Social Studies for 10th EGB
Teacher: Mauricio Torres
Islamic expansion lasted until the 1100s.
Afterwards, three non-Arab Muslim groups built
large, powerful empires that ruled vast areas in
Africa, Asia and Europe.
They were the following empires:
House of Osman
Muslim Turkish warriors known as the
Ottomans seized territory that belonged
to the Byzantine Empire, mostly in Syria
and Anatolia. Its name comes from its
first ruler: Osman.
The key to their expansion was its army.
They trained Christian boys from
conquered lands to be soldiers. These
slave soldiers, called Janissaries,
converted to Islam and became fierce
They also benefitted from the use of
Mehmed the Conqueror
As we studied earlier, in 1453, the
Ottomans led by Mehmed II, used
cannons to conquer
Constantinople. By doing this, they
defeated the Byzantine Empire.
He turned the city into the empire’s
capital due to its strategic location.
He encouraged development
migration to it, from all over the
In Europe, he later conquered
Serbia, Wallachia, Bosnia, Albania
and had many different conflicts
with Christian nations.
To the east, he expanded the
empire through Anatolia, Syria and
Afterwards, the holy cities of Mecca
and Medina accepted Ottoman rule.
The empire reached its height
under Suleyman “The
Magnificent”. From 1520 to 1566,
they took full control of the eastern
Mediterranean and pushed deep
into Europe, in areas they would
control until the 1800s.
He reached as far as Vienna, but
could not take the city.
In Persia, a group of Muslims were
gaining power, they were called The
This conflict arose from an old
disagreement over who should be
Because of this, Islam split into two
Shia: They believe only descendants of
Muhammad can be caliphs
Sunni: They think caliphs have to be
related to Muhammad.
The Safavid empire began when Esma’il
conquered Persia. He took the title of Shah, or
He made Shiism the official religion of the empire.
He tried to expand his lands and expand Shiism too.
He defeated the Uzbeks but was defeated by the Ottomans.
In 1588, Abbas became shah.
He strengthened the army, gave new and modern
gunpowder weapons to his soldiers, and like the
Ottomans, trained foreign boys to be soldiers.
He was able to defeat the Uzbeks again, and the Ottomans.
During this time, Muslim and Persian traditions were
Islam in India
A group of Turkish Muslims from
central Asia, the Mughals took
control of northern India. The
empire was established in 1526
Afterwards, Akbar conquered
many new lands and
strengthened the government.
He began a tolerant policy towards
non-Muslims. This worked out well
as Hindus and Muslims were able
to live in peace.
Mughal culture developed:
It was a mix of Persian, Islamic
and Hindu elements together.
They began creating monumental
works of architecture, such as the
Taj Mahal (a tomb built by
emperor Shah Jahan).
In the late 1600s, an emperor
reversed Akbar’s policies of
Temples were destroyed riots
The empire soon fell apart.
What city became the Ottoman capital?
What two cultural traditions did the Safavid empire blend?
How was Mehmed able to conquer Constantinople?
How did the conquest of Constantinople help the Ottoman
How did peace and unity in the Mughal empire lead to such a
How do the Shia and Sunni Muslims differ?
How did Akbar’s policies help to unify the Mughal empire?
Burstein, S. M., & Shek, R. (2012). World History
(Teacher´s Edition) (1st Edition ed.). (H.
McDougal, Ed.) Orlando, Florida, US.: Houghton
Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company.
Images taken from www.google.com