JUDAISM OVER THECENTURIESSocial Studies for 10th E.G.B.Teacher: Mauricio Torres
Roman Era: Revolt, defeat and migration • When the Romans took over Palestine, the Jews felt they lost some sense of national identity. They soon got tired of foreign rule (Rome).
Roman Era: Revolt, defeat and migration • Revolt Against Rome • A group called the Zealots were the most rebellious. • They thought they should not answer to anyone else but God, therefore, they refused to obey Roman officials. • In 66 AD they finally revolted and fought fiercely against the Romans for four years. • They were not successful. Jerusalem lay in ruins and the Second Temple was burned to the ground by the Romans. • When the temple was destroyed, the Jews lost their will to fight and surrendered.
Roman Era: Revolt, defeat and migration• Revolt Against Rome • Masada • Few Zealots, refused to give up their fight and locked themselves in a mountain fortress called Masada • The Romans, under the leadership of Titus, sent 15,000 soldiers to smash the revolt. • The fortress was near impenetrable and the Romans had to build a ramp to reach it. • Fighting continued for two years. • When the Romans broke in, the Zealots took their own lives, because they refused to be Roman slaves.
Roman Era: Revolt, defeat and migration• Results of the Revolt • As punishment, the Romans killed most of the population in Jerusalem. • They took he survivors to Rome as slaves. • The few that remained, left because the felt that without the Temple, it was not worth living in the city any longer. • They migrated to other Jewish communities, specially Alexandria in Egypt.
Roman Era: Revolt, defeat and migration• Second Revolt • 60 years after Masada, the Jews chose to revolt once again, tired of Roman rule. • Once again, the Romans defeated them and they decided to ban all Jews from Jerusalem. • Once again, they migrated all over the Mediterranean.
Roman Era: Revolt, defeat and migration• Migration and Discrimination • Without a temple, synagogues were now more important for Jews. • Rabbis, religious teachers, took a greater role in guiding them in their religious lives. • Yohanan ben Zaccai, a rabbi, founded a school were he taught about Judaism and trained them to be rabbis. • Rabbis’ ideas shaped Judaism over the centuries and they also served as community leaders. • Over the centuries, Jews continued to migrate out of the Mediterranean region into other parts of the world. • Sometimes, this was not voluntary, but due to the pressure and discrimination of other religious groups. • They settled as far as Russia, Asia and the U.S.
Ask Yourself• Analyze: • What led to the revolt of the Jews against the Romans? • Why did the Zealots choose to commit suicide?• Cause and effect: • Why did the Romans force out Jews of Jerusalem? • How did the defeat by the Romans affect Jewish history?• Trace • What are the areas to which the Jews migrated and in what order?• Evaluate • Why was the destruction of the Temple such a powerful blow to Jewish culture?• Describe • How did the Romans finally break into Masada?
Bibliography• Burstein, S. M., & Shek, R. (2012). World History (Teacher´s Edition) (1st Edition ed.). (H. McDougal, Ed.) Orlando, Florida, US.: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company.• Images taken from www.google.com