AFRICASocial Studies for 10th E.G.B. – Mauricio Torres
QUICK FACTSThe worlds second-largest and second-most- Surrounded by :populous continent. • Mediterranean Sea to the north • Suez Canal and the Red Sea to the northeastWidely regarded within the scientific • Indian Ocean to the southeastcommunity to be the origin of humans • Atlantic Ocean to the west.
GEOGRAPHICAL FEATURESEast African Rift Mount Kilimanjaro Zambezi RiverAtlas Mountains Congo Basin Madagascar Sahara Desert Sahel Lake Tanganyika Great Horn Lake Chad Sudanian Savanna Victoria Lake Nile River Red Sea Niger River
NILE, NIGER & ZAMBEZI RIVERS
NIGER RIVERIt is the principal river of western Africa,extending about 4,180 km.Its source is in the Guinea Highlands insoutheastern Guinea. It runs in a crescentthrough Mali, Niger, on the border withBenin and then through Nigeria,discharging through a massive delta,known as the Niger Delta into the Gulfof Guinea in the Atlantic Ocean.The Niger is the third-longest river inAfrica, exceeded only by the Nile and theCongo River.
NIGER RIVERIt is the principal river ofwestern Africa, extending about4,180 km.Its source is in the Guinea Highlands insoutheastern Guinea. It runs in a crescentthrough Mali, Niger, on the border withBenin and thenthrough Nigeria, discharging through amassive delta, known as the NigerDelta into the Gulf of Guinea inthe Atlantic Ocean.The Niger is the third-longest river inAfrica, exceeded only by the Nile and theCongo River.
ZAMBEZI RIVER Is the fourth-longest river in Africa, and the largest flowing into the Indian Ocean from Africa. The Zambezis most well-known feature is the Victoria Falls.
NILE RIVER Is a major north-flowing river in northeastern Africa, generally regarded as the longest river in the world. It is 6,650 km long. It runs through the ten countries of : Sudan, South Sudan, Burundi, Rwanda, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Tanzania, Kenya, Ethiopia, Uganda and Egypt. The northern section of the river flows almost entirely through desert, from Sudan into Egypt, a country whose civilization has depended on the river since ancient times. The Nile ends in a large delta that empties into the Mediterranean Sea.
MADAGASCARAt 592,800 square kilometres, Madagascaris the worlds fourth largest island.It is separated from Africa by theMozambique channel. Even though it isclosest to Africa, its land mass wasoriginally part of India and Antartica.The most densely populated part of theisland and are characterized by terraced,rice-growing valleys lying between grassy,deforested hills.
SUDANIAN SAVANNA The Sudanian Savanna is a broad belt of tropical savanna that runs east and west across the African continent, from the Atlantic Ocean in the west to the Ethiopian Highlands in the east. The Sahel, a belt of drier grasslands and acacia savannas, lies to the north, between the Sudanian Savanna and the Sahara Desert. To the south the forest-savanna mosaic is a transition zone.
CONGO BASIN The Congo Basin is the sedimentary basin that is the drainage of the Congo River of west equatorial Africa. The basin begins in the highlands of the East African Rift system with input from the Chambeshi River, the Uele and Ubangi Rivers in the upper reaches and the Lualaba River draining wetlands in the middle.
THE RED SEA
THE RED SEA Is a seawater inlet of the Indian Ocean, lying between Africa and Asia. The connection to the ocean is in the south through the Bab el Mandeb strait and the Gulf of Aden. In the north, there is the Sinai Peninsula, the Gulf of Aqaba and the Gulf of Suez. • The Red Sea has a surface area of roughly 438,000 km² • It is the worlds northernmost tropical sea.
MOUNT KILIMANJAROKilimanjaro, with its three volcaniccones, Kibo, Mawenzi, and Shira, is adormant volcano in KilimanjaroNational Park, Tanzania and the highestmountain in Africa at 5,895 metresabove sea level.Kilimanjaro is a giant stratovolcano thatbegan forming a million years ago, whenlava spilled from the Rift Valley zone.
VICTORIA, CHAD & TANGANYIKA LAKES
VICTORIA, CHAD & TANGANYIKA LAKESChad: is a historically large, shallow lake in Africa, the size of which has variedover the centuries.Tanganyika: is an African Great Lake. It is estimated to be the second largestfreshwater lake in the world by volume, and the second deepest.Lake Victoria: is one of the African Great Lakes. The lake was namedafter Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom. Lake Victoria receives most of itswater from direct precipitation or from thousands of small streams.
GREAT HORN Is a peninsula in East Africa that juts hundreds of kilometers into the Arabian Sea and lies along the southern side of the Gulf of Aden. It is the easternmost projection of the African continent. The Horn of Africa denotes the region containing the countries of Eritrea, Djibouti, Ethiopia and Somalia. It covers approximately 2,000,000 km² and is inhabited by roughly 100 million people.
THE SAHELThe Sahel is the ecoclimatic and biogeographiczone of transition between the Sahara desert inthe North and the Sudanian Savannas in thesouth. It stretches across the north ofthe African continent between the AtlanticOcean and the Red Sea.The Arabic word sāḥil literally means "shore,coast”, describing the appearance of thevegetation of the Sahel as a coastline delimitingthe sand of the Sahara.
SAHARA DESERT It is the worlds largest hot desert and second largest desert, after Antarctica. At over 9,400,000 square kms, it covers most of Northern Africa, making it almost as large as China or the United States. The Sahara stretches from the Red Sea, including parts of the Mediterranean coasts, to the outskirts of the Atlantic Ocean. The desert landforms of the Sahara are shaped by wind or by occasional rains. The climate of the Sahara has undergone enormous variation between wet and dry over the last few hundred thousand years. During the last glacial period, the Sahara was even bigger than it is today, extending south beyond its current boundaries
ATLAS MOUNTAINSIs a mountain range across a northern stretch of Africa extending about 2,500 km throughMorocco, Algeria, and Tunisia.The Atlas are rich in natural resources. There are deposits of iron ore, leadore, copper, silver, mercury, rock salt, phosphate, marble, coal, and gas among other resources.
EAST AFRICAN RIFT
EAST AFRICAN RIFT
EAST AFRICAN RIFT The East African Rift is an active continental rift zone in eastern Africa that appears to be a developing divergent tectonic plate boundary. In the past it was considered to be part of a larger Great Rift Valley that extended north to Turkey. The rift is a narrow zone in whichthe African Plate is in the processof splitting into two new tectonicplates called the Somali Plate and the Nubian Plate.