and ANATOMY
    • BASIC INFORMATION
      Temperature : 98 – 101.5
      Heart Rate / Pulse : 28-44
      Respiratory Rate: 8-12
      Number of Teeth: 40 (44)
      **Know individual normals**
    • AREAS TO BE COVERED
      Foot Care
      Deworming
      Vaccinating
      Emergency Care
    • Foot Care
      Coronet = Germinal Layer
      Hoof = “Fingernail”
      Continuous Growth
      Conformation
      Trimming / Shoeing – every 5-8 weeks
    • Foot Care
      Coronet = Germinal Layer
      Hoof = “Fingernail”
      Continuous Growth
      Conformation
      Trimming / Shoeing – every 5-8 weeks
    • DEWORMERS
    • DEWORMING
      1960’s – First dewormer developed
      Every 8 weeks (1966)
      1970’s & 80’s– New Drug Classes
      Rotational Deworming
      1990’s & 2000’s- Adaptations
      ERP shortened
      Resistance
      Small Strongyles > Large Strongyles
      2010’s – New Strategies based on EBM
    • DEWORMING
      Evidence Based Medicine (EBM):
      The conscientious, explicit and judicious use of the current best evidence in making decisions about the care of individual patients.
      Improves the quality of care
      Improves the standard of care
    • DEWORMING
      Example of EBM:
      Sick Horse with bacterial infection
      Therapy based on specific diagnosis and the veterinarian’s clinical experience and knowledge of the recommendations of experts.
      Ex: Antibiotic for the sick horse BUT not for the other horses – they could develop antibiotic resistance or develop an antibiotic induced problem (diarrhea).
    • DEWORMING
      Example of EBM:
      Same Barn with no horses showing signs of parasites. What is appropriate therapy?
      Deworm all horses with the same dewormer every 6-8 weeks.
      Deworm with cheapest one (on sale?)
      Only deworm those that move on and off the premises
      Use EBM to formulate a plan
    • DEWORMING
      Is there a clinical justification for treating this horse?
      What parasite am I trying to eliminate?
      What stages of that parasite are likely to be present?
      Why this dewormer? (3 classes of dewormers)
      Will it kill the desired parasite(s) and stage(s)?
      Will it work as expected? (Confidence)
      Are there better options?
      Are there any other management techniques that might help me achieve my goal?
    • DEWORMING STRATEGY
      1960s: 90% of colics due to migrating stages
      1970s: S. vulgaris – 90-100% prevalent
      1960s and 70s: Interval dose program
      Prevent egg shedding by deworming every 8 weeks year round
      Worked against S. vulgaris (large strongyles)
    • DEWORMING STRATEGY
      1980s: Large strongyles eliminated
      BUT……
      Now 100% of strongyles are now SMALL strongyles (a change in species)
      1990s: Recognize Drug Resistance
      Severe weight loss
      Chronic diarrhea and edema
    • PARASITE RESISTANCE
      1983 – most recent dewormer drug class
      Name???
      IVERMECTIN
      Shortening ERP = 1st step in resistance
      1995 - MOXIDECTIN (Quest) = same class
      2005 - New drug class in cats and dogs (Emodepside)
      2009 - New drug class in ruminants in New Zealand (Monepantel)
    • PARASITE RESISTANCE
      ROTATION of DEWORMERS
      Does NOT prevent resistance
      2 of 3 classes already show high resistance
      Potentially dangerous, if not illogical
      (www.getrotationright.com) = marketing
    • DEWORMING STRATEGY
      IS THE DEWORMER EFFECTIVE?
      FECAL EGG COUNT REDUCTION TEST
      The ONLY way to know
      Measure levels before and 14 days after treatment
      Failure to achieve high levels of reduction = RESISTANCE on that farm
      2 of the 3 classes show high resistance
    • DEWORMING STRATEGY
      Step 1 : Fecal Egg Count (FEC)
      Before deworming
      Step 2 : FEC 2 weeks later
      Tests for resistance (> 90%)
      If minimal reduction, change drug class and repeat
      Step 3 : FEC at Egg Reoccurence Period (ERP)
      4-5 weeks – Benzimadazoles (Panacur)
      6-8 weeks – Pyrantel (Strongid)
      8-10 weeks – Ivermectin/Moxidectin (Zimectrin, Quest)
    • FECAL EGG COUNT
      Strongyle eggs
    • DEWORMING STRATEGY
      Which drugs are effective?
