IoT - Transforming the way we behave with our environment

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In this research paper, we will first define the world of the Internet of Things, discuss about its fundamental enablers and challenges to then investigate how it will impact society and individuals.

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IoT - Transforming the way we behave with our environment

  1. 1. ! The!IoT!'!Transforming!the!way!we!behave!with!our!environment! Stephane.saintdenis@kedgebs.com! 1! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! THE!INTERNET!OF!THINGS!! ! Transforming!the!way!we!behave! with!our!environment!! Thesis!written!by!Stephan!Saint'Denis,!M.Sc!in!Management!&!Marketing,!Kedge!Business!School,!27/05/2014!
  2. 2. ! The!IoT!'!Transforming!the!way!we!behave!with!our!environment! Stephane.saintdenis@kedgebs.com! 2! They!predicted…! ! ! "...by%means%of%electric%media,%we%set%up%a%dynamic%by%which%all%previous% technologies%:%including%cities%:%will%be%translated%into%information%systems"! % Marshall%McLuhan.%1964% % % “The%impact%of%sensors%doesn’t%stop%at%mere%sensing.%What%happens%when%we%put% eyes,%ears,%and%sensory%organs%on%devices?%Inevitably,%we%are%going%to%ask%those% devices%to%respond%to%what%they%“see,”%to%manipulate%the%world%around%them.%The% sensor%decade%will%really%be%a%sensor/effector%decade,%where%devices%will%not%only% observe%things,%they%will%also%manipulate%them.”% % Paul%Saffo's,%1998% % % "And%men%got%dreaming.%Shouldn't%there%be%a%network%that%made%all%my%devices% collaborate%at%all%times,%converse%spontaneously%among%themselves%and%with%the% rest%of%the%world,%and%all%together%make%up%a%kind%of%single%virtual%computer%–%the% sum%of%their%respective%intelligence,%knowledge%and% know%how?"% % Rafi%Haladjian,%2005% % ! "The%Internet%of%Things%has%the%potential%to%change%the%world,%just%as%the%Internet% did.%Maybe%even%more%so."! Kevin!Ashton,!2009! ! !
  3. 3. ! The!IoT!'!Transforming!the!way!we!behave!with!our!environment! Stephane.saintdenis@kedgebs.com! 3! ! ! And!today!it’s!happening…! ! ! Never%forget%to%take%your%medication%again%and%automagically%keep%your%loved% ones%informed.%–%GlowCaps,%2008% ! ! ! Make%energy%savings%and%lower%your%electricity%bill.%:%%Nest,%2010% % % ! Front%pockets%and%purses%are%slowly%being%emptied,%as%your%house%keys%will%now%be% in%your%phone.%%:%August%Smart%Lock,%2013% ! ! % Plants%tell%you%when%to%be%watered.%:%Parrot%Flower%Power,%2013% % % % Intuitively%make%your%life%more%serene.%:%Sense%Mother,%2014% ! ! ! !
  4. 4. ! The!IoT!'!Transforming!the!way!we!behave!with!our!environment! Stephane.saintdenis@kedgebs.com! 4! ! !
  5. 5. ! The!IoT!'!Transforming!the!way!we!behave!with!our!environment! Stephane.saintdenis@kedgebs.com! 5! PREFACE! ! Right!off!the!bat,!I!must!confess,!I!am!somehow!addicted!to!the!Internet!as!I!need! my!daily!dose!of!news,!social!feed!and!junk!that!I!can!find!in!my!inbox.!I!think!a! lot! of! people! can! also! identify! with! this.! It! feels! almost! like! I! can’t! have! a! day! without!being!connected!to!the!Internet.!! ! Technology! startups! and! companies! are! constantly! making! our! experience! on! devices!and!the!Internet!more!simple,!slick!and!intuitive.!Using!computers!and! mobile!devices!has!become!an!almost!hassle!free!experience!as!you!simply!need! to!press!the!power!button,!login!'!and!voila!!From!there!on,!you!have!the!power! to!do!many!things,!the!world!is!literally!at!your!fingertips,!with!only!a!few!clicks.! For! example,! you! can! start! by! virtually! socializing! with! your! friends! on! social! media;! read! your! piece! of! news! on! your! favorite! e'channel;! shop! on! the! web! without!wasting!your!time!outside!in!shopping!malls!and!view!movies!and!TV! shows!on'demand,!instantly.!! ! In! addition,! the! millions! of! applications! have! made! our! experience! more! enjoyable!through!seamless!connection!to!the!Internet.!Applications!can!now!do! a! “zillion”! things! for! you! '! from! videos! games,! instant! news! feeds! and! social! media!to!compasses,!lamp!torches!and!augmented!reality!!'!blurring!the!physical! world!with!the!virtual!world.!!! ! It’s!incredible!to!see!how!these!things!have!changed!our!mode!of!consumption! and!even!behavior!with!technology!and!the!Internet.!! ! The! second! reason! for! writing! this! paper! is! that! I! praise! and! I! also! fear! the! advances! in! technology.! On! the! one! hand,! it! has! made! life! easier,! more! productive!and!entertaining!for!billions!of!people.!It!has!helped!companies!and! entrepreneurs!to!innovate,!optimize!processes!and!create!new!business!models.! Ultimately,!it!has!pushed!humanity!to!discover!new!frontiers:!the!power!of!the! virtual! world! through! the! utilization! of! our! electromagnetic! field! and! smart! technologies.!!
  6. 6. ! The!IoT!'!Transforming!the!way!we!behave!with!our!environment! Stephane.saintdenis@kedgebs.com! 6! On!the!other!hand,!our!privacy!and!security!is!at!stake!as!the!Internet!has!made!it! possible! for! any! individual! to! hack! in! your! computer,! laptop! and! even! your! phone.!The!Edward!Snowden!case,!where!the!NSA!not!only!spied!on!enemies!but! also! on! its! allies! and! citizens,! is! a! perfect! illustration! of! privacy! and! security! breaches! specifically! pertaining! to! the! 21st! century.! This! issue! is! a! growing! concern,! as! the! most! mundane! objects! in! your! house! will! very! likely! be! connected!to!the!Internet,!according!to!predictions1.!! ! Last!but!not!least,!in!November!2013,!I!attended!a!seminar,!“Mobile!Marketing”,! hosted! by! Gemalto! executives! Emmanuel! Legros! and! Nadia! Gonzalez! Ernould.! This! seminar! greatly! piqued! my! interest! as! was! I! was! introduced! to! the! fascinating!world!of!the!Internet!of!Things.!! The! good! news! is! that! I! will! be! interning! at! Gemalto! in! the! Mobile! Marketing! department!as!of!June!2014.!! ! All! of! the! above! reasons! have! motivated! me! into! writing! this! research! paper! about!the!Internet!of!Things.!! ! ! SPECIAL!THANKS! I!would!kindly!like!to!thank!Jean!Philippe!Danglade,!teacher!at!Kedge!Business! School,!who!accepted!to!be!my!tutor,!and!a!good!friend!of!mine,!Andi!Holton,!who! meticulously!corrected!this!paper.!! ! ! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 1See!part!3!'!PREDICTIONS!
  7. 7. ! The!IoT!'!Transforming!the!way!we!behave!with!our!environment! Stephane.saintdenis@kedgebs.com! 7! ! ! !
  8. 8. ! The!IoT!'!Transforming!the!way!we!behave!with!our!environment! Stephane.saintdenis@kedgebs.com! 8! TABLE!OF!CONTENTS! EXECUTIVE!SUMARY!......................................................................................................!10! ! 1.! INTRODUCTION!.......................................................................................................!12! ! SOCIETY!OBSERVATION!AND!EVOLUTION!...............................................................................!12! AVERAGE!JOE!..........................................................................................................................................!13! BLURRING!THE!PHYSICAL!WORLD!WITH!THE!VIRTUAL!WORLD!.................................!14! THE!PLAN!.................................................................................................................................................!15! LIMITATION!............................................................................................................................................!15! ! 2.! WHAT!IS!THE!INTERNET!OF!THINGS?!..............................................................!16! ! ORIGINS!.....................................................................................................................................................!16! DEFINITIONS!..........................................................................................................................................!17! VALUE!PROPOSITION!.........................................................................................................................!18! A!ROSE!BY!ANY!OTHER!NAME!........................................................................................................!18! EXAMPLES!................................................................................................................................................!19! THE!TRIPLE!A!.........................................................................................................................................!22! MIND!BOGGLING!NUMBERS!............................................................................................................!22! DIKW!PYRAMID!.....................................................................................................................................!23! ! TECHNOLOGIES!FOR!THE!INTERNET!OF!THINGS!..........................................................!25! Shrinking!Technologies!......................................................................................................................!26! Sensing!Technologies!..........................................................................................................................!27! Tagging!Technologies!..........................................................................................................................!28! Thinking!Technologies!........................................................................................................................!30! THE!MAKER!REVOLUTION!...............................................................................................................!31! MOBILE!DEVICES!..................................................................................................................................!32! Synergistic!Technologies!...................................................................................................................!33! ! MAIN!CHALLENGES!FOR!THE!IOT!........................................................................................!33! ! BRIEF!HISTORY!.........................................................................................................................!36! ! 3.! FUTURE!SOCIETY!....................................................................................................!40! ! PREDICTIONS!.............................................................................................................................!42! STATISTICS!..............................................................................................................................................!42! WHAT!EXPERTS!ARE!SAYING!–!NUMBER!OF!CONNECTED!DEVICES!...........................!43! WHAT!EXPERTS!ARE!SAYING!–!ECONOMIC!VALUE!OF!THE!IoT!.....................................!44! ! ENVIRONMENTAL!TRANSFORMATION!.............................................................................!46! ! COMPOUND!APPLICATIONS!..................................................................................................!51! ! 4.! CONCLUSION!.............................................................................................................!55! !
  9. 9. ! The!IoT!'!Transforming!the!way!we!behave!with!our!environment! Stephane.saintdenis@kedgebs.com! 9! ! ! APPENDIX!..........................................................................................................................!57! ! MAJOR!REFERENCES!......................................................................................................!61! ! ! ! ! ! ! LIST!OF!APPENDICES!! ! Table!1!'!What!is!a!zetabyte?!! Table!2!'!List!of!tagging/communication!technologies! Table!3!'!The!Internet!of!Things!Landscape! ! Table!4!–!Resource(Kit( ( ( LIST!OF!FIGURES! ! Figure!1V!DIKW!Pyramid! ! Figure!2!V!Evolution!of!shrinking!technologies!versus!cost!! ! Figure!3!V!How!communication!technologies!belong!to!different!categories!of!networks! ! Figure!4!–!Growth!of!the!search!term!“Internet!of!Things”!on!the!Internet,!Google! Trends! ! Figure!5!'!Gartner’s!Hype!Cycle!2013! ! Figure!6!'!Technology!Roadmap!of!the!IoT! ! Figure!7!'!Number!of!Connected!Devices! ! Figure!8!V!How!markets!will!be!affected! ! Figure!9!V!Smart!City! ( ! ! !
  10. 10. ! The!IoT!'!Transforming!the!way!we!behave!with!our!environment! Stephane.saintdenis@kedgebs.com! 10! EXECUTIVE!SUMARY! ! The! Internet! of! Things! (IoT)! is! the! next! evolution! of! the! Internet! and! it! is! happening!right!now.!“The!Internet!of!Things!links!the!objects!of!the!real!world! with!the!virtual!world,!thus!enabling!anytime,!anyplace!connectivity!for!anything! and!not!only!for!anyone.!It!refers!to!a!world!where!physical!objects!and!beings,! as!well!as!virtual!data!and!environments,!all!interact!with!each!other!in!the!same! space!and!time.”!–!CERP'IoT! ! The! Internet! of! Things! is! at! a! nascent! point! and! will! soon! be! reaching! mainstream! consciousness.! Billions! of! computers,! phones! and! televisions! are! now! connected! to! the! Internet.! Progressively,! consumers! are! adopting! new! categories!of!connected!objects,!such!as!the!smart!watch!from!Samsung!and!the! smart! thermostat! and! glasses! from! Google.! In! fact,! within! a! few! years! now,! anything!within!our!environment!will!be!connectable.!“Currently,!99.4!percent!of! physical!objects!that!may!one!day!be!part!of!the!Internet!of!Everything!are!still! unconnected.”!–!Cisco!IBSG! ! Today,! there! are! more! than! 10! billion! wirelessly! connected! devices! in! the! market.! In! 2015,! 15! to! 25! billion! devices! will! be! connected.! And! by! 2020,! 50! billion!IoT'enabled!devices!will!be!functional.!! McKinsey!Global!Institute!estimates!that!the!economic!impact!of!the!Internet!of! Objects!will!hit!$2.7!trillion!to!$6.2!trillion!per!year!by!2025.!! ! The!Internet!of!Things!applications!will!increasingly!transform!individuals’!lives! within! the! macro! and! micro! environment,! the! personal! and! professional! environment!and!across!all!industries.! ! The! promotion! and! development! of! the! IoT! depends! on! several! key! enablers,! which!are!considered!as!dynamic!technical!innovations.!They!can!be!divided!into! four! big! categories:! shrinking! technologies,! tagging! technologies,! sensing! technologies!and!thinking!technologies.! !
