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  • 1. Later Peoples of theFertile CrescentSocial Studies for 8th E.G.B. | Teacher: Mauricio TorresChapter 3, Section 1 (page 72 in your books)
  • 2. Background Many people invaded Mesopotamia. They inherited the Sumerians’ innovations and created some of their own.
  • 3. Babylonians  By 2000 BC, Ur lay in ruins due to continued attacks by different people.  Babylon was the capital of some of these invaders.  It was located near what is today Baghdad.  In 1792 BC, Hammurabi became king.  He would become the city’s greatest ruler.
  • 4. Hammurabi the Ruler He was a brilliant leader who had expanded his power through the army. His empire was known as the Babylonian Empire. Hammurabi ruled for 42 years. He was also an able ruler:  Building and irrigation improvements  Improved Babylon’s tax system. Most famous however, for his code of laws.
  • 5. Hammurabi’s Code  It was a set of 282 laws that dealt with almost every part of daily life.  Laws that included: trade, loans, theft, marriage, injury, murder and so on.  Some ideas are still used today:  Certain crimes had very specific penalties.  Class did matter!  The code was available for everyone to see.
  • 6. Ask Yourself Explain:  How did Hammurabi conquer Mesopotamia? Draw Conclusions:  Why would it have been helpful for people to have the law code written down?
  • 7. Invasions of Mesopotamia  The Hittites built a strong kingdom in Asia Minor.  Their military success came from their advantages over other rivals:  They were the first to master iron working, this meant they made the strongest weapons of the time.  They used the chariot (a wheeled, horse- drawn cart used in battle).  Hittites conquer Babylon in 1595 BC, but their kingdom plunges into chaos after their king is assassinated.
  • 8. Invasions of Mesopotamia In the year 1200 BC, the Assyrians from northern Mesopotamia, briefly gained control of Babylon, and soon lost it. They took 300 years to recover their strength, after which, they began to conquer the entire Fertile Crescent, as far as Asia Minor and Egypt. They used Hittite technology and a more organized army.
  • 9. Invasions of Mesopotamia They were fierce warriors!  They looted villages and burned crops. The Assyrians ruled from Nineveh. The rulers used local leaders to govern small areas, collect taxes and enforce laws.
  • 10. Invasions of Mesopotamia In 625 BC, the Assyrian Empire faced internal strife. They were attacked by a dessert people called the Chaldeans. Their king, Nebuchadnezzar rebuilt Babylon. He built the famous palace with its Hanging Gardens.
  • 11. Invasions of Mesopotamia  The Chaldeans admired the Sumerian culture and studied their language and idolized their gods.  Babylon became an astronomical center.  They kept records of everything: economics, politics and weather events.
  • 12. Ask Yourself Recall:  How did the Hittite kingdom come to an end? Identify:  What military advantages did the Assyrians have?  What was the opportunity the Chaldeans seized to rise? Draw Conclusions:  How do you think the use of chariots by Hittites affect the opposing army’s foot soldiers? Summarize:  How did the Assyrians rule their empire?
  • 13. Excercise Look for the meaning of the words written in italic or with a different color in order to understand the unit better. This might be helpful in a test!
  • 14. Bibliography Burstein, S. M., & Shek, R. (2012). World History (Teacher´s Edition) (1st Edition ed.). (H. McDougal, Ed.) Orlando, Florida, US.: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. Images taken from www.google.com