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Rise of Islam: Muhammad


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  • 1. Rise of Islam I: The Prophet Social Studies for 10th E.G.B. | Teacher: Mauricio Torres
  • 2. Background  Islam emerged in the Arabian Peninsula. Its deserts and trade centers helped shape the early life of Muhammad.
  • 3. Geographic Setting  Many Arab clans occupied Arabia at the time of Muhammad. Nomadic herders called Bedouins used camels to cross to cross the desert to pasture when seasons changed.  Bedouins traded with other Arabs all around the Peninsula.
  • 4. Mecca  Mecca (Makkah) was a booming market town at the crossroads of two main caravan routes. ◦ One linked Arabia with Palestine and the Mediterranean coast. ◦ The second one, crossed from Mesopotamia to Africa.  Pilgrims also went there on pilgrimage. They prayed at the Kaaba, an ancient shrine the Muslims believe to be built by Abraham. ◦ The pilgrims traffic brought many good profits to merchants.
  • 5. Mecca
  • 6. Muhammad  He was born in Mecca about 570 AD.  When he was young, he worked as a shepherd among the Bedouins.  Later he led caravans across the desert and became a successful merchant.  When he was 25, he married Khadijah, a wealthy widow, and was a devoted father and husband.
  • 7. His Visions  When he was 40 he was troubled by the idol worship and moral ills of society.  He went into a cave to meditate. ◦ According to Muslim belief, he heard a voice that ordered him to pray.  “Recite in the name of your God, the Creator, who created man from clots of blood”.  He understood it was the voice of angel Gabriel calling him to be the messenger of God.
  • 8. Birth of Islam  Muhammad was terrified. How could an illiterate merchant become the messenger of God?  But Khadija encouraged him to accept the call. In fact she was the first convert of Islam.  Islam means “submission”.  He spent the rest of his life spreading Islam, urging Arabs to give up the false gods and praise Allah.
  • 9. An Outcast  At first, a few people listened to the teaching of Muhammad. His rejection of traditional Arab gods angered Meccans, who feared pilgrimage would be disrupted.
  • 10. The Hijra  Facing murder threats in 622, he and his followers left for Yahtrib, a journey known as the hijra. ◦ Later Yahtrib would be renamed Medina (City of the Prophet). ◦ 622 became the first year of the Muslim calendar.  When he reached Medina, he was welcomed as a ruler and lawgiver.  Others soon began to adopt Islam.  Muslims soon launched attacks on Medina, defeated them and Muhammad was able to return triumphantly.
  • 11. Death and after  For the last years of his life, he worked to unite Arabs under the banner of Islam.  He died in 632, poisoned.  The faith that he proclaimed continued to spread, to the point in which it is one of the world’s main religions.
  • 12. Ask Yourself  Identify the following terms: ◦ Mecca, Bedouins, Khadija, Islam  Define ◦ What is the hijra?  Recall ◦ How did Muhammad become the prophet of Islam?  Analyze ◦ Why was Mecca so important before Muhammad? ◦ “No one is a prophet in their own land”. Does this apply to Muhammad? Why or why not?  Timeline ◦ List the important events of Muhammad’s life.  Evaluate ◦ Why was pilgrimage so important to merchants in Mecca?
  • 13. Bibliography  Ellis, E. G., & Esler, A. (2009). World History. (P. Hall, Ed.) Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, US: Pearson Education INC.  Burstein, S. M., & Shek, R. (2012). World History (Teacher´s Edition) (1st Edition ed.). (H. McDougal, Ed.) Orlando, Florida, US.: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company.  Images taken from Google.