  11. 11. ! The!IoT!'!Transforming!the!way!we!behave!with!our!environment! Stephane.saintdenis@kedgebs.com! 11! As! data! and! information! are! proliferating! with! the! development! of! smarter,! smaller,! cheaper! and! connected! technologies,! we! are! entering! a! knowledge' based! economy! where! information! and! knowledge! are! now! recognized! as! the! driver!of!productivity!and!economic!growth!in!an!increasingly!challenging!world.!! ! As!connected!things!will!be!capable!to!take!action!without!a!human!operator,! many! nodes! are! subject! to! hacking! by! anyone,! including! malicious! hackers,! criminals!or!terrorists.!Home!automation!poses!great!questions!as!it!means!that! the!houses!of!billions!of!people!are!potentially!exposed!to!both!privacy!breaches! and!security!threats.!! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !
  12. 12. ! The!IoT!'!Transforming!the!way!we!behave!with!our!environment! Stephane.saintdenis@kedgebs.com! 12! 1.INTRODUCTION! SOCIETY!OBSERVATION!AND!EVOLUTION!! ! Society!has!witnessed!a!great!revolution!in!the!last!two!decades!or!so,!where!the! Internet,!computers,!laptops,!tablets!and!smart!phones!can!now!be!found!in!the! homes! of! billions! of! people.! These! revolutionary! telecommunication! technologies!are!relatively!recent!innovations,!yet!they!have!changed!forever!the! way!we!interact!and!behave!with!people.!! ! Home!computers!were!the!first!“connected!devices”!introduced!to!mainstream! society!as!they!permitted!the!transfer!of!data!within!a!global!virtual!network.! That! meant! that! anyone! could! communicate! from! one! point! of! the! globe! to! another! one,! instantly.! In! the! past! decade,! home! computers! have! been! progressively!replaced!by!laptops!as!technology!became!smarter!and!cheaper.!! In!the!past!years,!we!have!witnessed!a!boom!in!communication!technologies!in! the! consumer! market.! Smartphones! seamlessly! introduced! themselves! in! the! pockets! of! 2! billion! users! and! tablet! PCs! are! now! becoming! a! substitute! for! laptops.! ! We! are! in! a! society! where! technology! is! becoming! increasingly! important!and!indispensable!to!the!life!of!millions!and!even!billions!of!people.!! ! The! first! wave! of! mass! produced! home! computers! to! gain! commercial! appeal! happened! in! the! late! 1970s! when! large'scale! integration! made! it! possible! to! construct!a!sufficiently!powerful!and!cost!effective!microprocessor!on!a!single! semiconductor! chip!2.! Specifically,! 1977! saw! the! introduction! of! the! so'called! “Big'Three”:! The! Apple,! The! Tandy/Radio! Shack! TRS'80! Model! and! the! Commodore!Pet!2000!in!North!America.!! With! the! introduction! of! the! Internet! to! civilians! and! the! fact! that! computer! technologies!became!cheaper!and!cheaper,!home!computers!witnessed!a!great! boom!in!developed!countries!in!the!1990s.!! ! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 2!Source:!Encyclopedia!Britannica! http://global.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/452928/personal'computer'PC!
  13. 13. ! The!IoT!'!Transforming!the!way!we!behave!with!our!environment! Stephane.saintdenis@kedgebs.com! 13! Today,!in!the!smartphone!business,!the!iPhone!is!often!taken!as!a!reference,!as!it! highly!contributed!to!making!smart!mobile!phones!mainstream.!The!first!iPhone! and!its!first!dedicated!app!market!were!introduced!in!early!20073,!and!was!seen! by! many! as! revolutionary.! Note! that! in! 1992,! Simon! by! IBM,! was! the! first! smartphone!introduced!to!the!consumer!market.!However,!its!price!of!$899!and! unease!of!use!made!its!market!penetration!very!limited.!! ! The!late!2000s!has!witnessed!the!morphing!of!computer!technologies!such!as! tablets!and!phablets.!As!computer!technologies!are!becoming!smaller,!smarter! and!cheaper,!we!are!progressively!entering!into!a!new!stage!of!the!Internet:!the! semantic!web4!where!the!Internet!of!Things!will!play!a!major!and!disruptive!role! within!the!next!few!years.!! !! !! ! AVERAGE!JOE! Average!Joe!uses!a!computer!–!every!day.!Average!Joe!uses!a!smartphone!–!every! day.! This! is! a! fact! for! most! people! living! in! developed! countries.! We! live! in! a! digitalized!world,!where!it!has!become!a!necessity!to!connect!to!the!Internet!on!a! daily!basis.!! ! During!breakfast,!Average!Joe!likes!to!start!his!day!by!checking!his!“virtual!me”.! On!public!transport,!he!kills!time!by!watching!Youtube!videos.!At!the!office,!his! single!and!most!important!work!tool!is!his!laptop.!!In!fact,!laptops!populate!the! whole! office! and! building! which! is! compartmentalized! with! cubicles.! When! Average!Joe!has!a!lunch!meeting!in!the!city,!Google!maps!is!a!life!saver!as!he!no! longer!needs!to!ask!for!directions!and!take!the!risk!of!getting!lost.!!! ! After! work,! he! usually! goes! for! a! walk! in! Central! Park.! At! this! point,! he! will! activate! a! health! and! gym! application! which! will! allow! him! to! track! his! pace,! distance!and!cardiac!rhythm,!to!finally!share!his!performance!to!his!friends!on! Facebook.!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 3!Source:!“The!First!Five!Years!of!the!iPhone!Obsession”,!Bloomberg!Businessweek,!Peter! Burrows,!June!21,!2012!! 4!W3C,!http://www.w3.org/RDF/FAQ!
  14. 14. ! The!IoT!'!Transforming!the!way!we!behave!with!our!environment! Stephane.saintdenis@kedgebs.com! 14! ! At!home,!the!smartphone!is!usually!replaced!by!the!tablet.!It!is!very!convenient! for! average! Joe,! as! it! allows! him! to! take! a! break! from! other! technologies! he’s! been!using!all!day;!and!he!can!enjoy!a!greater!experience!as!it!is!light,!portable! and!the!screen!is!wider.!In!fact!his!wife!and!his!2!kids!also!have!laptops,!tablets! and!smartphones.!However,!there!is!one!big!rule!at!home!–!no!devices!during! dinner,!it’s!family!time.! ! Average!Joe!often!goes!abroad!on!vacation.!He!is!very!glad!to!be!able!to!use!his! smartphone!as!he!can!stay!in!touch!with!his!loved!ones!and!friends.!In!addition! keeping! an! eye! on! his! parents! is! important! and! now! possible,! as! he! recently! installed! home! sensors,! which! will! send! him! a! notification! if! something! un' habitual!happens.!! ! Interestingly,! if! you! take! a! closer! look! at! his! phone,! many! applications! are! installed.!Some!are!very!useful!–!carpooling,!music!identification,!instant!social! media,! lamp! torch,! compass! and! dating! apps! –! others! haven’t! been! used! for! months!now.!! ! The! way! we! access! information,! seek! advice,! communicate,! socialize! and! entertain! ourselves! has! substantially! evolved! in! the! past! decade.! The! Internet! and!technology!has!completely!transformed!people’s!life.!! ! BLURRING!THE!PHYSICAL!WORLD!WITH!THE!VIRTUAL!WORLD! Today,!a!hot!topic!–!which!may!change!our!relationship!with!the!Internet!and!the! physical!environment!–!is!carefully!grabbing!the!attention!of!many!professionals,! experts,!businesses,!academia!and!governments.!Cities,!infrastructure,!buildings,! streets,! companies,! houses,! devices! and! individuals! are! being! equipped! with! networked!sensors!and!actuators!that!allow!them!to!monitor!their!environment,! communicate!collected!data,!receive!instructions,!and!even!take!decisions!based! on!the!information!received!from!powerful!cloud!computing!systems.!This!is!the! Internet!of!Things.!!
  15. 15. ! The!IoT!'!Transforming!the!way!we!behave!with!our!environment! Stephane.saintdenis@kedgebs.com! 15! ! It!will!give!a!whole!new!dimension!to!our!world,!where!previously!inert!objects! will!be!able!to!communicate!with!you!and!other!things.!! This! revolution! has! already! started.! More! than! nine! billion! objects,! including! computers,! smartphones! and! tablets,! are! connected! today.! This! number! is! expected! to! skyrocket! in! the! future,! with! estimates! of! 50! billion! connected! devices!by!2020,!according!to!some!experts5.!! ! But!what!is!it!like!to!live!in!a!world!where!everyday!objects!will!be!smart?!Which! sectors!will!be!impacted,!and!how!will!it!affect!individuals’!life!on!a!daily!basis?! How!does!it!solve!problems?!And,!are!there!any!concerns!–!will!my!security!and! privacy!be!jeopardized?!! ! THE!PLAN! In!this!research!paper,!we!will!first!define!the!world!of!the!Internet!of!Things,! discuss!about!its!fundamental!enablers!and!challenges!to!then!investigate!how!it! will!impact!society!and!individuals.! ! LIMITATION! As!all!levels!of!society!–!nations!and!cities,!industries!and!businesses,!consumers! and! individuals! –! will! be! impacted! by! the! Internet! of! Things,! I! will! limit! my! research!to!the!consumer!level.!! In!addition,!to!make!my!thesis!more!accessible!to!anyone,!I!will!try!to!keep!things! as!simple!as!possible.!! ! If! you! have! any! questions,! please! do! not! hesitate! to! contact! me! at! stephane.saintdenis@kedgebs.com! ! ! ! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 5!Source:!Cisco!IBSG,!2013!
  16. 16. ! The!IoT!'!Transforming!the!way!we!behave!with!our!environment! Stephane.saintdenis@kedgebs.com! 16! 2.WHAT!IS!THE!INTERNET!OF!THINGS?! ! ORIGINS! ! The!Internet!of!Things!is!a!phrase!that!is!becoming!as!ubiquitous!as!the!concept! itself.! The! phrase,! "Internet! of! Things",! was! coined! fifteen! years! ago! by! Kevin! Ashton,!co'founder!of!the!MIT!Auto'ID!Center.!! ! In! 2009,! for! an! interview! for! the! RFID! Journal! Kevin! Ashton! said! "I! could! be! wrong,!but!I'm!fairly!sure!the!phrase!"Internet!of!Things"!started!life!as!the!title! of!a!presentation!I!made!at!Procter!&!Gamble!(P&G)!in!1999.!Linking!the!new! idea!of!RFID!in!P&G's!supply!chain!to!the!then'red'hot!topic!of!the!Internet!was! more!than!just!a!good!way!to!get!executive!attention.!It!summed!up!an!important! insight!which!is!still!often!misunderstood."!! ! Searching! for! ways! to! improve! its! business’! supply! chain! management,! he! conceptualized! a! vision! where! all! items! could! be! identified! with! wireless! connectivity!and!smarter!technologies,!enabling!supplies!to!communicate!with! each!other,!without!human!intervention.!In!the!same!interview!for!the!RFID,!he! interestingly!says:!“Today!computers!–!and!therefore,!the!internet!–!are!almost! wholly!dependent!on!human!beings!for!information.!Nearly!all!of!the!roughly!50! petabytes6!of!data!available!on!the!Internet!were!first!captured!and!created!by! human!beings!–!by!typing,!pressing!a!record!button,!taking!a!digital!picture!or! scanning!a!bar!code![…]!If!we!had!computers!that!knew!everything!there!was!to! know! about! things—using! data! they!gathered!without!any!help!from! us!''! we! would!be!able!to!track!and!count!everything,!and!greatly!reduce!waste,!loss!and! cost.!We!would!know!when!things!needed!replacing,!repairing!or!recalling,!and! whether!they!were!fresh!or!past!their!best.!We!need!to!empower!computers!with! their!own!means!of!gathering!information,!so!they!can!see,!hear!and!smell!the! world!for!themselves,!in!all!its!random!glory.!RFID!and!sensor!technology!enable! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 6!1!minute!of!MP3!music!file!is!about!1!megabyte/!16!hours!of!music!≈!!1!gigabyte!/! 1!terabyte!≈!2!years!of!continuous!music!!/!1!exabyte!≈!!2000!years!worth!of!continuous!listening! /!1!petabyte!level!≈!!2!million!years!/!1!zetabyte!≈!2!billion!years!worth!of!music.!! !