      Which horses require less or more frequent treatment?
      Evaluate success by using FEC at regular intervals
      ** Small numbers of worms do not cause any significant health impairment (<100-200)
      ** All horses are not the same – 20% of horses harbor 80% of the worms
    • DEWORMING STRATEGY
      Refugia – unselected portions of population
      Helps with parasite control
      These are the worms not exposed to drugs, or in horses not treated
      Do not make resistant genes
      = low FECs (<100-200) are ok
    • DEWORMING STRATEGY
      COST?
      Dewormer is cheaper than a FEC program
      Optimal Horse Health
      Millions of tubes used each year that are killing very few parasites either because there are very few to kill, or because the drug is ineffective
    • DEWORMING STRATEGY
      Denmark – dewormers are prescription only since 1999
      Requires a diagnosis
      Disallows prophylactic treatments
      Sweden, Finland, Netherlands now similar
      Rest of European Union to follow
    • Strategic Vaccination
      VACCINES MAKE THE IMMUNE
      SYSTEM THINK IT HAS THE
      DISEASE
    • Strategic Vaccination
      Types of Vaccines
      Diseases to protect against
      Time of Year
      Identify Animals at Risk
      Number of visits
      Reaction History?
    • Strategic Vaccination
      Types of Vaccines
      Killed Vaccine – Dead portion of virus
      Modified Live – Inactivated virus
      Bacterin – Vaccine vs. Bacterial disease
    • Strategic Vaccination
      Types of Vaccines
      Killed Vaccine
      PROCON
      Safety Adjuvant Required
      Broad Response
      No Replication
    • Strategic Vaccination
      Types of Vaccine
      Modified Live
      PRO CON
      No adjuvant necessary Short Shelf-life
      Broad Response Safety in Pregnancy
      Limited Replication Revert to virulence
    • Strategic Vaccination
      Diseases to vaccinate against :
      Influenza
      Rhinopneumonitis (Herpes)
      Rabies
      Eastern/Western Encephalitis
      West Nile Encephalitis
      Tetanus
      Potomac Horse Fever
      Strangles (Strep. Equi)
    • Strategic Vaccination
      Timing of Vaccination
      Spring
      Fall
      Prior to Shipping
      Prior to Exposure
      After Exposure
      Annually vs. Biannually vs. Tri-annually
    • Strategic Vaccination
      Animals at Risk
      Young or Naïve
      Mature/Adult – resident
      Mature/Adult – competitive/traveling
      Senior – isolated
      Breeding Stock
      Prior to Breeding
      During Pregnancy
    • Strategic Vaccination
      Number of Visits Necessary to Complete Vaccination Series
      “ANTIGEN” = foreign protein used to promote immune response
    • Strategic Vaccination
      Number of Visits Necessary to Complete Vaccination Series
      “ANTIBODY” = Immune System Response to foreign protein
    • Strategic Vaccination
      Number of Visits Necessary to Complete Vaccination Series
      “ADJUVANT” = necessary to enhance the Antigen presentation and help drive the Immune Response. ***Causes INFLAMMATION***
    • Strategic Vaccination
      Goal in vaccination:
      MAXIMIZE IMMUNE RESPONSE WITHOUT OVERLOADING IMMUNE SYSTEM
    • Strategic Vaccination
      Number of visits Necessary ??
