Okinawan goju kata


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Okinawan goju kata

  1. 1. Okinawan Goju-Ryu Karate-Do KataThe following is a list of the Kata of Okinawan Goju-Ryu Karate-Do as taught by theNorthwest Okinawan Goju Ryu Karate School. Geki Sai Dai Ichi Geki Sai Dai Ni "To Attack and Destroy" The Geki Sai Kata were formulated by Chojun Miyagi Sensei in 1940 as a form of physical exercise for high school boys and to help popularize Goju-Ryu among the public of Okinawa. In 1948, after WWII, Miyagi Sensei began to teach the Geki Sai Kata in depth as a regular part of Goju-Ryu in his own dojo. Until this time, Sanchin was the first Kata taught in Goju-Ryu. Sanchin Kata is physically and mentally a demanding Kata and requires a great deal of time and patience to learn and perform properly. The Geki Sai Kata however are easier to learn and perform, and contain dynamic techniques which are more attractive to young people. These Kata contain the same kanji found in Saifa. This would suggest that even though these Kata were designed primarily as a form of exercise, Miyagi Sensei included his understanding of combat as part of their makeup. Saifa "To Smash and Tear to Pieces" Saifa is the first of the classical combative Kata taught in Goju- Ryu. Goju-Ryus Kata origins come from the martial arts taught in the Fuzhou area of southern China, largely Crane and Xingyi/Baqua as well as other internal and external martial arts. Kanryo Higaonna Sensei was taught this Kata, along with the other Kata of Goju-Ryu, while he studied in China from 1863- 1881 under the direction of RuRuKo ( Xie Zhong Xiang in Chinese) and others. These Kata and martial strategies would become the basis of the the quanfa of Higaonna Sensei, which later Miyagi Sensei would call Goju-Ryu. From an understanding of the grappling and strking techniques of this Kata, Saifa can be interpreted to mean grabbing and tearing of tissue in close-quartered combat.
  2. 2. Sanchin"Three Battles or Conflicts"Sanchin translates as "3 Battles" or "3 Conflicts". This hasmany meanings. First it refers to the struggle to control the bodyunder physical fatigue. With fatigue the mind begins to losefocus and thus the spirit begins to diminsh as well. ThereforeSanchin develops discipline, determination, focus, perserveranceand other mental attributes. The Chinese refer to this as Shen(spirit), Shin (mind) and Li (body). Another possibleinterpretation refers to the "Three Burners" of the body asdecribed in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM).One of two "heishu " Kata of Goju-Ryu, Sanchin is probably themost misunderstood Kata in all of Karate. In contrast, it isprobably the single most valuable training exercise in Goju-Ryu. Like the other Kata of Goju-Ryu, Sanchin ( Samm Chienin Chinese) can be found in several Chinese arts, particulary thesouthern styles including four styles of Crane Boxing, DragonBoxing, Tiger Boxing, Lion Boxing, Dog or Ground Boxing andMonk Fist. Sanchin has such aspects as deep, diaphramaticbreathing found in many internal arts as well as externalattributes like mechanical alignment and muscular strength.Because many martial artists have little or no understanding ofthe true history and nature of the Chinese arts from whichOkinawan Goju-Ryu has its roots, Sanchin has become littlemore than an isometric form performed with dangerous tensionand improper breathing techniques.The original Sanchin that Higaonna Sensei learned fromRuRuKo (1852-1930) was performed with open hands and withless emphasis on muscle contraction and "energetic" breathing.With the changes brought about by Emperor Meiji (MeijiRestoration Period 1888-1912), Higaonna Sensei changed theopen hands to closed fists as the martial meaning was no longeremphasized. Later Miyagi Sensei would again alter the Kata inpattern alone.Seiyunchin"Control, Suppress and Pull"The name Seiunchin implies the use of techniques to offbalance, throw and grapple. It is this understanding that impartsthe original intentions of the Kata of Naha-te before the sportalignment of modern Karate. Seiyunchin contains close-quartered striking, sweeps, take-downs and throws. Though theKata itself is void of kicks, many practitioners make the gravemistake by missing the opportunity to apply any leg technique.
  3. 3. Though almost invisible to the untrained eye, the subtleness of"ashi barai" and "suri ashi" can represent footsweeps, parries andtraps.Shisochin"Four Gates" or "Four Directions of Conflict"Shisochin translates as "Four Gates" or "Four Directions ofConflict". To leave it at that discounts a truer understanding.The third kanji is the same found in Sanchin and Seiyunchin,which translates as "battle" or "conflict". This lends to a deeperdefinition of its meaning. The idea of four directions can comefrom the performance of the four shotei in four directions. It canalso represent the four elements represented in Chinese medicine(Acupuncture is one) of Wood, Fire, Metal and Water with manrepresenting Earth. Since this was the science and culture of thatperiod in China when Higaonna and Miyagi both studied inFuzhou, it would be a great oversight to discount this aspect as avery probable explanation of the Katas name and martial intent.Sanseru"36 Hands"Sanseru is unique as Miyagi Sensei studied this Kata under adirect student of RuRuKo during his studies in Fuzhou, Chinabeginning in 1916. Sanseru, from its numerical designation,would seem to have its roots in Buddhism. This is not to inferthat there is a religious connection or implication with this Kataor Karate, but simply that Buddhism was a part of the culture ofthe people of that time. It should also be noted that numbers hada very important role in the language of the more ancientChinese before the invention of kanji.A more realistic explanation of this and the other numericallynamed Kata is that they refer to a systematic method andunderstanding of certain groupings of vital acupressure points.It is this science that the martial arts was based upon anddeveloped.Feng Yiquan, who lived during the Ming Dynasty (1522-67)developed this particular method of using variations of "36"forbidden points to defeat his opponents. Other disciples ofFeng created other quans expanding the number to 72 andultimately 108.Sanseru is found in the following styles of Chinese Boxing:Crane, Tiger, and Dog