  17. 17. ! The!IoT!'!Transforming!the!way!we!behave!with!our!environment! Stephane.saintdenis@kedgebs.com! 17! computers! to! observe,! identify! and! understand! the! world—without! the! limitations!of!human'entered!data.”!!! ! Since!then,!the!definition!and!vision!of!the!Internet!of!Things!has!evolved!and! matured! within! academia,! companies! and! experts! in! the! field! of! telecommunication!and!automation.!At!the!core,!it!is!about!having!things!that!can! connect,!communicate!and!make!decisions!with!or!without!human!intervention! via!wireless!connectivity.!! ! DEFINITIONS! ! • CERPVIoT!says!“The!Internet!of!Things!links!the!objects!of!the!real!world! with!the!virtual!world,!thus!enabling!anytime,!anyplace!connectivity!for! anything! and! not! only! for! anyone.! It! refers! to! a! world! where! physical! objects!and!beings,!as!well!as!virtual!data!and!environments,!all!interact! with!each!other!in!the!same!space!and!time.”7! ! • National! Intelligence! Council!refers!to!the!IoT!as!“the!general!idea!of! things,! especially! everyday! objects,! that! are! readable,! recognizable,! locatable,!addressable,!and/or!controllable!via!the!Internet—whether!via! RFID,! wireless! local! area! network,! wide'area! network,! or! other! means.! Everyday!objects!includes!not!only!the!electronic!devices!we!encounter! every!day,!and!not!only!the!products!of!higher!technological!development! such!as!vehicles!and!equipment,!but!things!that!we!do!not!ordinarily!think! of!as!electronic!at!all—such!as!food,!clothing,!and!shelter;!materials,!parts,! and! subassemblies;! commodities! and! luxury! items;! landmarks,! boundaries,! and! monuments;! and! all! the! miscellany! of! commerce! and! culture."8! ! • Cisco! defines! the! IoT! as! “the! network! of! physical! objects! accessed! through!the!Internet,!as!defined!by!technology!analysts!and!visionaries.! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 7!Book:!http://www.internet'of'things'research.eu/pdf/IoT_Clusterbook_March_2010.pdf! 8!Document:!!http://www.fas.org/irp/nic/disruptive.pdf!
  18. 18. ! The!IoT!'!Transforming!the!way!we!behave!with!our!environment! Stephane.saintdenis@kedgebs.com! 18! These! objects! contain! embedded! technology! to! interact! with! internal! states! or! the! external! environment.! In! other! words,! when! objects! can! sense!and!communicate,!it!changes!how!and!where!decisions!are!made,! and!who!makes!them.”9!! ! • Cisco! Internet! Business! Solutions! Group! (IBSG),! IoT! “is! simply! the! point! in! time! when! more! “things! or! objects”! were! connected! to! the! Internet!than!people.”!It!happened!between!2008!and!2009.! ! • Oxford! dictionary! determines! the! IoT! as! “A! proposed! development! of! the! internet! in! which! everyday! objects! have! network! connectivity,! allowing!them!to!send!and!receive!data.”! ! VALUE!PROPOSITION! Interestingly,!you!can!notice!in!the!above'mentioned!definitions!that!value!can! be!determined!in!different!ways.!! ! Value! proposition! 1:! The! added! value! underlined! is! the! fact! that! objects! can! communicate!via!networks.!It’s!about!adding!value!to!things.!! ! Value! proposition! 2:! The! added! value! underlined! is! the! fact! that! a! network! is! created.! It’s! about! adding! value! to! a! system,! making! the! system! more! “intelligent”.!! ! A!ROSE!BY!ANY!OTHER!NAME! As!the!IoT!is!becoming!more!and!more!ubiquitous,!the!term!has!been!used!by! many!research!publications,!conferences,!academia!and!marketing!buzz.!You!can! therefore!often!read!or!hear!about!other!terms!that!have!the!same!meaning!as! the!Internet!of!Things!or!pertaining!to!the!same!concept:!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 9!Web!page:!http://www.cisco.com/web/solutions/trends/iot/overview.html!
  19. 19. ! The!IoT!'!Transforming!the!way!we!behave!with!our!environment! Stephane.saintdenis@kedgebs.com! 19! Internet! of! Everything,! Physical! Internet,! Machine! to! Machine,! Ambient! Intelligence,!Industrial!Internet,!Web!of!Things,!Connected!Environments,!Smart! Cities,!Spimes,!Everyware,!Pervasive!Internet,!Connected!World,!Wireless!Sensor! Networks,!Situated!Computing.!! ! EXAMPLES! Below,! are! a! few! examples! of! connected! devices! currently! available! on! the! market10.!! ! For!The!Body! !! ! ! ! ! For!The!House! ! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 10!Source:!Postscapes! Check!on!Your!Baby! Aimed!at!helping!to!prevent!SIDS,!the!Mimo!monitor!is!a!new! kind! of! infant! monitor! that! provides! parents! with! real'time! information! about! their! baby's! breathing,! skin! temperature,! body!position,!and!activity!level!on!their!smartphones.! ! Track!Your!Activity!Levels! Using! your! smartphone's! range! of! sensors! (Accelerometer,! Gyro,! Video,! Proximity,! Compass,! GPS,! etc)! and! connectivity! options! (Cell,! WiFi,! Bluetooth,! NFC,! etc)! you! have! a! well! equipped! Internet! of! Things! device! in! your! pocket! that! can! automatically!monitor!your!movements,!location,!and!workouts! throughout!the!day.! Remember!to!Take!Your!Medication! GlowCaps! fit! prescription! bottles! and! via! a! wireless! chip! provide!services!that!help!people!stick!with!their!prescription! regimen;! from! reminder! messages,! all! the! way! to! refill! and! doctor!coordination.! Track!Down!Your!Lost!Keys! You!can!easily!track!down!those!lost!keys!or!cell!phone!in!your! house! using! Bluetooth! and! other! wireless! technology! devices! like!the!Cobra!Tag.!! !
  20. 20. ! The!IoT!'!Transforming!the!way!we!behave!with!our!environment! Stephane.saintdenis@kedgebs.com! 20! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! For!The!Streets! ! ! ! ! ! For!The!Environment! ! Turn!Your!Home!devices!I/O!from!anywhere! Smart!outlets!like!the!WeMo!allow!you!to!instantly!turn!on!and! off! any! plugged! in! device! from! across! the! world! or! just! your! living! room.! Save! money! and! conserve! energy! over! time! by! eliminating! standby! power,! measure! and! record! the! power! usage!of!any!device,!and!increase!its!operating!lifespan!through! more!efficient!use!and!scheduling.! Keep!Your!Plants!Alive! Whether! taking! care! of! a! small! hydroponic! system! or! a! large! backyard! lawn,! systems! like! HarvestGeek! with! their! suite! of! sensors!and!web!connectivity!help!save!you!time!and!resources! by!keeping!plants!fed!based!on!their!actual!growing!needs!and! conditions!while!automating!much!of!the!labor!processes.! Stop!Driving!in!Circles! With! the! use! of! installed! sensors,! mobile! apps,! and! real'time! web! applications! like! those! provided! in! Streetline’s! ParkSight! service,!cities!can!optimize!revenue,!parking!space!availability! and! enable! citizens! to! reduce! their! environmental! impact! by! helping!them!quickly!find!an!open!spot!for!their!cars.! Keep!Your!Streets!Clean! Products!like! the! cellular! communication! enabled! Smart! Belly! trash! use! real'time! data! collection! and! alerts! to! let! municipal! services! know! when! a! bin! needs! to! be! emptied.! This! information! can! drastically! reduce! the! number! of! pick'ups! required,! and! translates! into! fuel! and! financial! savings! for! communities!service!departments.! Monitor!Pollution!Levels! The! Air! Quality! Egg! is! a! community'led! air! quality! sensing! system! designed! to! allow! anyone! to! collect! high! resolution! readings!of!NO2!and!CO!concentrations!outside!of!their!home! using!an!RF!transmitter!and!ethernet!driven!base!station.!The! data!can!then!be!shared!to!create!a!network!of!readings!to!be! used!by!the!community!and!general!public.!
  21. 21. ! The!IoT!'!Transforming!the!way!we!behave!with!our!environment! Stephane.saintdenis@kedgebs.com! 21! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Track!Water! The! University! of! Berkeley's! Floating! Sensor! Network! project! uses! motorized! drifters! (Outfitted! with! cell! communication,! GPS,! temperature,! and! salinity! sensors)! that! can! be! quickly! deployed!in!response!to!unanticipated!events!such!as!floods!to! track! the! movement! of! water,! contaminants,! and! other! conditions!in!waterways.! Stop!The!Bleeding! Invisible! Tracck! is! a! wireless! device! being! used! in! pilot! programs! to! help! combat! illegal! deforestation! taking! place! in! the! Amazon.! The! battery'operated! devices! are! installed! on! select!trees!and!as!soon!as!the!logged!trees!are!in!transit!and! able!to!connect!to!a!mobile!network!(Up!to!a!20!mile!range),!an! alert! notification! with! location! coordinates! is! sent! to! the! Brazilian!Institute!of!Environment!so!they!can!take!action.!
  22. 22. ! The!IoT!'!Transforming!the!way!we!behave!with!our!environment! Stephane.saintdenis@kedgebs.com! 22! THE!TRIPLE!A! All!in!all,!remember!that!anything!will!be!connectable!to!the!Internet!(directly!or! indirectly)!at!anytime!(24h/24h)!and!anywhere,!which!in!return!enables!new! forms!of!monitoring,!communication!and!decision'making!between!people!and! things,!and!between!things!themselves.!!! ! MIND!BOGGLING!NUMBERS!! Considering!that!networks!and!indeed!the!network!of!networks!(the!Internet)! can! now! be! programmed! to! communicate! with! anything,! including! living! beings11,!this!brings!humanity!to!a!whole!new!level.!! ! Today,!it!is!estimated!that!4,000!exabytes!of!information!is!on!the!Internet.!To! give! an! idea:! If! you! stacked! books! one! on! top! of! the! other,! starting! from! the! surface! of! the! Earth,! the! amount! of! information! in! 4,000! exabytes! would! take! that!stack!from!Earth!to!Pluto,!and!back!'!80!times12.!! ! Furthermore,!it!is!estimated!that!only!10!billion!of!the!total!1.5!trillion!things!are! connected!to!the!Internet.!There!are!approximately!200!connectable!things!per! person!in!the!world!today13.!!!In!other!words,!99.4%!of!physical!objects!are!still! unconnected.! Cisco! predicts! that! annual! Internet! traffic! volume! will! hit! 1.3! Zettabytes!by!2016!(view!appendix:!Table!1!'!What!is!a!zettabyte?)! ! With!the!activation!of!the!Internet!of!Everything,!the!process!of!inputting!data! into! computer! systems! is! being! delegated! to! smart! devices.! Increasingly,! IoT' enabled!services!are!capable!of!collecting,!processing!and!mining!data!to!create! information.!As!technologies!will!become!smarter,!they!will!–!or!already!are!able! to!–!collect!information!to!create!knowledge!and!to!ultimately!reach!wisdom.!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 11!A!Dutch!startup!is!using!wireless!sensors!on!cows!so!that!when!one!is!sick!or!pregnant,!it!sends! a!message!to!the!farmer.!Each!cow!transmits!200mbof!data!per!year.!Sources:!Cisco!IBSG,!Jim! Cicconi,!AT&T,!Steve!Leibson,!Computer!History!Museum,!CNN,!University!of!Michigan.! 12!Source:!Create!Moments!of!Random!Social!Kindness,!Bryan!Kramer,!CEO!Pure!Matter,!October! 14,!2013.! 13!Source:!“How!the!Next!Evolution!of!the!Internet!Is!Changing!Everything”,!Cisco!Internet! Business!Solutions!Group,!2011.!
  23. 23. ! The!IoT!'!Transforming!the!way!we!behave!with!our!environment! Stephane.saintdenis@kedgebs.com! 23! In!fact,!we!are!entering!a!realm,!where!technologies!are!being!empowered!with! cognitive!and!learning!capabilities,!like!humans.!It!is!therefore!interesting!to!take! a!look!at!the!human!cognitive!process!–!DIKW!Pyramid!–!and!see!how!it!can!be! applied!to!computer!science.! ! DIKW!PYRAMID! The!DIKW!–!Data,!Information,!Knowledge,!Wisdom!–!pyramid!is!a!depiction!of! the! human! cognitive! process.! Our! senses! gather! data! –! eyes! collect! light,! for! example! –! which! is! then! processed! to! the! brain.! The! brain! provides! us! with! information!about!our!physical!environment.!After,!this!information!is!processed! and! assessed! with! other! stored! information! (memories)! in! our! brain! to! get! a! bearing,! knowledge! and! even! understanding! of! what! is! happening! within! our! surroundings!to!react/behave!appropriately.!Ultimately,!what!all!humans!would! like! to! master! is! to! acquire! knowledge! of! what! is! right! coupled! with! just! judgment!–!wisdom.!!! ! Now!let’s!have!a!look!at!how!this!process!can!be!applicable!in!computer!science,! which! will! in! return! help! us! have! a! better! understanding! of! the! relam! the! Internet!of!Everything.!! ! Increasingly,!computer!systems!will!collect!a!great!deal!of!data!through!sensors;! a!big!opportunity!for!the!data!management!industry.!But!data!is!raw,!as!it!has!no! significance.!With!the!ability!of!distributing!and!analyzing!data!–!with!wireless! connectivity,!processors!and!cloud!computing,!for!example!'!we!can!effectively! and!efficiently!make!sense!of!data!'!information14.!! Information!provides!answers.!In!other!words,!we!see!things!in!data!that!we! didn’t!see!before.!Data!is!mined.!“Who",!"what",!"where",!and!"when"!questions! may!now!be!answered!for!any!given!thing.!! ! ! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 14!Technologies!still!need!to!be!optimized!for!several!reasons!to!enable!the!Internet!of! Everything:!energy!efficient!requirements,!cost!effectiveness,!smartness,!and!miniaturization!of! these!technologies.!!
