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  1. 1. SONGHAISocial Studies for 10th E.G.B.Teacher: Mauricio Torres
  2. 2. AFTER MALI With the decline of Mali, Songhai took advantage of it, and asserted it’s independence. Their capital was Gao. The Songhai expansion moved across the Sahel. By the year 1420, they were the most powerful force in the area.
  3. 3. SUNNI ALI Reigned from 1463 to 1493. He was Muslim. He conquered neighboring states, including MALI. His conquests are the biggest there have even been in the history of Africa, and were bigger than Western Europe. He was described as an intolerant tyrant.
  4. 4. ASKIA MUHAMMAD THE GREAT He was not in line to take the throne. He had Soninke lineage. Askia bypassed the law and took the throne on his own in 1493. He allied himself with the scholars of Timbuktu to secure the legitimacy of his usurpation of the throne. The territory he conquered, was done more through alliances than by using military force. He was a devout Muslim.
  5. 5. ASKIA’S ACHIEVEMENTS  Standardized measures and regulations.  Policing of trade routes.  Organized Tax System.  Encouraged learning and literacy.  The building of canals to improve agriculture.
  6. 6. TIMBUKTU Even though it was not the capital, it was a center for trade  Arabs, Italians and Jews gathered here to trade. A revival of Islamic scholarship took place here.
  7. 7. ECONOMY Clans were the cell of the social structre.  They decided what everyone’s function was. The most common were: metalworkers, fishermen and carpenters.  The clans resembled modern day unions.
  8. 8. DECLINE: THE COWS TOPPLE ANEMPIRE  Succession disputes weakened the empire.  Finally, the Sultan of Morocco invaded from the north, in a desperate measure to gain riches fast.  At a battle, the fire of guns and cannons, provoked an stampede that routed the whole Sonhgai army.  The Arabs couldn’t hold the Empire together, and it began to fragment into smaller kingdoms.
  9. 9. ASK YOURSELF How are the kingdoms of the rulers of Songhai alike with Mansa Musa’s? What led to the decline of Songhai? Why was Timbuktu given such an importance? Is there a pattern in the rise and fall of West-African Empires?
  10. 10. ASSIGNMENT Make a table comparing the three empires from Western Africa that we have studied. Use the following fields:  How it rose to power.  Source of strength of each empire.  Most important leader of each.  Greatest achievements (at least 2).  Important facts, of any kind (at least two). Make a first draft, and bring a clean and final version next class. In a paragraph, draw a conclusion, how alike or different where they?
  11. 11. BIBLIOGRAPHY Ellis, E. G., & Esler, A. (2009). World History. (P. Hall, Ed.) Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, US: Pearson Education INC. Wikipedia. (n.d.). Songhai Empire. Retrieved May 14, 2012, from Wikipedia: Wikipedia. (n.d.). Askia Mohammad I. Retrieved May 14, 2012, from Wikipedia: Images taken from Google.