  4. 4. Sepai"18 Hands"The reference to "18" in naming this Kata has a couple ofinterpretations. Like Sanseru, there is suggested a connection toBuddhist philosophy. Another insinuates "18 guards for theKing". The most apparent and most meaningful in the naimg ofSepai is again from the martial arts develpoment and the use ofattacking pressure points. 18 is one half of 36 suggesting thatperhaps an alternative set of attacks and defenses of preferredtechniques and strategies from the original Sanseru 36.Sepai is found in Monk Boxing.Kururunfa"Holding Ground"Kururunfa epitomizes the ideals of Go-"hard and Ju-"soft". Stance transitions are quick and explosive while thehands techniques are employed using "muchimi" or aheavy, sticky movement. As in the other kata of Goju-Ryu,it is quite evident that grappling and close-quarteredfighting is the favored fighting style. The same kanji isfound in Saifa. Again, this would suggest a strongempahsis on grappling. Where most other styles Kataconcentrate on "block/punch", it is obvious from the uniquetechniques that this is not the case with Goju-Ryu.Seisan"13 Hands"Seisan, Sanseru and Sepai all share the kanji . This maywell be a Chinese dialect of the Okinawan term "te" or "fightinghand", referring to life-protection techniques. To betterunderstand these Kata requires a more defined understanding ofthe language and culture of the people from which these Kataoriginated.Seisan is believed to be the oldest of all Okinawan Goju-RyuKata. There is a version of Seisan practiced in the Shorinschools, but in comparison, the Goju-Ryu version is longer andmuch more complex.Seisan is practiced in the following styles of Chinese Boxing:Dragon, Lion and Monk Fist
  5. 5. Suparinpei (Pechurin)"108 hands"Suparinpei is the most advanced Kata in Goju-Ryu. It containsthe greatest number of techniques and variations. Suparinpei isdeceptive in that it appears simple in execution but whencombined with transitions and changing tempos, it is onlysurpassed by Sanchin in technical difficulty and understanding.Once again, the number "108" is suggested to have origins inBuddhism and can represent the "108 sins of man". On theChinese New Year, temple bells are rung 108 times to "driveaway the evils of man". It is believed these named associationswith Buddhism is based upon the lack of factual knowledge ofthe true nature of these quan.Secondly, with the cutural changes that took place in Chinaduring and after the Boxing Rebellion (1900) and the fall of theQing Dynasty (1644-1911), little emphasis was placed onlearning such complex arts. Most who learned the fighting artsafter this time, did so as a means of exercise, recreation orartistic performance. In additon, the wide-spread use of firearmsreduced the need and effectiveness for hand-to-hand combat as ameans to civil defense.Suparinpei is found in the following styles of Chinese Boxing:Dragon, Tiger and Monk Fist.Tensho"Turning Palms"The second "heishu" kata in Goju-Ryu, Tensho is derived fromthe Chinese form "Rokkishu". Unlike Sanchin, which is almostidentical to its Chinese counterpart, Tensho is uniquelyOkinawan. From his understanding of the Kata of Goju-Ryuand the "nature of man", Miyagi Sensei developed Tensho tofurther complete his Goju-Ryu where Sanchin left off. Tenshohas many of the same principles of Sanchin but goes further toinclude more intricate concepts of the techniques of Goju-Ryu.These concepts expressly come alive in kakie , which inadvanced training, breathes life into the bunkai of the Kata ofGoju-Ryu.The term "heishu" translates as "closed". As with every aspectof Okinawan Karate, there is more than one definition. First,"heishu" can refer to muscle contraction and "ibuki" stylebreathing unique to Sanchin and Tensho.econdly, it can imply the restriction and specific direction ofenergies within the energy pathways of the body, bothsuperficial and deep. The other 10 Kata are referred to as
  6. 6. "kaishu" or "open", as they are free of constant muscle contraction and breathing is "normal".World Karate Federation (WKF) Kumite RegulationsContents 1. Competition Area 2. Official Dress 3. Organization of Kumite Competitions 4. The Referee Panel 5. Duration of the Bout 6. Scoring 7. Crireria For Decision 8. Prohibited Behaviour 9. Penalties 10. Injuries and Accidents in Competition 11. Protest 12. Power and Duties of the Referee Council, Match Area Controllers, Referees, Judges and Arbitrators 13. Starting, Suspending and Ending of Matches 14. ModificationsARTICLE 1: COMPETITION AREA1. The competition area must be flat and devoid of hazard.2. The competition area must be a matted square.3. The area will be a square, with sides of 8 meters (measured from the outside). The area may be elevated to aheight of up to 1 meter above floor level. The elevated platform should measure at least 10 meters a side, in order toinclude both the competition and the safety area.4. Two parallel lines, each 1 meter long and at right angles to the Referees line, must be drawn at a distance of 1.5meters from the center of the competition area for positioning the competitors.5. A line of 0.5 meters long must be drawn 2 meters from the center of the competition area for positioning theReferee.6. The arbitrator shall be seated between the scorekeeper and timekeeper.