  24. 24. ! The!IoT!'!Transforming!the!way!we!behave!with!our!environment! Stephane.saintdenis@kedgebs.com! 24! The!appropriate!collection!and! acquisition!of!information!leads! to! knowledge.! It! is! a! deterministic! process 15 .! Knowledge!will!help!system!to! “how! to”! deal! with! things! through! the! appropriate! collection! of! information.! True! cognitive! and! analytical! ability! is! needed! to! develop! synthesized! new! knowledge,! therefore!giving!you!even!more! insight!and!understanding.!In!computer!parlance,!artificial!intelligence!systems! possess! understanding! in! the! sense! that! they! are! able! to! synthesize! new! knowledge!from!previously!stored!information!and!knowledge.! Finally,!wisdom!calls!upon!all!the!previous!levels!of!consciousness!–!to!make!the! right! decision.! It! beckons! to! give! us! understanding! about! which! there! has! previously! been! no! understanding,! and! in! doing! so,! goes! far! beyond! understanding!itself.!It!is!the!essence!of!philosophical!probing.!It!asks!questions! to!which!there!is!no!easily'achievable!answer,!and!in!some!cases,!to!which!there! can!be!no!humanly'known!answer16.!! ! Visionaries,!such!as!John!Barrett,!believe!that!with!people’s!good!intentions,!the! Internet! of! Things! and! artificial! intelligence! will! help! us! develop! wisdom! to! ultimately!better!allocate!resources!to!everybody!according!to!their!needs.!To!a! certain!extent,!this!is!already!happening!with!IBM’s!Smarter!City!initiative!(eg:! fighting!traffic!and!eliminating!the!carnage!in!our!roads).! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 15!“When!someone!"memorizes"!information,!then!they!have!amassed!knowledge.!For!example,! elementary!school!children!memorize,!or!amass!knowledge!of,!the!"times!table".!They!can!tell! you!that!"2!x!2!=!4"!because!they!have!amassed!that!knowledge!(it!being!included!in!the!times! table).!But!when!asked!what!is!"1267!x!300",!they!can!not!respond!correctly!because!that!entry!is! not!in!their!times!table.!To!correctly!answer!such!a!question!requires!a!true!cognitive!and! analytical!ability!that!is!only!encompassed!in!the!next!level...!understanding.”!!Systems!Thinking! in!Action!Discussions!by!Gene!Bellinger. 16!Source:!“Data,!Information,!Knowledge!and!Wisdom”,!Systems!Thinking!in!Action!Discussions! by!Gene!Bellinger.! Figure!4!'!DIKW!Pyramid! Depiction! of! the! human! cognitive! process;! alike! computer!science/artificial!intelligence.! !
  25. 25. ! The!IoT!'!Transforming!the!way!we!behave!with!our!environment! Stephane.saintdenis@kedgebs.com! 25! TECHNOLOGIES!FOR!THE!INTERNET!OF!THINGS! ! Now!that!we!have!a!fairly!good!grasp!at!what!the!Internet!of!Things!is,!we!will!! go!through!the!enablers!to!understand!how!its!continuous!research!and! development!is!fundamental!!for!its!promotion.!! ! The! Internet! of! Things! is! at! a! nascent! point! and! will! soon! be! reaching! mainstream! consciousness.! Billions! of! computers,! phones! and! televisions! are! now! connected! to! the! Internet.! Progressively,! consumers! are! adopting! new! categories!of!connected!of!objects,!such!as!the!smart!watch!from!Samsung!and! the!smart!thermostat!and!glasses!from!Google.!This!means!that!our!houses!and! even!our!bodies!are!increasingly!being!connected!to!a!network!or!the!Internet.!!! In!fact,!anything!within!our!environment!will!have!the!potential!to!be!connected.! This! is! why! it! is! of! utmost! importance! that! all! players! –! governments,! policy! makers,! scientists,! academia,! industries! and! business! –! must! contribute! and! collaborate!with!the!advances!in!the!Internet!of!Everything.!! ! The! promotion! and! development! of! IoT! depends! on! several! key! enablers! '! dynamic! technical! innovations.! ! These! innovations! include! enhanced! item! identification,! data! collection,! embedded! intelligence,! operating! systems,! interoperable!communication!and!management!standards,!cloud!computing!and! its!miniaturization.!! To!keep!it!simple,!we!can!divide!these!enablers!into!four!categories:!! • Shrinking!Technologies!–!eg:!miniaturization!and!nanotechnologies.! • Tagging!Technologies!–!eg:!RFID,!Bluetooth,!WiFi,!etc.! • Sensing!Technologies!–!eg:!movement!sensors,!temperature!sensors!etc.! • Thinking! Technologies! –! eg:! objects! that! can! access! the! semantic! web,! cloud! analytics! and! applications! to! respond! appropriately! to! its! environment.! These! enablers! already! exist! but! are! not! quite! yet.! In! the! past! decade! or! so,! companies! (IoT! consortium! comprised! of! 28! companies17),! institutions! (2005:! United! Nations’! first! report! on! IOT,! 2006:! IoT! is! recognized! by! the! European! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 17!http://iofthings.org/!
  26. 26. ! The!IoT!'!Transforming!the!way!we!behave!with!our!environment! Stephane.saintdenis@kedgebs.com! 26! Commission)!and!academia!(the!connected!coffee!pot!at!Cambridge!University)! have!put!in!a!lot!of!effort!and!investment!to!make!it!where!we!are!at!right!now.! Yet,! we! still! need! to! promote! the! Internet! of! Things! to! offer! best! consumer! experience!–!leveraging!ambient!intelligence,!for!example.!! ! According!to!Gartner’s!Hype!Cycle!2013,!the!Internet!if!Things!is!still!under!the! peak!of!inflated!expectations!category.!Indeed!early!publicity!produces!a!number! of! success! stories—often! accompanied! by! scores! of! failures.! Some! companies! take!action;!many!do!not.18!It!will!take!more!than!ten!years!to!reach!the!plateau! of!productivity!to!finally!be!adopted!by!mainstream!society.!! ! SHRINKING!TECHNOLOGIES! ! Moore’s!law19!has!demonstrated!that!the!density!of!transistors!in!any!given!area! will!double!every!two!years.!However,!there!is!a!point!of!Moore’s!law!which!will! reach! maximum! density.! According! to! futurists! like! Raymond! Kurzweil! and! others,!we!will!move!beyond!silicon!based!computing!to!other!nanotechnologies! such!as!nanotubes20.!All!types!of!technologies!are!bound!to!become!smaller!and! smaller! as! researchers! and! businesses! are! continuously! striving! to! make! it! happen.!Take!for!example!your!computer!ten!years!ago.!How!does!it!look!like! today?! There! is! no! doubt! that! we! will! be! able! to! connect! anything! in! our! environment.!!! ! In! addition,! we! will! reach! powers! of! computing! that! are! exponentially! higher! than!what!we!currently!have.!With!miniaturization,!not!only!can!we!do!more,!but! also! consume! less! power.! The! smart'watch! is! a! very! good! example! of! how! miniaturization!of!technologies!is!affecting!the!consumer!market.!But!this!is!only! the!beginning,!as!it!will!transform!life,!businesses!and!the!global!economy.!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 18!Source:!Methodologies,!Hype!Cycles,!Gartner.! 19!Moore’s!Law!is!a!computing!term!which!originated!around!1970;!the!simplified!version!of!this! law!states!that!processor!speeds,!or!overall!processing!power!for!computers!will!double!every! two!years.!Source:!www.mooreslaw.org.! 20!Source:!Faster!Computer!with!nanotechnology,!Science!Daily,!University!of!Gothenburg,!June!1! 2010.!
  27. 27. ! The!IoT!'!Transforming!the!way!we!behave!with!our!environment! Stephane.saintdenis@kedgebs.com! 27! Innovating! in! miniaturization! will! tremendously! promote! the! IoT! in! the! next! years!and!decades!to!come.! Here,! is! an! illustration! from! the! International! Telecommunication! Union21!'! showing!how!miniaturization!will!increase!the!amount!of!connected!things!while! prices!will!substantially!decrease!over!time.!! ! ! ! ! SENSING!TECHNOLOGIES! ! One! may! wonder! '! how! are! things/objects! able! to! respond! to! temperature! changes,! movements! and! sound! variation?! Sensor! technologies,! such! as! thermostats,! do! the! job,! and! they! are! increasingly! becoming! smaller,! smarter,! diverse!and!cheaper.!!! ! The! ability! to! detect! changes! in! the! physical! status! of! things! is! essential! for! recording!changes!in!the!environment.!Sensors!play!a!pivotal!role!in!bridging!the! gap!between!the!physical!and!virtual!worlds,!and!enabling!things!to!respond!to! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 21!United!Nations’!specialized!agency!for!information!and!communication!technologies.! Figure!5!–!Evolution!of!shrinking!technologies!versus!cost!! Source:!ITU! !
  28. 28. ! The!IoT!'!Transforming!the!way!we!behave!with!our!environment! Stephane.saintdenis@kedgebs.com! 28! changes! in! their! physical! environment.! In! other! words,! sensing! technologies! offers!our!physical!world!a!digital!nervous!system!composed!of!virtual!organs! and!senses,!allowing!everyday!objects!to!react!to!its!environment.! ! Sensors!collect!data!from!their!environment,!which!is!then!processed!locally!or! remotely! via! embedded! processing! nodes.! Information! is! then! created! and! digitized!so!that!actuators!can!respond!accordingly.!!For!example,!sensors!in!a! smart! house! collect! data! about! changes! in! external! temperature! and! weather! forecast.!Data!is!mined!and!distributed!to!actuators!to!cool!down!or!heat!up!the! house.!! ! Example!of!sensors:! • See:! machine! vision,! optical! ambient! light! /! motion,! velocity,! displacement!/!position,!presence,!proximity!/!leaks,!levels!/!acceleration.! • Feel:!temperature!/!humidity,!moisture!/!flow!/!force,!load,!pressure!/! electric,!magnetic.! • Hear:!acoustic,!sound,!vibration.! • Smell:!chemical,!gas.! ! Sensing!technologies!have!no!use!if!they!can’t!communicate!collected!data!from! their! physical! environment.! Communication! is! triggered! by! Tagging! Technologies.!! ! TAGGING!TECHNOLOGIES! ! Tagging! technologies! are! crucial! for! the! development! of! the! IoT! to! connect! everyday! objects! to! other! objects,! database! infrastructures! and! systems! via! networks!and/or!the!network!of!networks!(the!internet).!! ! In!order!for!an!everyday!object!to!transfer!data!from!its!chip,!a!sort!of!antenna! needs!to!be!placed;!we!call!this!system!a!transponder.!In!addition!a!reader!with! an!antenna!is!also!indispensable!to!allow!two'way!communication.!From!there!
  29. 29. ! The!IoT!'!Transforming!the!way!we!behave!with!our!environment! Stephane.saintdenis@kedgebs.com! 29! on,!the!detection,!identification,!and!location!of!objects!is!activated!via!wireless! connectivity!between!two!or!more!things.!!! ! ! For!energy!saving,!efficiency!reasons!and!to!better!serve!the!network,!many!new! types!of!tagging!technologies!have!been!developed!in!the!past!few!years,!as!the! number!of!connected!devices!will!substantially!increase.!!Cisco!predicts!that!50! billion!objects!will!be!connected!to!the!Internet!by!2020.!And!it!is!estimated!that! for!each!household,!50!Internet'connected!devices!will!be!owned!by!2020.!22! ! You!will!find,!hereafter,!a!non'exhaustive!list!of!different!tagging!technologies,! belonging! to! different! types! of! networks! –! PAN,! Personal! Area! Network;! LAN,! Local! Area! Network;! MAN,! Metropolitan! Area! Network;! WAN,! Wide! Area! Network!–!and!serving!different!purposes!for!consumers,!businesses!and!specific! industries!(more!info!can!be!viewed!in!Table!2!'!List!of!tagging/communication! technologies)! • PAN! connectivity:! Ethernet,! powerline,! RFID,! ANT,! ZIGBEE,! Z'WAVE,! Bluetooth.! • LAN!connectivity:!WiFi,!DASH!7.! • MAN:!WIMAX,!Weigthless.! • WAN:!LTE!Advanced,!4G.! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 22!The!Internet!Of!Things:!By!2020,!You'll!Own!50!Internet'Connected!Devices,!The!Huffington! Post,!Paul!Casciato,!April!23,!2014!
  30. 30. ! The!IoT!'!Transforming!the!way!we!behave!with!our!environment! Stephane.saintdenis@kedgebs.com! 30! !! ! ! ! ! Once! things! can! sense! their! environment! and! communicate! data,! we! need! to! empower!technologies!to!analyze!data!and!provide!information!to!these!objects.!! ! THINKING!TECHNOLOGIES! Today,!computer!systems,!such!as!powerful!microprocessors,!are!able!to!mine!a! great! amount! of! data! remotely 23 !or! locally.! They! have! the! capability! of! interpreting!and!executing!program!instructions!as!well!as!handling!arithmetic! operations.!Thereupon,!thinking!technologies!play!an!extremely!important!role! as!they!provide!the!intelligence!for!each!connected!device.!! ! Local! Embedded! Processing! Nodes:! with! local! microcontrollers! or! microprocessors!units!(MCU,!MPU),!things!are!able!to!process!data!in!real!time! and!can!also!act!upon!data!received!from!other!nodes!and/or!networks.!! ! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 23!Referring!to!the!cloud.! Figure!6!–!How!communication!technologies!belong!to!different!categories!of! networks! Source:!Harbor!Research!and!Postscapes!
