AFRICAN EMPIRES:GHANASocial Studies for 10th E.G.B.teacher: mauricio torres
Background Trade brought riches to societies that would later rise into civilizations.
Fun Fact: Silent Barter Process in which people exchange goods without contacting each other directly. The two reasons why silent barter was used might be because of: 1. The trader(s) might not be able to speak the others language. 2. This was used to protect the secrets of where the valuable gold and salt came from.
West Africa Emerges The Soninke, a group of farmers, that lived along the Niger River banded together to fight off invaders. They became the people of Ghana, and they grew stronger. With iron tools, they were able to produce plenty of food. Their population increased Towns and villages sprang up.
Ghana: Land of Gold Located between the Sahara and forests that spread south. They were in an strategic position on trades routes. Its power was based on the control of gold and salt trade.
A Prosperous Empire The capital was Koumbi Saleh. By 800 the empire was held together by its riches and because it controlled trade. They built armies armed with iron weapons. These armies kept trade routes safe. Iron weapons were superior than their neighbor’s.
No nuggets! The kings didn’t allow their subject to own gold nuggets They could only use gold dust as currency. What did this ensure?
Expansion Powerful army Conquered leaders were left in place to act as governors. Taxes were levied on traders. The empire’s height came under Tunka Manin´s leadership.
Tunka Manin - 1068 All we know from him comes from the writings of a muslim geographer who wrote about Ghana. He was the nephew of a previous king named Basi Kingship and property was inherited by nephews instead of sons.
Decline The empire collapsed by the mid 1200s: Invasion: North African Muslims called the Almoravids. Overgrazing: The Almoravids brought herds of animals with them. This left the soil exposed to hot desert winds. Internal Rebellion: Rebels from a conquered country rose in rebellion and took over. They were unable to hold the empire together.
Quick Exercise: The SilentBarter Grab a piece of paper, and write down something you own and would like to trade it off. Fold it and give it to your classmate next to you. He will give you one in return. Unfold his piece of paper and see if its worth trading both items, between the two of you. A simple “yes” or “no” will suffice.
Chapter Review: Explain: How did the silent barter system work? Identify: What were two major resources in Ghana? Evaluate: Do you think trade was safer when Ghana was in control? Analyze: How did Ghana’s rulers acquire huge amounts of gold? Analyze: How did overgrazing help cause the fall of Ghana? Recall: How did Ghana’s rulers raise money?
Bibliography Ellis, E. G., & Esler, A. (2009). World History. (P. Hall, Ed.) Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, US: Pearson Education INC. Burstein, S. M., & Shek, R. (2012). World History (Teacher´s Edition) (1st Edition ed.). (H. McDougal, Ed.) Orlando, Florida, US.: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. Images taken from Google.