  7. 7. 7. A line must be drawn one meter on the inside of the competition area.. The area enclosed by this line may be in adifferent color, or the line itself may be broken.EXPLANATION:There must be no advertisement hoardings, walls, pillars etc. within one meter of areas outer perimeter.The mats used should be non-slip where they contact the floor proper but have a low coefficient of friction on theupper surface. They should not be as thick as Judo mats, since these impede Karate movement. The Referee mustensure that mat modules do not move apart during the competition, since gaps cause injuries and constitute ahazard.ARTICLE 2: OFFICIAL DRESS1. Contestants and their coaches must wear the official uniform as herein defined.2. The Referee Council may disbar any official or competitor who does not comply with this regulation.REFEREES1. Referees and Judges must wear the official uniform designated by the Referee Council. This uniform must be wornat all tournaments and courses.2. The official uniform will be as follows: A single breasted navy-blue blazer bearing two silver buttons. A white shirtwith long or short sleeves, depending on prevailing climatic conditions. An official tie worn without tie pin. Plain lightgray trousers without cuffs. Unpatterned dark blue or black socks and black, slip on shoes for use off the match.CONTESTANTS1a. Contestants must wear a white unmarked Karate Gi without stripes or piping. Only the national emblem or flag ofthe country may be worn. This must be on the left breast of the jacket and may not exceed an overall size of 10 cm2.Only the original manufacturers labels may be displayed on the Gi and in the normally accepted locations (i.e. bottomright corner of the Gi jacket and waist position on the trousers). In addition, an identifying number issued by theOrganizing Committee may be worn on the back. One must wear a red belt and the other a white belt. The white andred belts must be around 5 centimeters wide and of a length sufficient to allow 15 centimeters free on each side ofthe knot.1b. Notwithstanding paragraph la. above, the Directing Committee may authorize the display of special labels ortrademarks, of approved sponsors.2. The jacket, when tightened around the waist with the belt, must be of minimum length that covers the hips, but nolonger than mid thigh. In the case of women, a plain white T-shirt may be worn beneath the Karate jacket.3. The maximum length of the jacket sleeves must be no longer then the bend of the wrist and no shorter thanhalfway down the forearm. Jacket sleeves may not be rolled up.4. The trousers must be long enough to cover at least two thirds of the shin and may not be rolled up.5. Each contestant must keep his hair clean and cut to a length that does not obstruct smooth bout conduct.Hachimaki (head band) will not be allowed. Should the Referee consider any contestants hair too long and/orunclean, he may, with the Referee Councils approval, disbar the contestant from the bout. In Kumite match hairslides are prohibited, as are metal hair grips. In Kata a discreet hair clip is permitted.6. Contestants must have short fingernails and must not wear metallic or other objects which might injure theiropponents.
  8. 8. 7. Mitts and gum shields are compulsory. Boxes and soft shin pads are allowed. Shin/instep protectors are forbidden.Glasses are forbidden (soft contact lenses can be worn at the contestants own responsibility). The wearing ofunauthorized clothing or equipment is forbidden. Women may wear the authorized additional protective equipment.8. The protective equipment must meet standard specifications.9. The use of bandages or braces because of injury must be approved by the Referee Council, on the advice of theofficial doctor.COACHES1. The coach shall at all times during the tournament, wear a tracksuit and display his license.EXPLANATION:The contestant must wear a single belt. This will be Aka if he is the red fighter and white if Shiro. Belts of gradeshould not be worn during the bout.White protective mitts with not more than one centimeter of padding and an uncovered thumb must be worn. Thepadding must not be capable of displacement.Mitts must be approved by the Homologation Commission.Gum shields must be properly fitted by a dentist. Groin protectors using a removable plastic cup slipped into ajockstrap will not be permitted and persons found wearing them will be penalized.There may well be a religious basis for the wearing of certain items such as turbans. Persons wishing, by virtue oftheir religion, to wear what would otherwise be construed as unauthorized clothing must notify the Referee Council inadvance of a tournament. The Referee Council will examine each application on its merit. No accommodation will bemade for people who just turn up on the day and expect to participate.If a fighter comes into the area inappropriately dressed, he or she will not be immediately disqualified; instead thefighter will be given a minute to remedy matters.If the Referee Council agrees, Refereeing Officials may be allowed to remove their blazers.ARTICLE 3: ORGANIZATION OF KUMITE COMPETITIONS1. A Karate tournament may comprise Kumite competition and/or Kata competition. The Kumite competition may befurther divided into the team match and the individual match. The individual match may be further divided into weightdivisions and open category. Weight divisions are divided ultimately into bouts. The term "bout" also describes theindividual Kumite competitions between opposing pairs of team members.2. In team matches, each team must have an odd number of contestants.3. The contestants are all members of a team. There are no fixed reserves.4. Before each match, a team representative must hand into the official table, an official form defining the names andfighting order of the team members. The fighting order can be changed for each round but once notified, it cannotthen be changed.5. A team will be disqualified if any of its members or its coach changes the teams composition without submitting thewritten fighting order.
  9. 9. 6. In the first round of a team match, a team will be allowed to participate only when it presents the prescribednumber of competitors.7. No contestant may be replaced by another in an individual title match.8. Individual contestants or teams that do not arrive at the competition venue before the tournament is declared openwill be disqualified from participation in that tournament.EXPLANATION:A "round" is a discrete stage in a competition leading to the eventual identification of finalists. In an elimination Kumitecompetition, a round eliminates fifty percent of contestants within it, counting byes as contestants. In this context, theround can apply equally to a stage in either primary elimination or repechage. In a matrix, or round robin competition,a round allows all contestants in a pool to fight once.The use of contestants names causes problems of pronunciation and identification. Tournament numbers must beallotted and used.When lining up before a match, a team will present the actual fighters. The unused fighter(s) and the Coach will notbe included and shall sit in an area set aside for them.The fighting order form can be presented by the Coach, or a nominated contestant from the team. If the coach handsin the form, he/she must be clearly identifiable as such, otherwise it may be rejected. The list must include the nameof the country/club, the belt color allotted to the team for that match and the order of the fighters from one to five. Boththe fighters names and their tournament numbers must be included and the form signed by the coach, or nominatedperson.If, through an error in charting, the wrong contestants compete, then regardless of the outcome, that bout/match isdeclared null and void. To reduce such errors the winner of each bout/match must confirm victory with the controltable before leaving the area.ARTICLE 4: THE REFEREE PANEL1. The Refereeing Panel for each match shall consist of one Referee (SHUSHIN), two Judges (FUKUSHIN) and onearbitrator (KANSA).2. In addition, for the purpose of facilitating the operation of matches, several time keepers, caller-announcers andrecord-keepers shall be appointed.EXPLANATION:At the start of a Kumite match the Referee stands on the outside edge of the official match area. On his left and rightstand the Judges.After the formal exchange of bows by contestants and Referee Panel, the Referee takes a step back, the Judges turninwards and all bow together.Changing the Referee Panel. The departing Officials take one step forward turn around and face the incoming Panel.They bow to each other on the command of the incoming Referee and in one line (facing in the same direction) leavethe competition area.When individual Judges change, the incoming Judge goes to the outgoing Judge, they bow together and changepositions.ARTICLE 5: DURATION OF BOUT