  31. 31. ! The!IoT!'!Transforming!the!way!we!behave!with!our!environment! Stephane.saintdenis@kedgebs.com! 31! Remote!Embedded!Processing!Nodes:!cloud!computing!is!essential!to!analyze! data!and!provide!feedback!to!connected!things.!In!contrary!to!local!embedded! processing! nodes,! cloud! computing! has! the! capability! of! accumulating! and! analyzing! vast! amount! of! data! –! big! data! –! from! different! connected! things.! Dedicated! applications! and! software! can! become! very! useful! to! help! understanding!the!complexity!of!crossed!data!and!information.!! This! is! not! only! very! interesting! for! households/consumers! but! also! for! businesses!and!industries.!Massive!increases!in!storage!and!computing!power!'! some!of!it!available!via!cloud!computing!'!make!number!crunching!possible!at! very!large!scale!and!at!declining!cost.24! ! Software,! middleware! and! hardware! to! support! and! automate! tasks! harmoniously:!having!all!objects!to!communicate!with!each!other!harmoniously! is!a!challenge.!Therefore,!it!is!essential!to!deploy!software!and!middleware!that! will! enable! various! heterogeneous! devices! to! talk! with! each! other! and! its! infrastructure,!in!more!powerful!and!efficient!ways.!! ! THE!MAKER!REVOLUTION! ! Crowdfunding!will!contribute!to!making!new!discoveries!and!promote!the!world! of!the!Internet!of!Things!to!the!masses.!It!gives!people!the!power!to!make!their! project!a!reality;!by!moving!from!the!prototype!phase!to!the!production!phase.!! Furthermore,!3D!printers!are!now!available!to!mainstream!society!at!a!decent! price;!anyone!can!now!take!prototypes!out.!! ! A! whole! new! “maker! industry”! in! information! technology! has! flourished! in! providing! affordable! tools,! such! as! open! source! hardware! and! software! (eg:! Arduino,!Beagleboard,!Netduino!and!Raspberry!Pi).!It!makes!it!very!accessible!to! everyone!out!there,!even!with!very!minimal!electronic!knowledge,!to!be!able!to! plug!the!right!types!of!sensors!and!right!types!of!codes.!! ! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 24!The!Internet!of!Things,!McKinsey,!Michael!Chui,!Markus!Loffler,!Roger!Roberts,!March!2010.!
  32. 32. ! The!IoT!'!Transforming!the!way!we!behave!with!our!environment! Stephane.saintdenis@kedgebs.com! 32! MOBILE!DEVICES! Today,!the!average!smartphone!has!sensors!(a!compass,!GPS,!light,!sound!etc.).! Via!applications,!it!can!monitor!our!health,!the!velocity!of!our!car,!the!magnitude! of!earthquakes!and!countless!other!things!that!its!creators!never!envisioned25.!! ! “You’re!now!carrying!the!perfect!tool!with!you!in!the!form!of!your!smartphone,! to! stay! connected! to! your! physical! graph26,”! says! Alex! Hawkinson,! CEO! of! Smartthings.!Smartphones!are!like!tricoders27!as!it!is!a!medium!to!connect!with! the!virtual!world.!Soon,!you!will!be!able!to!use!it!as!a!universal!remote!control,!as! a!dashboard!to!access!and!control!your!connected!devices!'!thermostats,!coffee! machines,!cars,!front!doors,!lights,!work!stations!etc!'!and!to!choreograph!them! to!respond!to!your!needs!and!solve!your!problems.!! ! Today! a! lot! of! consumers! are! not! ready! to! invest! and! accept! such! connected! technologies!in!their!houses.!A!$4,000!smart!fridge!with!a!tablet!on!its!front!door! may!find!very!few!takers.!However,!many!seamless!connected!devices!en!rapport! with!smartphones!are!very!likely!to!be!in!the!houses!of!millions!in!the!next!few! years.!! ! In!home!security,!miniature!connected!motion!sensors28!permits!users!to!know,! via! their! smartphone,! if! unusual! activity! is! taking! place,! or! if! someone! has! entered!their!house!or!a!room.!In!fitness!and!health,!connected!wristbands29!to! your!smartphone!and!the!internet!allows!users!to!gain!insight!about!their!body! activity!and!other!information!such!as!pulse,!miles!run,!burned!calories,!steps! taken!and!other!fitness!and!health!goals.!! ! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 25!Source:!The!Internet!of!Everything!–!Four!Technologies!We'll!Actually!Use!within!Three!Years,! Cisco,!Kristi!Essick,!March!26,!2014.! 26!Physical!graph:!connected!things.! 27!In!the!fictional!Star!Trek!universe,!a!tricorder!is!a!multifunction!hand'held!device!used!for! sensor!scanning,!data!analysis,!and!recording!data.! 28!Companies!that!develop!these!products:!Smartsense'motion!and!Dropcam.! 29!Companies!that!develop!these!products:!FitBit,!Nike!FuelBand,!Jawbone!Up,!Lively,!BeClose.!
  33. 33. ! The!IoT!'!Transforming!the!way!we!behave!with!our!environment! Stephane.saintdenis@kedgebs.com! 33! Smartphones!will!inevitably!benefit!the!adoption!of!internet'connected!devices! in!the!mass'market,!in!a!smoother!and!progressive!way!and!without!“disturbing”! the!minds!of!millions,!and!potentially!billions!of!users.!! ! SYNERGISTIC!TECHNOLOGIES! ! Best!consumer!experience!and!added!value!is!always!a!plus.!To!leverage!the! most!out!of!the!Internet!of!Things,!the!promotion!of!synergistic!technologies! must!be!taken!into!account:! • Geo'tagging/geo'caching! • Biometrics! • Machine!vision! • Robotics! • Augmented!reality! • Mirror!worlds! • Telepresence!and!adjustable!autonomy!! • Life!recorders!and!personal!black!boxes!! • Tangible!user!interfaces! • Clean!technologies30! ! ! With!the!explosion!of!smartphones!and!the!continuous!development!of!smaller,! smarter,! cheaper! technologies,! we! will! be! able! to! connect! anything! over! networks!and!the!network!of!networks!–!the!Internet.!! ! MAIN!CHALLENGES!FOR!THE!IOT! ! Building!an!ecosystem!with!connected!smart!things!can!help!solve!a!lot!of!our! problems! and! even! save! lives.! However,! the! Internet! of! Things! poses! several! challenges!due!to!interoperability!and!sensor!energy!inefficiency,!security!and! privacy!concerns!and!the!sheer!scale!of!its!deployment.!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 30!SRI!CBI:!Strategic!Research!Institute!Consulting!Business!Intelligence.!
  34. 34. ! The!IoT!'!Transforming!the!way!we!behave!with!our!environment! Stephane.saintdenis@kedgebs.com! 34! ! Sensor!energy! Sensors!are!everywhere,!and!they!will!highly!increase!with!the!development!of! the!IoT.!They!will!continue!to!be!deployed!across!the!planet!and!in!space.!It!is! therefore! paramount! for! sensors! to! be! self'sustaining! as! it! is! not! viable! and! practical!to!change!batteries!every!now!and!then.!What!is!needed,!is!a!way!for! sensors!to!generate!electricity!from!environmental!elements!such!as!vibrations,! light,!and!airflow.31! ! Scientists!recently!announced!a!commercially!viable!nanogenerator!—!a!flexible! chip! that! uses! body! movements! such! as! the! pinch! of! a! finger! to! generate! electricity—at! the! 241st! National! Meeting! &! Exposition! of! the! American! Chemical!Society!in!March!201132.! ! IPV6! The!world!ran!out!of!available!IPV4!in!2010.!This!meant!that!we!could!no!longer! assign!unique!addresses!to!newly!connected!devices.!! To!solve!this!problem,!IPV6!was!launched!in!2012.!Even!though!no!real!impact! has! been! noticed! by! the! general! public,! there! are! still! great! concerns! among! network!engineers33.! ! Privacy!and!security!! One! of! the! most! preoccupying! and! challenging! implications! is! privacy! and! security!and!even!how!companies!are!organized.!! ! As!connected!things!will!be!capable!to!take!action!without!a!human!operator,! many! nodes! are! subject! to! hacking! by! anyone,! including! malicious! hackers,! criminals!or!terrorists.!Home!automation!poses!great!questions!as!it!means!that! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 31!Source:!“Smart!Dust!Sensor!Network!with!Piezoelectric!Energy!Harvesting,”!Yee!Win!Shwe!&! Yung!C.!Liang,!ICITA,!2009.! 32!Source:!“First!Practical!Nanogenerator!Produces!Electricity!with!Pinch!of!the!Fingers,”!March! 29,!2011.! 33!Know!more!about!IPV6!security!on!The!Internet!Society!web!page:! http://www.internetsociety.org/deploy360/resources/rfc'7123'security'implications'of'ipv6' on'ipv4'networks/!
  35. 35. ! The!IoT!'!Transforming!the!way!we!behave!with!our!environment! Stephane.saintdenis@kedgebs.com! 35! the!houses!of!billions!of!people!are!potentially!exposed!to!both!privacy!breaches! and!security!threats.!! ! These!concerns!must!be!tackled!before!society!fully!embraces!the!realm!of!the! Internet!of!Things! ! Cost!! For! the! IoE34!to! grow! rapidly,! enablers! such! as! sensors,! wireless! and! smart! technologies! must! become! cost! efficient.! Today,! we! are! on! the! right! track! as! components!will!drop!15%!to!45%!from!2010!to!201535.!! ! ! ! ! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 34!Internet!of!Everything! 35!Falling!Cost!of!Components!Will!Help!Drive!The!Pervasiveness!of!the!Internet!of!Things,! Gartner,!2011.!
  36. 36. ! The!IoT!'!Transforming!the!way!we!behave!with!our!environment! Stephane.saintdenis@kedgebs.com! 36! BRIEF!HISTORY! ! In! this! part,! you! will! be! introduced! to! how! information! and! communication! technology! and! the! Internet! of! Things! has! evolved! since! 1832,! including! milestone!projects,!discoveries,!recognitions!and!important!people.!! ! In! the! first! half! of! the! 19th! century,!the!first!electromagnetic!telegraph!was! created! by! Baron! Shiling.! It! was! the! first! relatively! small! telecommunication! technology! that! allowed! human'to'human! communication! of! coded! text! messages!over!long!distances.!! Later! on,! the! first! public! morse! code! –! “What! hath! God! wrought?"! from! Washington,!D.C.!to!Baltimore!–!was!communicated!by!Samuel!Morse36.! Nikola! Tesla,! another! important! person! in! the! history! of! telecommunication,! made!revolutionary!discoveries.!He!is!seen!by!many!as!the!creator!of!the!radio.! In!1926,!in!an!interview!with!Colliers!Magazine,!Nikola!Tesla!foresees!the!future;! as!systems!will!become!smaller!and!more!intelligent,!he!predicted!what!we!are! all!carrying!today:!cell!phones.!!! ! In! 1950,! Alan! Turing,! brought! great! insight! in! computer! science,! and! more! specifically!in!the!formalization!of!the!concepts!of!algorithm!and!computation! with! the! Turing! machine.! He! is! considered! to! be! the! father! of! theoretical! computer!science!and!artificial!intelligence37.!! ! Between!1950!and!1999,!revolutionary!systems!and!thinking!was!brought!to! the! realm! of! communication! and! connected! things.! Home! computers! were! introduced!in!the!second!half!of!the!20th!century,!and!its!enablers,!such!as!semi' conductors!and!processors,!were!getting!smaller!and!smarter.!!In!the!beginning! of!the!1990s,!the!world!wide!web!was!introduced!to!civilians.!Academia!started! hacking!it,!and!came!up!with!innovative!projects!such!as!the!Internet!toaster!and! the!Trojan!Room!Coffee!Pot.! ! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 36!Source:!http://www.morsetelegraphclub.org/ 37!Source:!!“Allan!Turing:!His!Work!and!Impact”,!S.!Barry!Cooper,!J.!van!Leeuwen!
