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  • 1. Social Studies for 9 th E.G.B.THE INCAN EMPIRE Teacher: Mauricio Torres
  • 2. WHO WERE THE INCAS?  Before they created an Empire, the Incas lived as a small tribe in the city of Cuzco, in Perú.  In the mid 1400s, Pachacuti rose as a leader and began conquering neighboring territory in the Andes. His successors followed the same lead and quickly built an Empire  The Empire stretched from what we know today as northern Ecuador to central Chile.  12 million people lived in it in various types of terrain such as: coastal deserts, snowy mountains and fertile valleys.  They didn’t keep written records of their history, but instead relied on oral tradition.
  • 3. KEEPING A TIGHT GRIP Power was held from Cuzco. To avoid losing control of his new empire, Pachacuti replaced leaders in the conquered villages by people from his own territory. Also, children from newly conquered lands were sent to Cuzco to learn the Inca way of life. Quechua was the of ficial language and thus was spoken throughout the empire.
  • 4. ECONOMICS Of ficials kept a tight control on economy. Each household was told was work they had to do. This way they worked for themselves as well as the central government. People worked, soldiered or mined. This was a way of paying tribute to the emperor. It was a tax through labor and not money. It was called “ mita”. There were no markets or merchants, so it was up to the of ficials to distribute goods among the population. Even though the government took a lot of production away form its people, it also looked out for them. The surplus was used for emergencies or for people who could not care for themselves.
  • 5. BEING AN INCA The rulers controlled daily life very closely, leaving little space for personal freedom. Even so, they looked up for the welfare of everyone in the empire.
  • 6. BEING AN INCA Social Divisions  Upper class: Emperor, priests and governments officials.  They wore the best clothes  Lived in stone houses  Didn’t have to work or tribute tax.  Went on vacations to Macchu Picchu (same as today, right?)  Lower class: artisans, farmers and servants.  Dressed in plain clothes  Lived simply  By law they couldn’t more goods than what they needed to survive. Religion  Incas believed their rulers were related to the sun god, and never really died. They were mummified when they died.  Ceremonies included sacrifices, not human (not always), but rather animals.  Certain areas, as mountain tops, had special religious value and thus were worshipped.  Near Cuenca, you can find Cojitambo, which has old ruins, an odd shape for a mountain and is used today as a climbing spot.
  • 7. ACHIEVEMENTS  Masonry: Stonework. They would cut and carve stone so perfectly, that when they built their grand palaces, they didn’t need anything like cement to keep them in place.  Road networks: They stretched north to south and were used as ways for the army or mail couriers ( chasquis) to move around the empire.  Artwork: They worked with gold and silver, as well as doing pottery. Textiles were also made by them.
  • 8. FARMING Most of the empire was based on the Andes on steep slopes. They developed a “terrace system” to farm and keep the soil well irrigated. The Incas also domesticated the llama.
  • 9. DEMISEThe Tauantinsuyu  In the 1520s, when the ruler passed away, his two sons (Atahualpa and Huascar)star ted a civil war to see who would rule the empire.  Atahualpa won, but the fierce fighting had weakened the army.  The Spanish, led by Francisco Pizarro, arrived at Cuzco. They attacked the Incas (even though greatly outnumbered), captured Atahualpa and killed thousands.  They asked for a ransom (a room filled with gold and silver) in order to secure his release, but killed him anyways.  The Incas fought back , but they were eventually defeated by Pizarro and his men. They were to rule for the next 300 year s.
  • 10. ASK YOURSELFThe Tauantinsuyu  Why do you think the Spanish murdered Atahualpa?
  • 11. ASK YOURSELFThe Tauantinsuyu  Why do you think the Spanish murdered Atahualpa?  They feared he would lead his people into rebellion .
  • 12. BIBLIOGRAPHY Burstein, S. M., & Shek, R. (2012). World Histor y (Teacher ´s Edition) (1st Edition ed.). (H. McDougal, Ed.) Orlando, Florida, US.: Houghton Mif flin Harcourt Publishing Company. Images taken from Google.