  10. 10. 1. Duration of the Kumite bout is defined as three minutes for senior male Kumite (both teams and individuals) andtwo minutes for womens and junior bouts.2. The timing of the bout starts when the Referee gives the signal to start and stops each time he calls "YAME".3. The time-keeper shall give signals by a clearly audible gong, or buzzer indicating "30 seconds to go" or "time-up".The "time-up" signal marks the end of the bout.ARTICLE 6: SCORING1. The result of a bout is determined by either contestant scoring 3 IPPONs, 6 WAZA-ARIs, or a combination of thetwo totaling SANBON, or obtaining a decision, or by a HANSOKU, SHIKKAKU, or KIKEN imposed against acontestant.2. It must be noted that an IPPON is worth two WAZA-ARIs.3. An IPPON is awarded on the basis of the following:A scoring technique counts as an IPPON when it is performed according to the following criteria to a scoring area:Good form, correct attitude, vigorous application, zanshin (perfect finish), proper timing, correct distance.4. An IPPON may also be awarded for techniques deficient in one of the above criteria but which conform to thefollowing schedule:a. Jodan kicks or other technically difficult techniques.b. Deflecting an attack and scoring to the unguarded back of the opponent.c. Sweeping or throwing following by a scoring technique.d. Delivering a combination technique, the individual components of which each score in their own right.e. Successfully scoring at the precise moment the opponent attacks.5. A WAZA-ARI is awarded for a technique almost comparable to that needed to score IPPON. The refereeing panelmust look for IPPONs in the first instance and only award a WAZA-ARI in the second instance.6. A victory over an opponent who has been given a HANSOKU or SHIKKAKU will be worth SANBON (3 full points orIPPONs). If a contestant is absent, withdraws, or is withdrawn, the opponent will be credited with a win by KIKEN(SANBON, or 3 IPPONs )7. Attacks are limited to the following areas:1. Head 2. Face 3. Neck 4. Abdomen 5. Chest 6. Back (but excluding shoulders) 7. Side8. An effective technique delivered at the same time that the end of the bout is signaled, is considered valid. Anattack, even if effective, delivered after an order to suspend or stop the bout shall not be scored and may result in apenalty being imposed on the offender.9. No technique, even if technically correct, will be scored if it is delivered when the two contestants are outside thecompetition area. However, if one of the opponent delivers an effective technique while still inside the competitionarea and before the Referee calls "YAME", the technique will be scored.
  11. 11. 10. Simultaneous effective scoring techniques delivered by both contestants the one on the other, shall not score.EXPLANATION:A score of three Ippons achieved either directly or cumulatively determines the bout. Therefore if Aka has alreadyscored five Waza-Aris and goes on to score a further Ippon, his maximum score will not exceed the three Ipponceiling. This very basic rule is sometimes overlooked when scoring a team event that has tied on bout victories.Though two Waza-Aris equal one Ippon in scoring value, in technical terms, a Waza-Ari is equal to 90% of an Ippon.A technique with "good form" is said to have characteristics conferring probable effectiveness within the framework oftraditional Karate concepts. Correct attitude is a component of good form and refers to a non-malicious attitude ofgreat concentration obvious during delivery of the scoring technique. Vigorous application defines the power andspeed of the technique and the palpable will for it to succeed; nothing is held back. Zanshin is that criterion mostoften missed when a score is assessed. It is the state of continued commitment which endures after the techniquehas landed and the ability to continue with proper form, other continuing techniques. The contestant with Zanshinmaintains total concentration and awareness of the opponents potentiality to counter-attack.Proper timing means delivering a technique when it will have the greatest potential effect. Proper distancing similarlymeans delivering a technique at the precise distance where it will have the greatest potential effect. Thus if thetechnique is delivered on an opponent who is rapidly moving away, the potential effect of that blow is reduced.Distancing also relates to the point at which the completed technique comes to rest on or near the target. To score,the technique must have the potential to penetrate deep into the target, so straight arm punches are seen as having alow potential in this respect and must be evaluated accordingly. For example, a punch which comes somewherebetween skin touch and 2-3 centimeters from the face and where the punching arm is not fully straight has the correctdistance. However, Jodan punches which come within a reasonable distance of the target and which the opponentmakes no attempt to block or avoid will be scored provided the technique meets the other criteria.A worthless technique is a worthless technique -- regardless of where and how it is delivered. Thus, a Jodan kickwhich is badly deficient in good form will score nothing, much less an Ippon. However, in order to encouragetechnically difficult techniques, the Referee should lean toward awarding Ippon for them, even if there is a slightdeficiency in good form; as long as it is only slight. As a simple rule-of thumb, techniques which would normally merita Waza-Ari are scored as Ippon if they are scheduled as "technically difficult". Deflecting an attack and delivering agood technique to any unguarded target area of the opponents body can be scored as Ippon -- not just attacks tohis/her unguarded back.A sweeping, technique need not require the contestant to fall to the floor; to merit Ippon, it is sufficient if he/she ismerely unbalanced as a scoring technique is delivered. Referees must not be too quick in halting a bout. Manypotentially successful sweep and strikes have been defeated by the Referee calling "Yame!" too early. Two secondsshould elapse after a sweep or throw for it is during this time that the committed and coordinated attacker will havedemonstrated his/her follow-through.Combination attacks are those sequences of techniques which each individually merit at least Waza-Ari, occurring inrapid succession.Techniques which land below the belt may score, as long as they are above the pubic bone. The neck is a target areaand so is the throat. However, no contact whatsoever to the throat is permitted but a score may be awarded for aproperly controlled technique.A technique delivered with good form and which lands upon the shoulder blades may score. The non scoring part ofthe shoulder is the junction of the upper bone of the arm with the shoulder blades and collar bones.The time-up bell signals the end of scoring possibilities in that bout, even though the Referee may inadvertently nothalt the bout immediately. The time up bell does not, however, mean that penalties cannot be imposed. Penalties canbe imposed by the Refereeing Panel up to the point where the contestants leave that area after the boutsconclusion. Penalties can be imposed after that, but then only by the Referee Council.