  37. 37. ! The!IoT!'!Transforming!the!way!we!behave!with!our!environment! Stephane.saintdenis@kedgebs.com! 37! 1999! was! a! very! important! year! in! the! world! of! ubiquitous! computing.! The! “Internet!of!Things”!was!coined!for!the!first!time!by!Kevin!Ashton!in!1999.!He! was!working!for!Procter!&!Gamble,!and!in!an!interview!for!the!RFID!Journal!he! said:! ! ! "I! could! be! wrong,! but! I'm! fairly! sure! the! phrase! "Internet! of! Things"! started!life!as!the!title!of!a!presentation!I!made!at!Procter!&!Gamble!(P&G)!in! 1999.!Linking!the!new!idea!of!RFID!in!P&G's!supply!chain!to!the!then'red'hot! topic!of!the!Internet!was!more!than!just!a!good!way!to!get!executive!attention.!It! summed!up!an!important!insight!which!is!still!often!misunderstood."38!! ! The!IoT!started!to!gain!momentum,!in!the!early!2000s,!as!it!hit!the!headlines!of! several! international! news! agencies:! The! Guardian39,! Scientific! American40!and! the!Boston!Globe41.! ! In! 2005,! the! International! Telecommunication! Union,! United! Nations’! specialized!agency!for!information!and!communication!technologies,!publishes!a! report!about!the!IoT!–!“Anytime,!anyplace,!anything”! %“The%next%logical%step%in%the%technological%revolution%connecting%people%anytime% anywhere%is%to%connect%inanimate%objects.%This%is%the%vision%underlying%the%Internet% of%things:%anytime,%anywhere%by%anyone%and%anything”%–%IUT,%November%2005% % It!is!only!in!2006!that!the!Internet!of!things!is!recognized!by!the!European! Commission.!A!report!is!officially!submitted!at!a!conference!entitled!“From!RFID! to! the! Internet! of! Things,! Pervasive! network! systems”! organized! by! DG! Information!Media!and!Society!in!Brussels42.!! ! In! 2008,! the! US! National! Intelligence! Council! states,! in! the! Disruptive! Civil! Technologies!conference!report,!that!the!IoT!is!among!the!six!technologies!with! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 38!Source:!http://www.rfidjournal.com/article/view/4986! 39Source:!The!internet!of!things,!A!tiny!microchip!is!set!to!replace!the!barcode!on!all!retail!items! but!opposition!is!growing!to!its!use.!The!Guardian,!Sean!Dodson,!October!9,!2003. 40!The!Internet!of!Things,!The!principles!that!gave!rise!to!the!Internet!are!now!leading!to!a!new! kind!of!network!of!everyday!devices,!an!"Internet'0",!Scientific!American,!October!1,!2004.! 41!Source:!“The!Internet!of!things,!Start'ups!jump!into!next!big!thing:!tiny!networked!chips”,! Boston!Globe,!Robert!Weisman,!October!25,!2004.! 42!Official!report!here:!ftp://ftp.cordis.europa.eu/pub/ist/docs/ka4/au_conf670306_buckley_en.pdf
  38. 38. ! The!IoT!'!Transforming!the!way!we!behave!with!our!environment! Stephane.saintdenis@kedgebs.com! 38! potential!impacts!on!US!interests!out!to!202543.! ! Between! 2008! and! 2009,! the! threshold! of! connecting! more! objects! to! the! Internet!than!people!took!place.!The!Internet! of! Things! is! born,!claims!Cisco! Internet!Business!Solutions!Group.! ! Many!countries!have!started!to!put!in!effort!in!the!realm!of!the!IoT!as!it!is! becoming!increasingly!strategic.!In!2010,!China!declared!its!interest!in!the!IoT!at! the!China!IoT!Conference!in!Shanghai,!as!the!prime!minister!mentions!that!it!is! one!of!the!key!industry!areas!for!China.!! ! In! the! beginning! of! the! 2010s,! IoT! communities! grow! and! reach! a! certain! maturity.!For!example,!the!Linkedin!group,!“Internet!of!Things”,!has!reached!its! maximum!and!default!number!of!20!000!members.!Recently,!it!was!approved!to! surpass!the!default!number!–!so!you!can!still!join!in44.!! The! Meetup! community! has! reached! 3000! members! in! London,! 1500! in! San! Francisco,!1100!in!Paris,!200'500!in!New!York,!Berlin!and!Singapore;!where!each! Meetup!brings!about!100!to!200!participants.! ! As!there!was!a!shortage!of!IPV4!addresses!available,!IPV6!was!created!in!2011! in!order!to!cover!the!increasing!demand!of!IP!addresses.!In!the!same!year,!the! term!Internet!of!Things!is!also!introduced!in!Gartner’s!hype!cycle..!! Arduino!and!other!hardware!platforms!mature!and!make!the!Internet!of!Things! accessible!to!DIY'er.!!! ! In! March! 2014,!the!IIC,!Industrial!Internet!Consortium45,!was!founded!by!the! biggest! information! technology! and! communication! players,! including! AT&T,! Cisco,!GE,!Intel!and!IBM.!Their!mission!seems!the!same!as!the!Internet!of!Things! Consortium46!'! “driving! adoption! of! IoT! products! &! services! through! curated! networking,!consumer!research,!and!industry!education”.! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 43!View!the!full!document:!http://www.fas.org/irp/nic/disruptive.pdf! 44!Linkedin!group:!click!here.! 45!http://www.iiconsortium.org/about'us.htm! 46!Created!back!in!January!2013!by!several!startups.!
  39. 39. ! The!IoT!'!Transforming!the!way!we!behave!with!our!environment! Stephane.saintdenis@kedgebs.com! 39! !!! Last! but! not! least,! Google! trends! shows! an! exponential! growth! of! the! term! Internet!of!Things,!starting!from!August!2013!and!beyond47:! ! Figure!4!–!Growth!of!the!search!term!“Internet!of!Things”!on!the!Internet,!Google! Trends! ! ! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 47!http://www.google.com/trends/explore#q=internet+of+things!
  40. 40. ! The!IoT!'!Transforming!the!way!we!behave!with!our!environment! Stephane.saintdenis@kedgebs.com! 40! 3.FUTURE!SOCIETY! ! The!Internet!of!Things!applications!will!increasingly!transform!individuals’!lives! within! the! macro! and! micro! environment,! the! personal! and! professional! environment!and!across!all!industries.! ! Consumers!will!be!empowered!to!do!things!that!were!previously!infeasible.!They! will!be!able!to!see!and!understand!things!they!didn’t!see!and!understand!before.! They! will! be! able! to! take! wiser! decisions,! money! and! energy! savings! (smart! meters),!reassure!themselves!(Sen.se)!and!even!better!manage!their!time!(your! calendar!connected!to!your!to!do!list!and!other!meaningful!information).!They! will! have! a! whole! new! relationship! with! the! physical! space.! Companies! and! industries!will!develop!new!business!models,!improve!business!processes!and! reduce!cost!and!risks,!hereby,!impacting!the!work!style!of!employees,!managers! and!owners.!! ! In!fact,!all!levels!of!society!'!nations!and!governments;!industries!and!businesses;! cities!and!infrastructure;!citizens,!households,!consumers!and!individuals!–!will! be!hit!by!pervasive!computing.!! ! The!Internet!of!Things!is!still!at!a!nascent!point!where!its!plateau!of!productivity! has!not!been!reached!in!order!to!largely!affect!mainstream!society.!According!to! Gartner’s!Hype!Cycle!2013,!it!will!take!more!than!10!years!to!reach!this!stage.!!It! is! not! until! we! reach! a! certain! amount! of! everyday! connected! objects! per! person! that! we! will! be! in! the! era! of! Internet! of! Everything.! Controversially,! some! experts! say! that! we! have! already!entered!this!time!Figure!5!'!Gartner’s!Hype!Cycle!2013!
  41. 41. ! The!IoT!'!Transforming!the!way!we!behave!with!our!environment! Stephane.saintdenis@kedgebs.com! 41! period.!! ! Research!director!at!Gartner,!Peter!Middleton,!commented!in!a!press!release!in! December!2013:!!"By!2020,!component!costs!will!have!come!down!to!the!point! that!connectivity!will!become!a!standard!feature,!even!for!processors!costing!less! than!$1.!This!opens!up!the!possibility!of!connecting!just!about!anything,!from!the! very!simple!to!the!very!complex,!to!offer!remote!control,!monitoring!and!sensing.! The! fact! is,! that! today,! many! categories! of! connected! things! in! 2020! don't! yet! exist.!As!product!designers!dream!up!ways!to!exploit!the!inherent!connectivity! that! will! be! offered! in! intelligent! products,! we! expect! the! variety! of! devices! offered!to!explode."! ! With! the! effort! of! different! players,! such! as! policy! markers,! standard! development! organizations,! national! research! centers,! service! providers,! network!operators,!and!lead!users,!the!Internet!of!Things!is!bound!to!proliferate! in!the!lives!of!billions!of!citizens.!! ! Even! though! businesses,! researchers! and! experts! have! not! come! upon! a! consensus,! market! opportunities! and! future! forecast! are! huge.! ! Trillions! of! dollars!are!at!stake!within!the!next!years.! SRI! Consulting! Business! Intelligence48!have! prepared! a!report!for!the!US!National! Intelligence! Council! and! stressed! that! “"by! 2025! Internet!nodes!may!reside!in! everyday! things! –! food! packages,! furniture,! paper! documents,! and! more.! Today's! developments! point!to!future!opportunities!and!risks!that!will!arise!when!people!can!remotely! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 48!SRI!CBI:!Strategic!Research!Institute!Consulting!Business!Intelligence.! Technology!Reach! Figure!6!–!Technology!Roadmap!of!the!IoT! Source:!SRI!consulting!Intelligence!
  42. 42. ! The!IoT!'!Transforming!the!way!we!behave!with!our!environment! Stephane.saintdenis@kedgebs.com! 42! control,! locate,! and! monitor! even! the! most! mundane! devices! and! articles.! Popular! demand! combined! with! technology! advances! could! drive! widespread! diffusion! of! an! Internet! of! Things! (IoT)! that! could,! like! the! present! Internet,! contribute!invaluably!to!economic!development!and!military!capability."! ! Over!the!next!10!to!15!years,!the!Internet!of!Things!is!likely!to!proliferate!and! shape! a! more! advanced! information! society! and! knowledge! economy,! but! the! direction!and!pace!with!which!developments!will!occur!are!difficult!to!forecast.! ! PREDICTIONS! ! STATISTICS! As!you!can!see!below,!predictions!from!experts!in!the!domain!vary.!However,!we! can!agree!that!the!explosion!of!the!IoT!will!happen!in!the!next!few!years.!! ! !! !! !! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! ! ! ! !!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! ! ! ! ! ! ! 2003! ! ! ! 2008! 2009! 2013! ! 2015! ! 2020! ! The! number! of! people! connected! to! the! Internet! was! much! higher! than! the! number! of! things! connected! to! the! Internet.! World! population!reached!6.3!billion!versus!500!million!connected!devices.! (Cisco!IBSG,!2013)! The!threshold!is!crossed.!More!things!than!people!are!connected!to! the!Internet.!(Cisco!IBSG,!2011)! 10!billion!connected!devices.!(ABI!Research)! 6! billion! (Bosch),! 15! billion! (Intel)! to! 25! billion! (Cisco)! connected!!! devices.! 26!billion!(Gartner)!to!50!billion!(Cisco)!connected!devices.!
  43. 43. ! The!IoT!'!Transforming!the!way!we!behave!with!our!environment! Stephane.saintdenis@kedgebs.com! 43! WHAT!EXPERTS!ARE!SAYING!–!NUMBER!OF!CONNECTED!DEVICES! ! Cisco!IBSG!! "There!will!be!25!billion!devices!connected!to!the!Internet!by!2015!and!50!billion! by!2020.”! ! ABI!Research!! “There! are! more! than! 10! billion! wirelessly! connected! devices! in! the! market! today;!with!over!30!billion!devices!expected!by!2020.”!! ! Gartner!! "The!Internet!of!Things!will!include!26!billion!units!installed!by!2020.! ! Bosch!!! “From!vehicles!and!smart!phones!to!containers!and!machines!–!by!2015!more! than!6!billion!things!will!be!connected!to!the!internet.”!! ! Intel!! “15!billion!devices!will!be!communicating!over!the!network!by!the!year!2015"! ! ! Gartner/IDC!! In!the!chart,!below,!you!can!notice!6!categories!of!connected!devices:!personal! computers,!smartphones,!tablets,!Internet!of!Things!devices!(previously!“inert”! and!mundane!objects),!smart!TVs!and!wearables.!Interestingly,!smart!TVs!and! wearables!are!at!the!very!top,!followed!by!the!IoT!category.!
  44. 44. ! The!IoT!'!Transforming!the!way!we!behave!with!our!environment! Stephane.saintdenis@kedgebs.com! 44! ! In!2020,!26!billion!units!of!connected!devices!will!be!installed,!excluding!PCs,! tablets!and!smartphones.!In!contrast,!by!2020,!the!number!of!PCs,!smartphones! and!tablets!in!use!will!reach!a!much!lower!rate:!7.3!billion!units.!! ! WHAT!EXPERTS!ARE!SAYING!–!ECONOMIC!VALUE!OF!THE!IoT! ! Experts!agree!that!trillions!of!dollars!are!at!stake!in!the!next!few!years.!Let’s!see! what!their!predictions!are.!! ! McKinsey!Global!Institute!! "We!estimate!the!potential!economic!impact!of!the!Internet!of!Things!to!be!$2.7! trillion! to! $6.2! trillion! per! year! by! 2025! through! use! in! a! half'dozen! major! applications!that!we!have!sized.!!! ! ! Figure!7!–!Number!of!Connected!Devices! Source:!Gartner!