      # Adjuvants -- limited to 2 or 3 per visit
      # Antigens – limited to 4 or 5 per visit
      Use of combinations and similar products
      Visits no sooner than 12 to 14 days apart
    • Strategic Vaccination
      EXAMPLES
      Visit #1: Influenza/Rhino, Rabies
      Visit #2: EWT, West Nile, (PHF)
      Visit #3: Strangles
      (Rhino & Influenza boosters every 3 to 6 months)
      (EWT boosters at 6 months, if necessary)
    • Strategic Vaccination
      EXAMPLES
      Visit #1: West Nile, Rabies, Influenza
      Visit #2: EE/WE/Tetanus, Rhino, (PHF)
      Visit #3: Strangles
      (Rhino & Influenza boosters every 3 to 6 months)
      (EWT boosters at 6 months, if necessary)
    • Strategic Vaccination
      EXAMPLES
      Pregnant Mare
      Visit #1: 3-5 months: Rhino
      Visit #2: 7 months: Rhino
      Visit #3: 9 months: Rhino
      Visit #4: 10 months: EWT, Influenza, West Nile
    • Strategic Vaccination
      EXAMPLES
      Foal
      Visit #1: 4-6 months: Rhino (EHV-1 & 4)
      Visit #2: 5-7 months: Rhino #2
      Visit #3: 6 months: EWT, West Nile, Rabies
      Visit #4: 7 months: EWT#2,West Nile #2,Rabies #2
      Visit #5: 9 months: Influenza, Strangles, Rhino #3
      Visit #6: 10 months: Influenza #2, Strangles #2
      Visit #7: 11 months: Influenza #3
      (spaced by 2 weeks, where necessary)
    • Strategic Vaccination
      Vaccination Reactions
      Expected or Adverse?
      Individuals in a population?
      Appropriate Immune Response?
      2 – 3 days or longer?
    • Strategic Vaccination
      History of Reactions
      Which vaccine? Adjuvant? Antibody? Manufacturer?
      Number of vaccines given at same time?
      Lump?
      Fever?
      Does Pre-treatment Help?
      Any other horses affected?
      Help from the Pharmaceutical Company?
    • Strategic Vaccination
      Vaccinate all horses in a herd
      “Just a single
      unprotected horse in a
      herd can provide a
      reservoir of infection to
      all the others.”
    • Strategic Vaccination
      Preventing a disease through proper vaccination programs is far safer, easier, and moreeconomical than treating the disease after the horse is already sick.
    • EMERGENCY!!!
    • EMERGENCY PLANNING
      Rule #1 : STAY SAFE!!
      Horses can be very dangerous when injured or panicked
      You cannot help your horse if you are injured
      The most important thing is your SAFETY and the safety of those around you
    • EMERGENCY PLANNING
      Is it safe to approach the horse?
      If so:
      Catch and calm the horse.
      If possible, take the horse to a safe place such as a stall or paddock.
      Get someone to help you.
    • EMERGENCY PLANNING
      Phone numbers you need to have available:
      A friend or neighbor who can assist you in an emergency.
      Your veterinarian, including how to reach after hours.
      Your insurance company.
    • EMERGENCY PLANNING
      TRAILERING
      If you do not own a trailer, make arrangements in advance for transportation in case of an emergency.
      Know how to hitch up, road worthy.
      Make sure your horse is well accustomed to loading and riding
      Keep a well maintained First-Aid Kit in the truck or trailer.
    • EMERGENCY PLANNING
      It always helps to have assistance in times of an emergency.
      Be sure to prepare and practice your plans.
      This will help you to act calmly and efficiently during times of an emergency.
    • EMERGENCY PLANNING
      Halters on or off?
      Knowledgeable handlers available?
      Local Fire Department
    • EMERGENCIES
      Are they accident prone?
      Behavior
      Kicks
      Lacerations
      Abrasions
      Fractures
      Bite wounds
    • EMERGENCIES
      Colic
      Foaling Difficulty
      Laceration/Hemorrhage
      Illness/Fever
      Seizures
      Acute Lameness
      Ocular Trauma
    • EMERGENCIES
      As a horse owner you must know how to recognize serious problems, respond promptly and take appropriate action while waiting for the vet to arrive.