  12. 12. True Aiuchis are rare. Not only must two techniques land simultaneously but both must be valid scoring techniques --each with good form etc. Two techniques may well land simultaneously, but seldom are both -- if indeed either --effective scores. The Referee must not dismiss as Aiuchi, a situation where only one of the simultaneous pair isactually a score. This is not Aiuchi.ARTICLE 7: CRITERIA FOR DECISION1. In the absence of a SANBON score, or of a defeat caused by KIKEN, HANSOKU, or a SHIKKAKU during the bouta decision is taken on the basis of the following considerations:a. Whether there have been any IPPON or WAZA-ARI awarded.b. The attitude, fighting spirit and strength demonstrated by the contestants.c. The superiority of tactics and techniques.2. In individual category where there is no score superiority, then the following procedure will be followed:a. If, at the end of a bout, the two contestants have no score, the winning decision shall be given by HANTEI.b. If, at the end of a bout, the two contestants have scored equally, the decision for victory shall be given by HANTEI.c. If, at the end of a bout, neither contestant has established a superiority, then the decision for that bout shall be adraw ("HIKlWAKE") and ENCHO-SEN should be announced.d. A penalty or warning incurred in the bout will be carried forward to the ENCHO-SEN.3. In team competition the winning team is the one with the most bout victories.4. If two teams have the same number of victories, the winner is the one whose contestants have scored the mostpoints, taking both winning and losing fights into account.5. If two teams have the same number of victories and scores, a deciding bout must be held between representativesof the two teams. In the event of a continuing tie, there is an extension ("ENCHO-SEN"). The first contestant to scoreIPPON or WAZA-ARI is declared the winner.6. If there is no decision after a bout of an individual match, an extension ("ENCHO-SEN") will be fought. In the eventof a tied ENCHO-SEN, the majority decision of the panel will be announced by the Referee.EXPLANATION:When scores are unequal, the contestant who completes the bout satisfactorily a Waza-Ari or Ippon ahead of theopponent shall be given the victory.Taking the above criteria into account, when a superiority can be established, it is quite in order for one contestant tobe given the victory, even when the score situation is equal.When deciding the outcome of a bout by Hantei, the Referee shall step outside of the ring and call "Hantei" followedby a two-tone blast on his whistle. The Judges will indicate their opinions by means of their flags, the Referee shouldacknowledge the Judges decision by a one-tone blast of his whistle, then move forward to his original position andannounce the majority decision.The Encho-Sen is an extension of a bout; it is not a separate bout. Penalties awarded in the bout proper will thereforecarry over into the Encho-Sen. There must be a decision after an Encho-Sen, taking performance in the whole boutinto consideration.
  13. 13. Where a team match has tied bout victories and points, an additional bout is then fought between selectees. Theselectees must be nominated within one minute of the announcement of this bout and the persons making thenomination will be those who signed the original fighting order form for that match. Ifthe extra bout ties, an Encho-Sen will be fought and as in common with all Encho-Sens, a decision must be reachedat its conclusion.ARTICLE 8: PROHIBITED BEHAVIOR1. The following are forbidden:a. Techniques which make contact with the throat.b. Techniques which make excessive contact, having regard to the scoring area attacked. All techniques must becontrolled. Any technique which impacts the head, face or neck and results in visible injury must be penalized, unlesscaused by the recipient.c. Attacks to the groin, joints, or instep.d. Attacks to the face with open hand techniques ("TEISHO" or "NUKITE").e. Dangerous throws which by their nature preclude or prejudice the opponents ability to land with safety.f. Techniques which by their nature, cannot be controlled for the safety of the opponent.g. Direct attacks to arms or legs.h. Repeated exits from the competition area (JOGAI), or movements which waste too much time. JOGAI relates to asituation where a contestants body, or part thereof touches the floor outside of the area. An exception is when thecontestant is actually pushed or thrown from the area by his opponent.i. Wrestling, pushing or seizing without an immediate technique.j. MUBOBI relates to a situation where one, or both contestants display a lack of regard for his, or their own safety.k. Feigning of injury in order to gain advantage.l. Any discourteous behavior from a member of an official delegation can earn the disqualification of the offender orthe entire team delegation from the tournament.EXPLANATION:Any contact to the throat must be penalized, unless it is the recipients own fault (Mubobi etc.).Techniques to the face may "touch" and still score, but touch does not mean a solid impact. When assessing thecontact force used, the Referee must take all the circumstances into account. Did the victim exacerbate the impact ofan otherwise controlled technique by an injudicious movement? This is the reason most often give for scoring whatwould otherwise appear to be excessive contact but it must not be used as a justification for a bad assessment. TheReferee must consider the effects of a marked disparity in size between contestants -- as can occur in a team match,or in open weight bout.The Referee must constantly observe the injured contestant. The latters behavior may help the Referee in hisassessment. A short delay in giving a judgment allows injury symptoms such as a nosebleed to develop. Observationwill also reveal any efforts by the contestant to aggravate slight injury for tactical advantage. Examples of this are