  45. 45. ! The!IoT!'!Transforming!the!way!we!behave!with!our!environment! Stephane.saintdenis@kedgebs.com! 45! ! IDC!! “IoT! technology! and! services! spending! to! generate! global! revenues! of! $4.8! trillion!in!2012!and!$8.9!trillion!by!2020,!growing!at!a!compound!annual!rate! (CAGR)!of!7.9%.”!! ! Gartner!! “IoT!product!and!service!suppliers!will!generate!incremental!revenue!exceeding! $300!billion,!mostly!in!services,!in!2020.!It!will!result!in!$1.9!trillion!in!global! economic!value'add!through!sales!into!diverse!end!markets."! And,! “Economic! value'add! (which! represents! the! aggregate! benefits! that! businesses!derive!through!the!sale!and!usage!of!IoT!technology)!is!forecast!to!be! $1.9!trillion!across!sectors!in!2020.!The!verticals!that!are!leading!its!adoption!are! manufacturing! (15! percent),! healthcare! (15! percent)! and! insurance! (11! percent).”! ! Cisco!IBSG!! “The! IoE! Value! at! Stake! will! be! $14.4! trillion! for! companies! and! industries! worldwide! in! the! next! decade.! More! specifically,! over! the! next! 10! years,! the! Value!at!Stake!represents!an!opportunity!to!increase!global!corporate!profits!by! about!21!percent.”!2011! ! Harbor!! “Service!Revenues!for!the!IoT!will!reach!$500!Billion!by!2018,!dwarfing!the!$33! Billion!in!revenue!expected!from!devices!in!2018.”!! ! ! !
  46. 46. ! The!IoT!'!Transforming!the!way!we!behave!with!our!environment! Stephane.saintdenis@kedgebs.com! 46! ENVIRONMENTAL!TRANSFORMATION! ! The!Internet!of!Things!is!the!first!real!evolution!of!the!Internet—a!leap!that!will! lead! to! revolutionary! applications! that! have! the! potential! to! dramatically! improve!the!way!people!live,!learn,!work,!and!entertain!themselves.!It!is!such!a! sweeping!concept!that!it!is!a!challenge!to!list!all!the!possible!ways!in!which!it!will! impact!society.! ! For!the!first!time,!computing!systems!are!now!able!to!collect!data!from!almost! anything,!allowing!us!to!monitor!the!well'being!and!performance!of!machines,! devices,!things,!land!and!even!individuals.!!! ! In! the! following! pages,! we! will! study! how! healthcare,! home! automation,! transportation! and! mobility,! real! estate! and! infrastructures,! and! city! management!will!be!transformed;!ultimately!affecting!each!one!of!us.!! ! ! !Figure!8!–!How!markets!will!be!affected! Source:!Postscape!and!Harbor!Research! !
  47. 47. ! The!IoT!'!Transforming!the!way!we!behave!with!our!environment! Stephane.saintdenis@kedgebs.com! 47! ! Healthcare!and!the!Quantified!Self! A!category!of!emerging!IoT'enabled!services!is!aimed!at!helping!people!monitor! their! own! physical! state:! the! “quantified! self”.! It! allows! consumers! to! become! highly! involved! in! their! healthcare! by! using! devices! for! monitoring! health! conditions! such! as! blood! pressure! and! maintaining! a! continuous! record! of! physical!activity.!In!2020,!about!360!million!devices!pertaining!to!the!quantified! self!are!expected!to!be!connected49.!!! ! Nike+,!FuelBand,!Fitbit,!and!Jawbone!are!wearable!sensors!that!are!designed!to! continuously! record! physical! activity;! some! devices! can! even! monitor! sleep! patterns.!! ! When!combined!with!medical!sensors!like!the!Proteus!ingestible!sensors,!which! can!relay!information!via!smartphone!to!a!physician,!these!systems!promise!to! provide!a!new!level!of!health!and!disease!management!that!could!generate!more! continuous! data! to! help! consumers! better! manage! their! own! health50,! and! empower!doctors!to!diagnose!and!determine!the!causes!of!certain!diseases.!! ! Therefore,! with! the! miniaturization! of! the! IoT! we! are! expanding! into! places! where!until!now!have!been!unreachable.!It!will!change!the!relationship!between! doctors!and!patients!and!give!new!information!and!insight!about!our!body.!It!will! make! health! monitoring,! diagnostics! and! treatment! more! personalized,! timely! and!convenient,!while!also!lowering!costs!for!people,!hospitals!and!the!country’s! social!security.!! ! Households! Homes!and!individuals’!daily!life!will!be!impacted.!In!fact,!the!Internet!of!Things! will!affect!our!behavior,!as!our!relationship!with!the!physical!environment!will! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 49!Source:!Harbor!Research,!Growth!Strategy!for!The!Internet!of!Things.! 50!Source:!!Ten!IT'enabled!business!trends!for!the!decade!ahead,!McKinsey!Global!Institute,!May! 2013.!
  48. 48. ! The!IoT!'!Transforming!the!way!we!behave!with!our!environment! Stephane.saintdenis@kedgebs.com! 48! evolve.!In!2020,!nearly!4!billion!devices!at!home!are!expected!to!be!connected! (excluding!mobile!phones)51.!! ! Future!homes!will!be!equipped!with!a!multitude!of!connected!devices!such!as! light! bulbs,! pet! feeding,! irrigation! controllers,! smoke! alarms,! refrigerators,! infotainment,! washers! and! dryers,! stoves! and! energy! monitoring.! These! connected! things! will! most! probably! be! wirelessly! connected! to! your! smartphone!(and!other!media!of!the!future).!They!will!interact!with!each!other! to!alert!you,!advise!you!and!make!smart!decisions,!to!make!your!life!less!of!a! hassle!and!more!comfortable,!and!helping!you!to!see!and!understand!things!you! never!managed!to!do!before.!! ! For!example,!smart!meters!have!the!capability!to!communicate!with!your!smart! appliances! and! the! general! grid.! This! in! return! will! allow! each! household! to! activate!their!appliances!at!the!best!time!in!the!day/night!in!order!to!get!cheaper! electricity,!consume!more!efficiently!and!make!energy!savings.!This!phenomenon! has!already!started.!In!the!United!States,!it!is!estimated!that!the!smart!grid!can! increase! efficiency! by! 9%! by! 2030.! This! is! equivalent! to! 400! billion! kilowatt' hours!or!$42!billion!dollars!savings!each!year.52!! ! With! Sense! Mother53,! you! will! be! able! to! make! your! daily! life! more! serene,! healthy!and!pleasurable.!It!will!intuitively!assist!you!in!your!everyday!life!–!such! as! staying! fit,! taking! your! medication! on! time,! knowing! that! your! son! is! back! home!safe,!and!looking!after!your!family’s!well'being54.!! ! Transportation!and!Mobility! Transportation! and! Mobility! will! see! the! number! of! connected! devices! substantially! grow.! In! 2020,! nearly! 400! million! connected! devices! in! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 51!Source:!Harbor!Research,!Growth!Strategy!for!The!Internet!of!Things.! 52!Source:!Smart!Grid:!Where!Power!is!Going,!by!the!Smart!Grid!Consumer!Collaborative! Organization.! 53!www.sen.se! 54!You!can!watch!the!explanatory!video!here:!http://vimeo.com/80887929!
  49. 49. ! The!IoT!'!Transforming!the!way!we!behave!with!our!environment! Stephane.saintdenis@kedgebs.com! 49! transportation! will! be! connected55.! ! This! concerns! traffic! routing,! telematics,! package! monitoring,! smart! parking,! insurance! adjustments,! shipping,! public! transport,! airlines,! trains! and! much! more.! Consumer! experience! will! hence! completely!change.!! ! You!will!be!able!to!know!if!your!delivered!package!was!damaged!during!delivery.! Waiting!time!for!buses,!trains!and!airplanes!will!be!provided!to!you!in!real!time! via!your!smartphone!or!digital!screens.!Smart!parking!–!an!emerging!technology! in!private!parking!lots!and!cities!–!allows!people!to!find!parking!space!instantly.! These! few! examples! illustrate! well! how! citizens’! life! is! made! easier.! Transportation!will!play!a!big!role!in!the!future!of!smart!cities.!! ! Buildings!and!Infrastructures! This!another!field!which!will!highly!evolve!in!the!next!few!years.!In!2020,!nearly! 2! billion! objects! in! buildings! and! infrastructures! will! be! connected 56 .!! Things/equipment! in! buildings! and! infrastructures! will! be! connected! to! the! Intranet! to! serve! people! in! their! workspace! for! example.! The! connection! of! things! will! create! a! smart! network,! which! will! in! return! create! operational! efficiencies,!reduce!energy!consumption,!improve!occupant!experiences!(DAS!to! security)!and!achieve!sustainability!goals.! ! Real!estate!businesses!have!already!taken!interest!in!the!following!connectable! equipment:! heating,! ventilation,! air'conditioning,! lighting,! electrical,! transit,! emergency!alerts,!structural!integrity,!occupancy!and!energy!credits.! ! It!is!important!to!underline!that!cloud!hosted!data!management!and!analytics! software! will! help! make! sense! of! all! data! received! from! each! things/equipment/machines.! Facility! managers! will! be! empowered! to! take! meaningful!and!efficient!decisions!if!needed.!For!example,!smart!buildings!utilize! monitoring!devices!that!track!usage!and!empower!users!and!service!providers!to! better!control!and!reduce!electricity!demand.!Panaptix,!an!emerging!IoT'enabled! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 55!Source:!Harbor!Research,!Growth!Strategy!for!The!Internet!of!Things.!! 56!Source:!Harbor!Research,!Growth!Strategy!for!The!Internet!of!Things.!
  50. 50. ! The!IoT!'!Transforming!the!way!we!behave!with!our!environment! Stephane.saintdenis@kedgebs.com! 50! service,!will!interconnect!units!of!equipment!which!will!work!together!to!find!the! most! efficient! way! to! heat! or! cool! a! facility! without! human! intervention.! Machines!will!diagnose!their!own!need!for!maintenance,!which!will!be!scheduled! automatically.57!! ! Thereupon,! the! experience! within! buildings! will! be! more! pleasurable! for! each! individual.!! ! Cities!! Since!2010,!more!than!half!of!the!worldwide!population!lives!in!a!city.!By!2030,!6! out! of! every! 10! people! will! live! in! a! city,! and! by! 2050,! this! proportion! will! increase!to!7!out!of!10!people.58!In!addition,!it!is!estimated!that!cities!use!60%!to! 80%!of!the!world’s!annual!energy!needs.!! ! As!cities!are!becoming!overpopulated,!city!councils!have!encountered!more!and! more! challenges! and! problems! where! ultimately! citizens’! well'being! is! compromised.! ! Implementing! smart! devices! all! over! the! city! to! build! an! interconnected!system!of!systems!will!help!cities!and!municipalities!to!reduce! their!environmental!impact,!promote!security,!make!cost!savings,!offer!citizens! better!lives59!and!become!more!competitive.!In!2020,!about!1.5!billion!connected! devices!will!be!shipped!to!make!cities!smarter60.!! ! With! the! aggregation! of! low! power! sensors,! wireless! networks! and! citizen! engagement! through! web! and! mobile'based! applications,! smart! cities! will! proliferate!and!are!bound!to!become!smarter!and!more!efficient.!! ! In!short,!smarter!cities!will!trigger:! • Better! planning! and! management! for! government! and! agency! administration,! for! urban! planning! and! for! public! and! environmental! safety.!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 57!Source:!Sensors,!Buildings!and!the!Coming!Internet!of!Things,!Johnson!Controls! 58!Source:!Urban!Population!Growth,!World!Health!Organization! 59!What!are!smart!cities?!,!Smart!Cities!and!Communities! 60!Source:!Harbor!Research,!Growth!Strategy!for!The!Internet!of!Things.!
  51. 51. ! The!IoT!'!Transforming!the!way!we!behave!with!our!environment! Stephane.saintdenis@kedgebs.com! 51! • Enhanced!wellbeing!in!social!programs,!healthcare!and!education.! • Better! management! of! infrastructures! through! transportation,! energy,! water!and!environmental!issues.!61! ! Below!is!an!illustration!of!a!few!existing!IoT!enabled!services:!! ! Figure!9!–!Smart!City! Source:!Lubelium!Smart!World! ! Today,!the!real!challenge!is!to!connect!all!of!these!devices!in!a!single!network!to! create!collective!intelligence.!! ! COMPOUND!APPLICATIONS! ! We’ve!talked!about!how!different!industries!will!impact!the!life!of!millions!and! even!billions!of!people!with!pervasive!computing.!But!these!smart!systems!are! specific!to!each!industry!and!are!not!fully!capable!of!communicating!and!taking! action!across!different!industries!to!better!serve!consumers.!! ! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 61!Source:!What!is!a!smart!city,!IBM!!
