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African Independence I
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African Independence I


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  • 1. Nationalism in Africa  During the 1900s, almost every part of Africa was a European Colony.  The few economical booms, were exploited by colonizers for their own benefit.  During the 1920s a new generation of leaders, proud of their unique heritage, struggled to stop imperialism and restore Africa for Africans.
  • 2. White Africa In South Africa, locals were forced to work in mines and plantations. In Kenya and Rhodesia, white settlers forced the Africans off the best land. African farmers were forced to grow cash crops, like cotton instead of food.  This led to famines in some regions. During WWI, more than a million Africans had fought for the Europeans. They had hoped this would give them more rights and opportunities… Most of the times the situation remained the same or worsened.
  • 3. Resisting Colonial Rule Western-educated Africans criticized imperial rule. They had degrees, yet the best jobs went to whites. Calling for self- determination, they condemned the colonial system. Socialism found a growing audience.
  • 4. Racial Segregation  In early 20th century South Africa, whites tightened their grip, ton ensure economical, political and social supremacy:  New laws restricted better paying jobs to whites only, low pay jobs for blacks.  Africans had to carry IDs.  Forced to live in crowded “reservations”.  In 1948, Apartheid, came into effect.  Apartheid: policy of rigid segregation.  Like other African countries, new movements, looking to bring down these unfair laws, They didn’t have any effect on the SA government, but it built a base for future movements.
  • 5. Worksheet: Israeli Apartheid BACKGROUND: The State of Israels treatment of the Palestinians has been compared by United Nations investigators, human rights groups and critics of Israeli policy to South Africas treatment of non-whites during its apartheid era. Israel has also been accused of committing the crime of apartheid. Critics of Israeli policy say that "a system of control" in the Israeli-occupied West Bank, including Jewish-only settlements, separate roads, military checkpoints, discriminatory marriage law, the West Bank barrier, use of Palestinians as cheap labour, Palestinian West Bank enclaves, inequities in infrastructure, legal rights, and access to land and resources between Palestinians and Israeli residents in the Israeli-occupied territories resembles some aspects of the South African apartheid regime, and that elements of Israels occupation constitute forms of colonialism and of apartheid, which are contrary to international law.
  • 6. Worksheet: Israeli Apartheid  Answer the following, in two paragraphs, after reading the background and your sheet:  Compare African apartheid with Israel’s system.  Give your personal opinion on why do you think Israelis do this and if you think it’s right or wrong.
  • 7. Vocabulary Heritage: features belonging to the culture of a particular society, such as traditions, languages, or buildings, which come from the past and are still important Imperialism: the attempt of one country to control another country, by political and economic methods. Cash Crops: a crop that is grown mainly to be sold, rather than used by the people who grew it or those living in the area it is grown in. Western-educated: having an education like North America and western Europe Self-determination: the ability or power to make decisions for yourself, especially the power of a nation to decide how it will be governed Apartheid: a political system in South Africa that legally separated people of different races.
  • 8. Bibliography Ellis, E. G., & Esler, A. (2009). World History. (P. Hall, Ed.) Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, US: Pearson Education INC. Wikipedia. (n.d.). Israel and the apartheid analogy. (Various, Editor) Retrieved June 3, 2012, from Wikipedia: _analogy. Images taken from