  14. 14. blowing violently through an injured nose, or rubbing the face roughly with the back of a mitt. Pre-existing injury canproduce symptoms out of all proportion to the degree of contact used.The trained Karate-Ka can absorb strong impact over muscled areas such as the abdomen, but the breastbone andribs are vulnerable to injury. For this reason, reasonable control over body contact must be exercised.The accidental kick in the groin can reduce the opponents potential for winning as surely as a deliberate one.Therefore, the Referee should award a penalty in either case. Foot sweeps that land high on the leg can cause kneeinjury. The Referee must assess the validity of any sweep-attack to the leg; ineffectual but painful attacks of this sortshould be immediately penalized.The face is defined as covering an area which begins one centimeter above the eyebrows, extending down andincluding the temples, narrowing from the cheekbones and finishing just under the chin.The two open hand techniques referred to are merely examples of the class of prohibited techniques.Different Karate-Ka have different abilities at controlling techniques and for this reason, there is no actualclassification of "dangerous techniques". The contestant must perform all techniques with control and good form. Ifhe/she cannot, then regardless of the technique misused, a warning or penalty must be imposed.The point at which "Yame!" is called is helpful in determining if Jogai has occurred. If Aka delivers a successfultechnique and then exits immediately afterwards, "Yame!" should occur at the instant of score and the exit thereforeoccurs outside of bout time and may not be penalized. If Akas attempt to score is unsuccessful, "Yame!" will not becalled and the exit will be recorded. If Shiro exits just after Aka scores with a successful attack, then "Yame!" willoccur immediately on the score and Shiros exit will not be recorded. If Shiro exits, or has exited as Akas score ismade (with Aka remaining within the area), then both Akas score will be awarded and Shiros Jogai penalty will beimposed.Movements which waste time include pointless circling, where one or both contestants do not engage in combat. It isexpected that they will initially test each other but within a short time, deliberate and effective attacks and countersshould occur. If for any reason this does not happen after a reasonable interval, the Referee must stop the bout andcaution the offender(s). The contestant who constantly retreats without effective counter, rather than allow theopponent an opportunity to score must be penalized. This often occurs during the closing seconds of a bout.An example of Mubobi is the instance in which the contestant launches a committed attack without regard forpersonal safety. Some contestants throw themselves into a long reverse-punch, and are unable to block a counter.Such open attacks constitute an act of Mubobi and cannot score. For the contestants own safety, he/she must bewarned at an early stage.As a tactical theatrical move, some fighters turn away immediately in a mock display of dominance to demonstrate ascored point. They drop their guard and lapse awareness of the opponent. The purpose of the turn-away is to drawthe Referees attention to their technique. This is a clear act of Mubobi. In order to score, Zanshin must be preserved.Feigning of an injury which does not exist is a serious infraction of the rules. Exaggerating an injury which does existis less serious. Shikkaku can be imposed on the contestant feigning injury i.e., when such things as collapse androlling about on the floor are not supported by evidence of commensurate injury as reported by a neutral doctor. Awarning or penalty can be imposed for exaggerating injury.The Coach will be assigned a specific place by the Referee Council in conjunction with the tournament organizingofficials. This area will be close to the competition area and the Coach allowed a free and uninterrupted access tocontestants between bouts. To assist the contestants, a visible scoreboard must be employed Which can be clearlyviewed by Coaches and contestants.ARTICLE 9: PENALTIES1. The following scale of penalties shall operate:
  15. 15. ATENAI YONI: (Warning)May be imposed for attended minor infractions or for the first instance of a minor infraction.KEIKOKU:This is a penalty in which WAZA-ARI is added to the opponents score. KEIKOKU is imposed for minor infractions forwhich a warning has previously been given in that bout, or for infractions not sufficiently serious to merit HANSOKU-CHUI.HANSOKU-CHUI:This is a penalty in which IPPON is added to the opponents score. HANSOKU-CHUI is usually imposed forinfractions for which a KEIKOKU has previously been given in that bout.HANSOKU:This is imposed following a very serious infraction. It results in the opponents score being raised to SANBON.HANSOKU is also invoked when the number of HANSOKU-CHUIs and KEIKOKUs imposed raise the opponentsscore to SANBON.SHIKKAKU:This is a disqualification from the actual tournament, competition, or match. The opponents score is raised toSANBON. In order to define the limit of SHIKKAKU, the Referee Council must be consulted. SHIKKAKU may beinvoked. When a contestant commits an act which harms the prestige and honor of Karate-do and when other actionsare considered to violate the rules of the tournament.EXPLANATION:A penalty can be directly imposed for a rules infraction but once given, repeats of that particular infraction must beaccompanied by an increase in severity of penalty imposed. It is not, for example, possible to give a Keikoku forexcessive contact then give a warning for a second instance of excessive contact.Penalties do not cross-accumulate. This is to say that a warning for the first instance of Mubobi will not be followed byan automatic Keikoku for the first instance of Jogai. The general penalties imposed are those of Keikoku, Hansoku-Chui, Hansoku and Shikkaku. The infraction should be indicated by prefacing the Hansoku-Chui or Keikoku with anexplanation such as "Jogai (or Mubobi) Hansoku-Chui/Keikoku".When the penalties incurred in any one bout through various infractions total Sanbon, then the offender will bedeclared the loser and the winner announced as "Aka/Shiro no Kachi".Warnings are given where there has clearly been a minor infraction of the rules, but the contestants potential forwinning is not diminished (in the opinion of the Referee Panel) by the opponents foul.A Keikoku may be imposed directly, without first giving a warning. Keikoku is normally imposed where thecontestants potential for winning is slightly diminished (in the opinion of the Referee Panel) by the opponents foul. AHansoku-Chui may be imposed directly, or following a warning or Keikoku and is used where the contestantspotential for winning has been seriously reduced by the opponents foul.A Hansoku is imposed for cumulative penalties but can also be imposed directly for serious rules infractions. it isused when, in the opinion of the Referee Panel for the bout, the contestants potential to win has been reducedvirtually to zero by the opponents foul.
