Later Peoples of theFertile CrescentSocial Studies for 8th E.G.B. | Teacher: Mauricio TorresChapter 3, Section 1 (page 72 in your books)
Background Many people invaded Mesopotamia. They inherited the Sumerians’ innovations and created some of their own.
Babylonians By 2000 BC, Ur lay in ruins due to continued attacks by different people. Babylon was the capital of some of these invaders. It was located near what is today Baghdad. In 1792 BC, Hammurabi became king. He would become the city’s greatest ruler.
Hammurabi the Ruler He was a brilliant leader who had expanded his power through the army. His empire was known as the Babylonian Empire. Hammurabi ruled for 42 years. He was also an able ruler: Building and irrigation improvements Improved Babylon’s tax system. Most famous however, for his code of laws.
Hammurabi’s Code It was a set of 282 laws that dealt with almost every part of daily life. Laws that included: trade, loans, theft, marriage, injury, murder and so on. Some ideas are still used today: Certain crimes had very specific penalties. Class did matter! The code was available for everyone to see.
Ask Yourself Explain: How did Hammurabi conquer Mesopotamia? Draw Conclusions: Why would it have been helpful for people to have the law code written down?
Invasions of Mesopotamia The Hittites built a strong kingdom in Asia Minor. Their military success came from their advantages over other rivals: They were the first to master iron working, this meant they made the strongest weapons of the time. They used the chariot (a wheeled, horse- drawn cart used in battle). Hittites conquer Babylon in 1595 BC, but their kingdom plunges into chaos after their king is assassinated.
Invasions of Mesopotamia In the year 1200 BC, the Assyrians from northern Mesopotamia, briefly gained control of Babylon, and soon lost it. They took 300 years to recover their strength, after which, they began to conquer the entire Fertile Crescent, as far as Asia Minor and Egypt. They used Hittite technology and a more organized army.
Invasions of Mesopotamia They were fierce warriors! They looted villages and burned crops. The Assyrians ruled from Nineveh. The rulers used local leaders to govern small areas, collect taxes and enforce laws.
Invasions of Mesopotamia In 625 BC, the Assyrian Empire faced internal strife. They were attacked by a dessert people called the Chaldeans. Their king, Nebuchadnezzar rebuilt Babylon. He built the famous palace with its Hanging Gardens.
Invasions of Mesopotamia The Chaldeans admired the Sumerian culture and studied their language and idolized their gods. Babylon became an astronomical center. They kept records of everything: economics, politics and weather events.
Ask Yourself Recall: How did the Hittite kingdom come to an end? Identify: What military advantages did the Assyrians have? What was the opportunity the Chaldeans seized to rise? Draw Conclusions: How do you think the use of chariots by Hittites affect the opposing army’s foot soldiers? Summarize: How did the Assyrians rule their empire?
Excercise Look for the meaning of the words written in italic or with a different color in order to understand the unit better. This might be helpful in a test!
Bibliography Burstein, S. M., & Shek, R. (2012). World History (Teacher´s Edition) (1st Edition ed.). (H. McDougal, Ed.) Orlando, Florida, US.: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. Images taken from www.google.com