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2 1 islamic empires

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  • 1. Social Studies for 10th EGB Teacher: Mauricio Torres
  • 2. Islamic expansion lasted until the 1100s. Afterwards, three non-Arab Muslim groups built large, powerful empires that ruled vast areas in Africa, Asia and Europe. They were the following empires: Ottoman Safavid Mughal
  • 3. House of Osman Muslim Turkish warriors known as the Ottomans seized territory that belonged to the Byzantine Empire, mostly in Syria and Anatolia. Its name comes from its first ruler: Osman. The key to their expansion was its army. They trained Christian boys from conquered lands to be soldiers. These slave soldiers, called Janissaries, converted to Islam and became fierce warriors. They also benefitted from the use of gunpowder weapons.
  • 4. Mehmed the Conqueror As we studied earlier, in 1453, the Ottomans led by Mehmed II, used cannons to conquer Constantinople. By doing this, they defeated the Byzantine Empire. He turned the city into the empire’s capital due to its strategic location. He encouraged development migration to it, from all over the empire.
  • 5. Expansion In Europe, he later conquered Serbia, Wallachia, Bosnia, Albania and had many different conflicts with Christian nations. To the east, he expanded the empire through Anatolia, Syria and Egypt. Afterwards, the holy cities of Mecca and Medina accepted Ottoman rule.
  • 6. Suleyman I The empire reached its height under Suleyman “The Magnificent”. From 1520 to 1566, they took full control of the eastern Mediterranean and pushed deep into Europe, in areas they would control until the 1800s. He reached as far as Vienna, but could not take the city.
  • 7. Reviving Persia In Persia, a group of Muslims were gaining power, they were called The Safavids. This conflict arose from an old disagreement over who should be caliph. Because of this, Islam split into two groups. Shia: They believe only descendants of Muhammad can be caliphs Sunni: They think caliphs have to be related to Muhammad.
  • 8. Esma’il The Safavid empire began when Esma’il conquered Persia. He took the title of Shah, or king. He made Shiism the official religion of the empire. He tried to expand his lands and expand Shiism too. He defeated the Uzbeks but was defeated by the Ottomans.
  • 9. Abbas In 1588, Abbas became shah. He strengthened the army, gave new and modern gunpowder weapons to his soldiers, and like the Ottomans, trained foreign boys to be soldiers. He was able to defeat the Uzbeks again, and the Ottomans. During this time, Muslim and Persian traditions were blended together.
  • 10. Islam in India A group of Turkish Muslims from central Asia, the Mughals took control of northern India. The empire was established in 1526 by Babur. Afterwards, Akbar conquered many new lands and strengthened the government. He began a tolerant policy towards non-Muslims. This worked out well as Hindus and Muslims were able to live in peace.
  • 11. Culture Blender Mughal culture developed: It was a mix of Persian, Islamic and Hindu elements together. They began creating monumental works of architecture, such as the Taj Mahal (a tomb built by emperor Shah Jahan). In the late 1600s, an emperor reversed Akbar’s policies of tolerance. Temples were destroyed riots broke out. The empire soon fell apart.
  • 12. Identify: What city became the Ottoman capital? What two cultural traditions did the Safavid empire blend? Describe: How was Mehmed able to conquer Constantinople? Analyze: How did the conquest of Constantinople help the Ottoman empire expand? How did peace and unity in the Mughal empire lead to such a rich culture? Define: How do the Shia and Sunni Muslims differ? Explain: How did Akbar’s policies help to unify the Mughal empire?
  • 13. Burstein, S. M., & Shek, R. (2012). World History (Teacher´s Edition) (1st Edition ed.). (H. McDougal, Ed.) Orlando, Florida, US.: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. Images taken from www.google.com

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