  16. 16. A Shikkaku can be directly imposed, without warnings of any kind. The contestant need have done nothing to merit it-- it is sufficient if the Coach or non-combatant members of the contestants delegation behave in such a way as toharm the prestige and honor of Karate-Do.If the Referee believe that a contestant has acted maliciously, regardless of whether or not actual physical injury hasbeen caused, Shikkaku and not Hansoku is the correct penalty.A public announcement of Shikkaku must be made.ARTICLE 10: INJURIES AND ACCIDENTS IN COMPETITION1. KIKEN or forfeiture is the decision given when a contestant or contestants are unable to continue, abandon thebout, or are withdrawn on the order of the Referee. The grounds for abandonment may include injury not ascribableto the opponents actions.2. If two contestants injure each other at the same time or are suffering from the effects of previously incurred injuryand are declared by the tournament doctor to be unable to continue, the bout is awarded to the contestant who hasamassed the most points at that time. If the points score is equal, then a decision (HANTEI) will decide the outcomeof the bout.3. An injured contestant who has been declared unfit to fight by the tournament doctor cannot fight again in thatcompetition.4. An injured contestant who wins a bout through disqualification due to injury is not allowed to fight again in thecompetition without permission from the doctor. If he is injured, he may win a second bout by disqualification but isimmediately withdrawn from further Kumite competition in that tournament.5. When a contestant is injured, the Referee shall at once halt the bout and call the doctor. The doctor is authorizedto diagnose and treat injury only.6. Any competitor who falls, is thrown, or knocked down, and does not fully regain his or her feet within ten seconds,is considered unfit to continue fighting and will be automatically withdrawn from the tournament.EXPLANATION:Self inflicted injury and those injuries caused by the athlete are easy to deal with but when assessing an injurycaused by the opponents technique, the Panel must consider whether the technique was valid. Was it properlyapplied to the proper area at the correct time and with the correct degree of control? Consideration of this will assistthe Referee Panel in deciding whether the injured contestant should be declared the loser by Kiken, or whether theopponent should be penalized for a foul.When the doctor declares the contestant unfit, the appropriate entry must be made on the contestants monitoringcard. The extent of unfitness must be made clear to other Refereeing Panels. A contestant may win throughdisqualification of the opponent for accumulated minor infractions. Perhaps the winner has sustained no significantinjury. A second win on the same grounds must lead to the winners withdrawal, though he may be physically able tocontinue.The doctor is obliged to make safety recommendations only as they relate to the proper medical management of thatparticular injured contestant.When applying the "Ten Second Rule" the time will be kept by a timekeeper appointed for this specific purpose. Awarning bell will be sounded at seven seconds followed by the final bell at ten seconds.The Referee Panel will decide on KIKEN, HANSOKU or SHIKKAKU, as the case may be.
  17. 17. In order that the credibility of the sport be maintained, competitors who feign injury will be subject to the strongestpenalties, up to, and including, suspension for life for repeated offenses.Competitors who receive SHIKKAKU for feigning injury, will be taken from the competition area and put directly intothe hands of the WKF Medical Commission, who will carry out an immediate examination of the competitor. TheMedical Commission will submit its report before the end of the Championship, for the consideration of the RefereeCouncil.ARTICLE 11: PROTEST1. No-one may protest about a judgment to the members of the Refereeing Panel.2. If a refereeing procedure appears to contravene these rules, the official representative is the only one allowed tomake a protest.3. The protest will take the form of a written report submitted immediately after the bout in which the protest wasgenerated. The sole exception to this is when the protest concerns an administrative malfunction. The Area Controllershould be notified immediately the administrative malfunction is detected.4. The protest must be submitted to a representative of the Referee Council. In due course the Council will review thecircumstances leading to the protested decision. Having considered all the facts available, they will produce a reportand shall be empowered to take such action as may be called for.5. Any protest concerning application of the rules must be made in accordance with the complaints procedure definedby the WKF-DC and submitted in writing on an approved form and signed by the official representative of the team orcontestant(s).6. The complainant must deposit a sum of money as may be agreed by the WKF-DC, with the Treasury and aduplicate receipt will be issued. The protest, plus a copy of the receipt, must be lodged with the Chairman of theReferee Council.EXPLANATION:The protest must give the names of the contestants, the Referee Panel officiating and the precise details of what isbeing protested. No general claims about overall standards will be accepted as a legitimate protest. The burden ofproving the validity of the protest lies with the complainant.In case of an administrative malfunction during a match in progress, the Coach can notify the Match Area Controllerdirectly. In turn the Area Controller will notify the Referee.The protest will be reviewed by the Referee Council and as part of this review, the Council will study the evidencesubmitted in support of the protest. The Council will also study official videos and question Match Area Controllers inan effort to objectively examine the protests validity.If the protest is held by the Referee Council to be valid, the appropriate action will be taken. In addition, all suchmeasures will be taken to avoid a recurrence in future competitions. The deposit paid will be refunded by theTreasury.If the protest is held by the Referee Council to be invalid, it will be rejected and the deposit forfeited to WKF.ARTICLE 12: POWER AND DUTIES OF THE REFEREE COUNCIL, MATCH AREACONTROLLERS.REFEREES. JUDGES AND ARBITRATORS
  18. 18. A. The Referee Councils powers and duties shall be as follows:1. To ensure the correct preparation for each given tournament in consultation with the Organizing Committee, withregard to competition area arrangement, the provision and deployment of all equipment and necessary facilities,match operation and supervision, safety precautions, etc.2. To appoint and deploy the Match Area Controllers (Chief Referees) to their respective areas and to act upon andtake such action as may be required by the reports of the Match Area Controllers.3. To supervise and coordinate the overall performance of the refereeing officials.4. To nominate substitute officials where such are required. (The composition of a panel of officials may not bechanged at the sole discretion of the Arbitrator, Referee or Judge).5. To investigate and render judgment on matters of official protest.6. To pass the final judgment on matters of a technical nature which may arise during a given match and for whichthere are no stipulations in the rules.B. The Match Area Controllers powers and duties shall be as follows:1. To delegate, appoint, and supervise the Referees and Judges, for all matches in areas under their control.2. To oversee the performance of the Referees and Judges in their areas and to ensure that the Officials appointedare capable of the tasks allotted them.3. To prepare a daily, written report, on the performance of each official under their supervision, together with theirrecommendations, if any, to the Referee Council and the Examining Committee.C. The Referees powers shall be as follows:1. The Referee ("SHUSHIN") shall have the power to conduct matches (including announcing the start, thesuspension, and the end of the match) and:a. To award an IPPON or WAZA-ARI.b. To explain to the Match Area Controller or Referee Council, if necessary, the basis for giving a judgment.c. To impose penalties and to issue warnings (before, during, or after a bout).d. To obtain the opinion(s) of the Judges (by flag gestures).e. To announce extensions.2. The authority of the Referee is not confined solely to the competition area but also to all of its immediate perimeter.3. The Referee shall give all commands and make all announcements.4. When the Judges signal, the Referee must consider their opinions and render a judgment. The Referee however,will only stop the match, if he agrees with the opinions tendered.E. The Judge(s) ("FUKUSHIN") powers shall be as follows:1. a. To assist the Referee by flag gesture.
