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  • 1. BEFORE THE NEOLITHICREVOLUTION:HOMINIDS AND SKILLSSocial Studies for 8th E.G.B.Teacher: Mauricio Torres
  • 2. What is a Hominid? Hominids are a group that includes humans and their closest relatives. All walk upright on two feet. Humans are the only hominids that live today.
  • 3. Background With the Ice Age:  The north African tropical forest began to retreat, being replaced first by open grasslands and eventually by desert (the modern Sahara).  This forced tree-dwelling animals to adapt to their new environment or die out.  Some primates adapted to a partly or fully ground-dwelling life.
  • 4. Bipedalism  Some Hominids adapted to this challenge by adopting bipedalism: walking on their hind legs.  This gave their eyes greater elevation, the ability to see approaching danger further off, and a more efficient means of locomotion.  It also freed the forelimbs (arms) from the task of walking and made the hands available for tasks such as gathering food.
  • 5. Lucy The first hominids were called by scientists: Australopithecines. The oldest fossil found was that of “Lucy”, in Ethiopia.
  • 6. Homo Habilis  At some point the bipedal primates developed handedness, giving them the ability to pick up sticks, bones and stones and use them.  Two million years ago emerged a new hominid: homo habilis.  They were the first to make stone tools.  In other words, these primates developed the use of primitive technology.
  • 7. Homo Erectus  Also around two million years ago, another hominid appeared: homo erectus.  The name was given because they walked fully upright.  They had larger brains and bones, smaller teeth and different characteristics from other hominids.  They were the first to use fire!  They also built more complex tools.  It’s also suspected that they were the first to develop spoken language.
  • 8. Homo Sapiens  Around a hundred thousand years ago, a new group emerged: homo sapiens… the “Wise Man”.  They evolved further than their predecessors and split into two categories:  Homo sapiens  Homo neanderthalensis  Both species migrated out of Africa and settled different parts of Europe and Asia.  They also developed the first real signs of culture.
  • 9. One happy family Sahelanthropus sediba  Homo gautengensis  Sahelanthropus  Paranthropus  Homo habilis tchadensis  Paranthropus  Homo rudolfensis Orrorin aethiopicus  Homo ergaster  Orrorin tugenensis  Paranthropus boisei  Homo georgicus Ardipithecus  Paranthropus  Homo erectus  Ardipithecus kadabba robustus  Homo cepranensis  Ardipithecus ramidus  Kenyanthropus  Homo antecessor  Kenyanthropus platyops  Homo Australopithecus heidelbergensis  Australopithecus  Homo rhodesiensis anamensis  Homo  Australopithecus neanderthalensis afarensis  Homo sapiens idaltu  Australopithecus  Homo sapiens (Cro- bahrelghazali Magnon)  Australopithecus  Homo sapiens africanus sapiens  Australopithecus garhi  Australopithecus  Homo
  • 10. Ask yourself  What skills did humans develop in order to outlive their own “cousins”?
  • 11. Bibliography For further reading, use your books and check pages 28 through 31. Burstein, S. M., & Shek, R. (2012). World History (Teacher´s Edition). In H. McDougal (Ed.). Orlando, Florida, US.: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. Ellis, E. G., & Esler, A. (2009). World History. (P. Hall, Ed.) Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, US: Pearson Education INC.