    • EMERGENCIESWhat you should know …
      Temperature
      Heart Rate
      Respiratory rate
      Abdominal sounds
      Normal behavior
    • What you should know
      Temperature
      < 101.5º F
      Taken rectally with digital or mercury thermometer
    • What to know..
      Heart Rate
      Normal:
      28 - 44 beats per minute
    • What to know…
      Respiratory Rate
      Normal is 8-12 breaths per minute
      **watch nostrils or sides
    • What to know…
      Manure
      Gas
      Gut sounds
      (borborygmi)
      Decreased
      Increased
      Absent
    • What to know…
      Mucous membranes
      Color
      Hydration
      Capillary refill time (CRT)
    • Normal values
      Every horse is different
      Keep a daily record
      Wider range in foals
    • When you think you may have an emergency note the following:
      In addition to Temp, HR, RR, Gut sounds
      Attitude
      BAR, lethargic, anxious, painful, quiet, etc.
      Appetite/H20 consumption
      Manure production
    • More Obvious Signs
      Rolling, pawing, strecthing, etc.
      Sweating
      Ataxia/Wobbly
      Nasal Discharge
      Labored breathing
      Bleeding
      Lameness
    • Is it an EMERGENCY??
    • OCULAR (EYE) TRAUMA
      ANY problem related to the eye should be considered an emergency and should be seen by a vet prior to treatment
    • OCULAR TRAUMA
      INDICATIONS OF AN INJURY:
      Squinting
      Excessive Tearing
      Eye(s) look cloudy
      Mucous discharge
    • EYE INJURIES
      INDICATIONS OF AN INJURY:
      Holding eye closed or sensitive to light
      Swelling around eye or eyelid
      Laceration of the eyelid
    • EYE INJURIES
      DO NOT ATTEMPT TO TREAT
      Could be devastating
      They only have 2 eyes!!!
    • EYE INJURIES
      WAIT FOR VETERINARY EVALUATION
    • EYE INJURIES
      WAIT FOR VETERINARY EVALUATION
      Treating a corneal ulcer with a single dose of a steroid will delay healing for up to 3 weeks
      Could result in rapid decline and loss of the eye even with surgical intervention
    • EYE INJURIES
      WAIT FOR VETERINARY EVALUATION
      They only have 2 eyes and delay of treatment can be devastating and have long lasting negative effects
      Uveitis, cataracts, scarring
    • WOUNDS
      Horses frequently get cuts and scrapes
      It is important to know which wounds need veterinary attention
      If you do not know, then you should call your vet
    • WOUNDS
      Examples of wounds that need immediate attention
      Puncture wounds
      Deep Lacerations (where you can see bone, tendons, etc.)
    • WOUNDS
      Examples of wounds that need immediate attention
      Wounds near joints or tendons
      Severely contaminated wounds
    • WOUNDS
      Examples of wounds that need immediate attention
      Wounds near joints or tendons
      Severely contaminated wounds
    • WOUNDS
      Examples of wounds that need immediate attention
      Puncture wounds
      Large OR small
    • PUNCTURE WOUNDS
      If possible penetrating objects should be left in place until you contact your vet
      Removal could result in further damage
      Blood loss
    • PUNCTURE WOUNDS
      If possible penetrating objects should be left in place until you contact your vet
      Leave nail in place if stepping on it will not drive it further into the foot
      Vet may want to x-ray prior to removal
    • PUNCTURE WOUNDS
      If possible penetrating objects should be left in place.
      If removed:
      Mark exact point of entry on foot
      Mark exact depth of penetration on object (nail) removed
      Clean and bandage area
    • WOUNDS
      BLEEDING
      Blood squirting or flowing steadily from a wound needs to be controlled
      Apply a sterile or clean pad and apply firm pressure (vet wrap/polo/belt)
    • WOUNDS
      BLEEDING
      Keep Pressure applied for 30 minutes
      If blood soaks through, add more padding over top and continue with pressure until veterinarian gets there
    • LAMENESS
      Acute, severe lameness
      Abscess (most common)
      Fractures
      Laminitis
      Tendon Injury
      Nail/Foreign Body Puncture
    • LAMENESS
      Call your veterinarian immediately if….