  19. 19. b. To exercise a right to vote on a decision to be taken.2. The Judge(s) shall carefully observe the actions of the contestants and signal to Referee an opinion in thefollowing cases:a. When an IPPON or WAZA-ARI is observed.b. When a contestant appears about to commit, or has committed a prohibited act and/or techniques.c. When an injury or illness of a contestant is noticed.d. When both or either of the contestants have moved out of the competition area.e. In other cases when it is deemed necessary to call the attention of the Referee.F. The Arbitrator will supervise the Time-Keepers and Score-Keepers. Records kept of the match shall becomeofficial record subject to the approval of the Arbitrator (Kansa).EXPLANATION:When explaining the basis for a judgment after the match, the Referee may speak to the Match Area Controller or theReferee Council. The Referee will explain to no-one else.The good Referee will not halt the smooth flow of the bout unless it is necessary to do so. All halts with no outcome,such as "Yame! - Torimasen" must be avoided.The Referee need not halt a bout when the Judges signal, if convinced the signals are incorrect. The Refereesjudgment in this instance is made "on the move". Before over-ruling the Judges signal, the Referee must considerwhether the Judges were better sighted. Judges will signal only by flag gesture, they will not use whistles.When, however, the match has been halted and the Judges have a different opinion to that of the Referee then themajority decision will prevail.The Judges must only score what they actually see. If they are not sure that a technique actually reached a scoringarea, they should signal "Mienai".ARTICLE 13: STARTING, SUSPENDING AND ENDING OF MATCHES1. The terms and gestures to be used by the Referee and Judges in the operation of a match shall be as specified inAppendices 1 and 2.2. The Referee and Judges shall take up their prescribed positions and, following an exchange of bows between thecontestants, the Referee will announce "SHOBU SANBON HAJIME!" and the bout will commence.3. The Referee will stop the bout by announcing "YAME!" when a scoring technique is seen. The Referee will orderthe contestants to take up their original positions.4. The Referee returns to his position and the Judges indicate their opinion by means of a signal. The Refereeidentifies the relevant score, awards WAZA-ARI or IPPON and supplements the announcement with the prescribedgesture. The Referee then restarts the bout by calling "TSUZUKETE HAJIME!".5. When a contestant has scored SANBON during a bout, the Referee shall call YAME!" and order the contestantsback to their standing lines as he returns to his. The winner is then declared and indicated by the Referee raising ahand on the side of the winner and declaring "SHIRO (AKA) NO KACHI". The bout is ended at this point.
  20. 20. 6. When time is up and the scoring situation tied, the Referee shall call "YAME!" and return to his position. TheReferee will call "HANTEl" and following his signal (by whistle) the Judges will indicate their opinions. The majoritydecision will be taken. The Judges and Referee have one vote each at HANTEI.7. The Referee will award the decision and announce the winner, or give a draw ("HIKIWAKE") .8. In the event of a tied individual bout, the Referee will announce "ENCHO-SEN" and start the extension with thecommand "SHOBU HAJIME!".9. When faced with the following situations, the Referee shall announce "YAME!" and halt the bout temporarily. Thebout will subsequently be restarted.a. When both or either of the contestants are out of the area (or when a Judge signals a JOGAI). The Referee willorder the two contestants to their initial positions.b. When the Referee orders the contestant to adjust his Gi.c. When the Referee notices that a contestant appears about to contravene the rules, or when a signal concerningsame from a Judge is perceived.d. When the Referee notices that a contestant has contravened the rules, or when the Referee perceives a signalfrom a Judge regarding same.e. When the Referee considers that one or both of the contestants cannot continue with the bout owing to injuries,illness or other causes. Heeding the tournament doctors opinion, the Referee will decide whether the bout should becontinued.f. When a contestant seizes his opponent and does not perform an immediate effective technique, the Referee willseparate them.g. When one or both contestants fall or are thrown and no effective techniques are immediately forthcoming.EXPLANATION:When beginning a bout, the Referee first calls the contestants to their starting lines. If a contestant enters the areaprematurely, he/she must be motioned off. The contestants must bow properly to each other -- a quick nod is bothdiscourteous and insufficient. The Referee can call for a bow where none is volunteered by motioning with hisforearms as Shown in Appendix 2 of the rules.When halting a bout, the Referee does not merely call "Yame!", he/she also makes the appropriate signal. TheReferee must first identify the scoring opponent ("Aka" or "Shiro"), then the scoring area attacked ("Chudan" or"Jodan"). This is followed by the general classification of scoring technique used ("Tsuki", "Uchi" or "Keri") and finallythe score awarded ("Waza-Ari" or "Ippon").When re-starting the bout, the Referee should check that both contestants are on their lines and properly composed.Contestants jumping up and down or otherwise fidgeting must be stilled before combat can re-commence. TheReferee must re-start the bout with the minimum of delay.ARTICLE 14: MODIFICATIONSOnly the WKF Referee Council and Technical Committee with the approval of the Directing Committee can alter ormodify these rules.