  52. 52. ! The!IoT!'!Transforming!the!way!we!behave!with!our!environment! Stephane.saintdenis@kedgebs.com! 52! This!is!when!the!world!of!compound!applications!becomes!interesting!for!our! society.! When! different! applications! across! several! industries! may! utilize! the! same!data!and!information!from!one!or!several!nodes,!we!will!create!insightful! services! for! consumers.! With! the! correct! cloud! platform! and! seamless! interoperability! of! all! nodes,! we! will! leverage! collective! intelligence;! and! therefore!offer!exceptional!services!to!society.!! ! Below!are!examples!of!how!compound!applications!may!work!out!very!well!for! our!society.!! ! Transportation!+!Smart!Cities! It!is!well!know!that!people!spend!a!lot!of!time!looking!for!a!parking!spot!in!cities.!! For! example,! the! Municipal! Transportation! Agency! of! San! Francisco! estimates! that!20%!to!30%!of!all!traffic!jams!in!downtown!San!Francisco!are!caused!by! people!hunting!for!a!parking!spot.!Sometimes,!it!can!take!up!to!15!minutes!or! even!more!to!find!a!parking!spot,!leading!to!great!frustration,!inefficient!use!of! fuel!and!often!creating!tardiness!in!arrival!times!for!appointments!and!meetings.!! In! addition,! we! hardly! find! the! time! to! successfully! manage! our! professional/personal!projects!and!to!dos!on!a!daily!basis.!!!! ! Here,!is!an!example!of!how!IoT'enabled!services!may!solve!this!problem!using! compound!applications:! Greg!and!his!daughter!Chloe!are!on!their!way!to!downtown!San!Francisco!for!a! tennis!practice.!Wireless!sensors!embedded!in!parking!spaces!help!direct!the!car! to! the! vacant! spot! in! the! neighborhood! whilst! also! initiating! the! parking! fee,! payable!on!their!smartphone.!!On!top!of!that,!if!any!mechanical!problem!arises,! using! the! car’s! parking! details,! Greg’s! smart! vehicle! will! schedule! a! mobile! mechanic!to!fix!the!car!while!the!family!is!at!the!tennis!practice.!! ! Healthcare!+!Smart!Homes! According!to!the!Administration!for!Community!Living!of!the!US!Department!of! Health!and!Human!Services,!40!million!adults,!aged!65!and!over,!will!be!living! alone!in!Europe,!Canada!and!the!US.!
  53. 53. ! The!IoT!'!Transforming!the!way!we!behave!with!our!environment! Stephane.saintdenis@kedgebs.com! 53! Today,!millions!of!families!are!anxious!about!the!wellbeing!of!their!loved!ones.! With!IoT'enabled!services,!the!problem!may!be!solved:!! Aunty! Nathalie! is! aging! and! is! still! living! isolated! at! her! home.! Her! family! is! worried!about!Aunty!Nathalie’s!safety!and!health!as!they!have!had!no!news!for!a! few!days!now.!Wireless!sensors!installed!in!her!house!will!help!measure!health! activity!levels,!medication!schedules!and!sleeping!patterns.!If!anything!unusual! happens,! a! notification! is! automatically! sent! to! authorized! family! members! or! health!care!services.!! ! Retailing!+!agriculture!+!government! Emmanuelle!and!her!sons!Greg!and!Max!are!heading!to!the!grocery!store!to!refill! the!family’s!fridge.!Using!packaging!with!printed!sensors!and!their!smartphone,! the!mother!can!make!sure!the!pork!they!are!purchasing!has!not!reached!unsafe! temperature!levels!in!the!supply!chain.!! ! Interestingly,! the! package! can! also! be! tagged! to! bring! up! the! pig’s! history62!'! where!it!was!raised,!what!was!fed,!where!it!was!slaughtered!and!packaged,!how! it!was!transported!and!the!last!time!it!was!inspected.!! ! Two! days! later,! the! US! department! of! Agriculture! determines! that! the! pork,! originating!from!a!regional!farm!and!sold!in!the!same!store!where!Emmanuelle! habitually! goes,! is! contaminated! with! swine! flu.! All! packages! from! the! farm’s! distributor!change!their!color!and!notifications!are!sent!to!those!shoppers!that! may!have!been!impacted63.!! ! Home!+!Work!+!City!Management!+!Transportation!! The!following!is!another!brilliant!illustration!of!how!every!individual!will!be!able! to!manage!and!take!better!control!of!their!day:! Max!works!and!travels!a!lot.!Today,!his!alarm!clock!woke!him!up!half!an!hour! later.!In!the!kitchen,!the!coffee!maker!automatically!turns!on,!as!a!signal!is!sent! from! his! smartphone.! Likewise,! Max’s! car! starts! to! melt! the! ice! which! was! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 62!A!Dutch!startup!–!Sparked!'!is!using!wireless!sensors!on!cows!to!monitor!its!health.!! 63!Source:!Harbor!Research!
  54. 54. ! The!IoT!'!Transforming!the!way!we!behave!with!our!environment! Stephane.saintdenis@kedgebs.com! 54! formed! by! the! cold! winter! night.! As! he! walks! in! the! house! and! heads! to! the! kitchen,!motion!sensors!turn!lights!on!and!off.!It!is!very!convenient!for!Max!as!he! no! longer! needs! to! worry! about! energy! and! money! savings.! Finally,! as! he! sits! down!next!to!the!dining!table,!he!discovers!on!his!smartphone!why!he!was!able! to!oversleep!30!minutes.!! In!fact,!his!meeting!was!pushed!back!40!minutes;!his!car!knows!it!will!need!to!fill! up!the!gas!tank!to!make!it!to!the!airport!'!10!minutes!are!needed!for!the!fill!up;! there!is!an!accident!on!his!driving!route,!causing!a!20!minute!detour;!and!finally! his!flight!is!delayed!–!20!minutes!more.! ! These! few! examples! among! many! other! possible! examples! illustrate! how! collective! intelligence! will! progressively! transform! society! within! the! next! decade.!!In!the!near!future,!hundreds!of!millions,!then!billions!of!individuals!and! businesses! with! billions,! then! trillions,! of! IoT! technologies! will! expand! the! boundaries!of!our!current!system!to!new!horizons.!! ! ! “If we can harvest the Big Data insights from all of the things connected to the Internet we can more precisely understand how our world actually works. By making Internet of Things application development easier, the answers to the grand challenges of our age becomes more feasible.” Thorsten Kramp, Computer Scientist at IBM Research! !
  55. 55. ! The!IoT!'!Transforming!the!way!we!behave!with!our!environment! Stephane.saintdenis@kedgebs.com! 55! 4.CONCLUSION! ! The!process!of!connecting!things!through!a!virtual!network!is!not!a!novelty,!and! has! been! exploited! for! some! time! now,! but! still! to! a! very! limited! extent.! Yet,! technology! has! evolved! enough! to! permit! the! realization! of! the! intelligent! communication!of!things!on!a!much!larger!scale,!physically!and!geographically,! which!has!implications!that!are!hard!to!foresee!accurately.!! ! As! data! and! information! is! proliferating! with! the! development! of! smarter,! smaller,! cheaper! and! connected! technologies,! we! are! entering! a! knowledge' based! economy! where! information! and! knowledge! are! now! recognized! as! the! drivers! of! productivity! and! economic! growth! in! a! continuously! challenging! world.!! ! Increasingly,!a!large!number!of!companies!are!investing!in!the!Internet!of!Things! infrastructure!and!applications!to!promote!innovation!and!new!business!models! and!processes,!and!hereby!driving!its!commercialization!to!the!mass!market.!! ! Looking! back! at! how! the! Internet! has! drastically! reshaped! our! world,! the! Internet!of!Things!is!bringing!a!new!level!of!evolution!to!nations,!industries,!as! well!as!to!professional!and!personal!life.!Gradually,!our!electronic!environment,! both!at!a!macro!and!micro!level,!will!transform!individuals’!lives,!consciously!or! unconsciously.!! ! Income!inequality,!overpopulation!of!cities,!global!warming!and!the!limitation!of! our! planet’s! natural! resources! are! a! growing! concern! to! humanity.! As! our! environment!will!grow!artificially!smarter,!we!will!create!a!new!sort!of!sensory! planetary! awareness! and! responsiveness,! we! will! be! empowered! to! better! understand! how! our! planet! works,! to! ultimately! solve! these! challenges,! efficiently!and!wisely.!! ! !
  56. 56. ! The!IoT!'!Transforming!the!way!we!behave!with!our!environment! Stephane.saintdenis@kedgebs.com! 56! But!a!long!path!awaits!us!to!reach!such!a!level!of!wisdom,!as!there!are!many! concerns!to!be!addressed!in!regard!to!the!Internet!of!Things,!most!importantly,! the!well!being,!security!and!privacy!of!every!human!being.!!We!need!to!remain! conscious!of!the!impact!of!this!rising!technology!on!the!whole!planet!and!not!just! at!what!seems!to!make!our!western!lives!easier!and!more!productive.!We!should! remain!attentive!of!its!future!development!so!that!the!stability!and!well!being!of! our!ecosystem!is!preserved!and!even!bettered.! ! All! in! all,! it! is! of! utmost! importance! to! keep! the! Internet! of! Things! in! a! free! market,!and!with!the!full!collaboration!and!goodwill!of!all!businesses,!industries,! organizations,!academia,!institutions,!governments!and!citizens.!Today,!it!is!the! perfect! time! for! policy! makers! to! rethink! the! way! they! address! information! technology!affairs!to!embrace!the!dawn!of!a!disruptive64!technological!revolution! that!will!affect!each!and!every!one!of!us.!!!! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 64!Innovation!and!disruption!are!similar!in!that!they!are!both!makers!and!builders.!Disruption! takes!a!left!turn!by!literally!uprooting!and!changing!how!we!think,!behave,!do!business,!learn!and! go!about!our!day'to'day!(Source:!Forbes).!Harvard!Business!School!professor!and!disruption! guru!Clayton!Christensen!says!that!a!disruption!displaces!an!existing!market,!industry,!or! technology!and!produces!something!new!and!more!efficient!and!worthwhile.!It!is!at!once! destructive!and!creative.!
  57. 57. ! The!IoT!'!Transforming!the!way!we!behave!with!our!environment! Stephane.saintdenis@kedgebs.com! 57! APPENDIX! ! ! Table!1!'!What!is!a!zettabyte?!! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Table!2!'!List!of!tagging/communication!technologies! ! Source:!Harbor!Research!and!Postscapes! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !
  58. 58. ! The!IoT!'!Transforming!the!way!we!behave!with!our!environment! Stephane.saintdenis@kedgebs.com! 58! !Table!3!–!The!Internet!of!Things!Landscape! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !
  59. 59. ! The!IoT!'!Transforming!the!way!we!behave!with!our!environment! Stephane.saintdenis@kedgebs.com! 59! Table!4!'!Resource!kit! ! In!case!anyone!desires!to!continue!reading!about!the!Internet!of!Things,!here!is!a! list!of!interesting!websites.! If!you!are!unable!to!open!the!provided!links!(compatibility!problem:!Microsoft!vs! Mac),!feel!free!to!contact!me!via!stephane.saintdenis@kedgebs.com.!! ! ! Media!websites! Link! Business!week! Internet!of!Things! Forbes! Internet!of!Things! Venture!Beat! Internet!of!Things! Wired! Internet!of!Things! Wall!Street!Journal! Internet!of!Things! ! Consultants/Vendor!websites! Link! Harbor!Research! Website! Postcapes! Website! Intel! Simplifying!the!Internet!of!Things!! IBM! The!Internet!of!Things!(video)! Miscrosoft! Building!the!Internet!of!Things!! Cisco!! Internet!of!Everything! ! Social!Communities! Link! Linkedin! Internet!of!Things! Google!+!! Internet!of!Things! Pinterest! Internet!of!Things! Twitter! #IoT! Tumblr! Internet!of!Things! Pinterest! Internet!of!Things! Youtube! Internet!of!Things!Playlists! Tumblr! Internet!of!Things! Pinterest! Internet!of!Things! Meetup!Paris! Internet!of!Things!! Meetup!London! Internet!of!Things! Meetup!Bengalore! Internet!of!Things! Meetup!NewVYork! Internet!of!Things! ! ! ! ! Analyst!websites! Link! ABI!Research! ! Internet!of!Things! ABI!Research! Wireless!Sensor!Networks! Forrester! Internet!of!Things! Forrester! Sensor! Gartner! Internet!of!Things! Forrester! Internet!of!Things!Blog!Posts!! IDC! Internet!of!Things! IDC! M2M!!
  60. 60. ! The!IoT!'!Transforming!the!way!we!behave!with!our!environment! Stephane.saintdenis@kedgebs.com! 60! IoT!devices! Link! HAPIFork! http://hapifork.com/! CubeSensors! http://cubesensors.com/! Tagg!Pet!Tracker! http://tagg.com/! Fitbit! http://fitbit.com/! Garmin!Forerunner!Watches! https://buy.garmin.com/en'US/US/cIntoSports' cRunning'p1.html! Tile! http://thetileapp.com/! Withings! http://withings.com! ! DIY! Link! Make!Magazine! http://makezine.com/! Arduino! http://www.arduino.cc/! Netduino! http://www.netduino.com/! Beagle!Board! http://beagleboard.org/! Raspberry!Pi! http://www.raspberrypi.org/! SparkFun! http://sparkfun.com/! Adafruit! http://adafruit.com/! Parallax! http://parallax.com/! Tindie! http://www.tindie.com/! Makerbot! http://makerbot.com/! Maker!Place,!San!Diego! http://makerplace.com/! MQTT! http://mqtt.org/! ! Other!websites! Link! Internet!of!Things!Consortium! http://iofthings.org/! Industrial!Internet!Consortium! http://www.iiconsortium.org/! International! Telecommunication!Union!! http://www.itu.int/en/Pages/default.aspx! Crunchwear! http://www.crunchwear.com! Andy!Standford!Clark's!TEDx! Warwick!"Innovation!Begins!at! Home"! http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=s9nrm8q5eGg! FundAGeek! http://fundageek.com/! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

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