      Your horse cannot bear any weight on the affected limb
      The leg is being held at an abnormal angle
      Bone is protruding out of the skin or hoof
      *Try to keep the horse calm
    • LAMENESS
      Laminitis
      Very painful condition caused by inflammation within the hoof
      Can result in detachment of the coffin bone from the hoof wall
    • LAMINITIS
      Signs
      Horse is unwilling to walk forward or has “walking on eggshell” gait
      May rock back on hind end (saw horse stance)
      Shifting weight
      Lying down a lot
      Heat in feet and coronary bands
      Increased digital pulses
    • LAMINITIS
      Numerous causes
      Unpredictable course of disease
      Early medical attention yields better outcome
      Call your vet if you suspect your horse has laminitis or any other severe, acute onset of lameness
    • HYPERSENSITIVITY REACTIONS
      Allergic Reactions
      Common Causes:
      Bee Sting
      Snake bite
      Medication
      Toxin ingestion (plant, mold, etc.)
    • HYPERSENSITIVITY REACTIONS
      Allergic Reactions – Signs
      Hives
      Swollen face/muzzle
      Difficulty, noisy or labored Breathing
      Sweating
      Colic
      **Call your vet immediately if you notice any of these signs
    • HYPERSENSITIVITY REACTIONS
      Allergic Reactions – Treatment
      Corticosteroids
      Antihistamine
      Epinephrine
      *Severe hypersensitivity reaction can be life threatening
      *Usually responds well to treatment
    • COLIC
      Term used to describe abdominal pain usually indicating a digestive disorder
      Can be life threatening
      Every colic should be taken seriously
    • COLIC
      Common signs:
      Repeatedly lying down and getting up
      Rolling
      Pawing
      Looking at or biting flanks
      Stretching out as if to urinate
    • COLIC
      Common signs:
      Curling upper lip or grinding teeth
      Depression
      Loss of appetite
      Sweating
      Increased heart or respiratory rates
      Decreased gut sounds/manure production
    • COLIC
      Key medications to have on hand:
      BANAMINE
      MILK OF MAGNESIA
      Be prepared to trailer if necessary
      Withhold all food – follow instructions
      Write it down!!
      Remember: 90% of colics resolve without surgical intervention
    • COLIC
      Important to call the vet at the first signs noticed
      prior to giving any oral meds or feeding
      Be sure to tell the vet about any changes in feed, housing, medications, etc.
    • Emergency Preparedness:Have a plan of action!!
      STAY CALM
      Have a list of friends who may be able to assist you if needed
      Phone chain
      Trailer if needed
    • Emergency Preparedness:
      Things to tell the vet:
      Recent changes
      Significant medical info
      TPR, Gut sounds
      Manure in last 24 hours
      DO NOT GIVE ANY MEDICATION OR HOME REMEDY UNLESS OK’D by your veterinarian
    • Emergency Preparedness:Action Plan
      Prepare a first aid kit
      Good lighting available
      Running water
    • Emergency Preparedness:First Aid Kit
      Commercially prepared
      Home made kits
      Veterinary Supplies
    • Emergency Preparedness:First Aid Kit
      PLEASE
      REMEMBER TO
      STAY OFF THE
      PHONE!!
    • SUMMARY
      By acting promptly you can help minimize the risk of an injury or illness
    • SUMMARY
      Your horse’s health and well being depend on you!
    • QUESTIONS?? COMMENTS??
      Drawing of Emergency Kit – Donated by Equine Essentials – Route 53 Kingston
      SSEC Emergency Kits – 10% discount tonight
      For Attending tonite, in your packet is a coupon:
      20% off a Farm Call OR 10% off SSEC Wellness Plan
      Next Talk – Monday, February 7th
      Unveiling the Mysteries of Foot Lameness : Laminitis, Navicular Disease, Coffin Joints