Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds
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Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds

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Hominids and human evolution

Hominids and human evolution

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Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds Presentation Transcript

  • Lucy in the Sky withDiamonds { Social Studies for 10th E.G.B. Teacher: Mauricio Torres
  •  Lucy is the common name of several hundred pieces of bone representing about 40% of the skeleton of an individual Australopithecus afarensis. The specimen was discovered in 1974 at Hadar in the Awash Valley of Ethiopias Afar Depression. Lucy is estimated to have lived 3.2 million years ago.“Lucy”
  •  The discovery of this hominin was significant as the skeleton shows evidence of small skull capacity akin to that of apes and of bipedal upright walk akin to that of humans, providing further evidence supporting the view that bipedalism preceded increase in brain size in human evolution, though other findings have been interpreted as suggesting that Australopithecus afarensis was not directly ancestral to humans.“Lucy”
  • “Lucy”
  • The fossil AL 288-1 was nicknamed Lucy, after the Beatles song “Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds", which was being played loudly and repeatedly on a tape recorder in the camp of the expedition that discovered it.“Lucy”
  •  Background:  Around 10 million years ago, the Earths climate entered a cooler and drier phase, which led eventually to the ice ages beginning some 2.6 million years ago. One consequence of this was that the north African tropical forest began to retreat, being replaced first by open grasslands and eventually by desert (the modern Sahara).  This forced tree-dwelling animals to adapt to their new environment or die out. As their environment changed from continuous forest to patches of forest separated by expanses of grassland, some primates adapted to a partly or fully ground-dwelling life. Here they were exposed to predators, such as the big cats, from whom they had previously been safe.Hominidae
  •  Bipedalism:  Some Hominina (Australopithecines) adapted to this challenge by adopting bipedalism: walking on their hind legs. This gave their eyes greater elevation, the ability to see approaching danger further off, and a more efficient means of locomotion (see main article for details). It also freed the forelimbs (arms) from the task of walking and made the hands available for tasks such as gathering food.Hominidae
  •  Developing new survival skills:  At some point the bipedal primates developed handedness, giving them the ability to pick up sticks, bones and stones and use them as weapons, or as tools for tasks such as killing smaller animals, cracking nuts, or cutting up carcasses.  In other words, these primates developed the use of primitive technology.Hominidae
  •  In the Hominini tribe, several species and subspecies of Homo evolved and are now extinct, and only one species remains. Examples include Homo erectus (which inhabited Asia, Africa, and Europe) and Neanderthals (either Homo neanderthalensis or Homo sapiens neanderthalensis) (which inhabited Europe and Asia). Archaic Homo sapiens, the forerunner of anatomically modern humans, evolved between 400,000 and 250,000 years ago.From Hominid to Homo
  • From Hominid to Homo
  • The “Homo” genus
  •  At some point the bipedal primates developed handedness, giving them the ability to pick up sticks, bones and stones and use them as weapons, or as tools for tasks such as killing smaller animals, cracking nuts, or cutting up carcasses.  In other words, these primates developed the use of primitive technology.The “Homo” genus
  •  The word homo, the name of the biological genus to which humans belong, is Latin for "human".  It was chosen originally by Carolus Linnaeus in his classification system.The “Homo” genus
  •  Developing new survival skills:  The use of tools conferred a crucial evolutionary advantage, and required a larger and more sophisticated brain to co-ordinate the fine hand movements required for this task.  In time, humans became even more dependent on tool-making to compete with other animals and other humans, and relied less on body size and strength.The “Homo” genus
  •  Around 200,000 years ago, Homo sapiens first appears in East Africa. It is unclear to what extent these early modern humans had developed language, music, religion, et c. They spread throughout Africa over the following 50,000 years or so.Homo Sapiens
  •  Around 200,000 years ago, Homo sapiens first appears in East Africa. It is unclear to what extent these early modern humans had developed language, music, religion etc. They spread throughout Africa over the following 50,000 years or so.Homo Sapiens
  •  Given the following statements:  Homo sapiens is the only extant species of its genus, Homo. While some other, extinct Homo species might have been ancestors of Homo sapiens, many were likely our "cousins", having “speciated” away from our ancestral line.  There is not yet a consensus as to which of these groups should count as separate species and which as subspecies.Questioning our origin
  •  Do you think this influenced the statements from the previous page?  Modern humans started burying their dead, using animal hides to make clothing, hunting with more sophisticated techniques (such as using trapping pits or driving animals off cliffs), and engaging in cave painting.  As human culture advanced, different populations of humans introduced novelty to existing technologies: artifacts such as fish hooks, buttons and bone needles show signs of variation among different populations of humans, something that had not been seen in human cultures prior to 50,000 BC.Questioning our origin
  • Evolution Revolution
  •  Among concrete examples of Modern human behavior, anthropologists include specialization of tools, use of jewellery and images (such as cave drawings), organization of living space, rituals (for example, burials with grave gifts), specialized hunting techniques, exploration of less hospitable geographical areas, and trade networks.Evolution Revolution
  •  Sahelanthropus  Australopithecus  Kenyanthropus  Homo  Sahelanthropus afarensis  Kenyanthropus heidelbergensis tchadensis  Australopithecus platyops  Homo rhodesiensis Orrorin bahrelghazali  Homo  Orrorin  Australopithecus neanderthalensis tugenensis africanus  Homo sapiens Ardipithecus  Australopithecus  Homo idaltu  Ardipithecus garhi  Homo  Homo kadabba  Australopithecus gautengensis sapiens (Cro-  Ardipithecus sediba Magnon)  Homo habilis ramidus  Paranthropus  Homo sapiens  Homo rudolfensis sapiens  Paranthropus aethiopicus  Homo ergaster  Homo floresiensis  Paranthropus  Homo georgicus boisei  Homo erectus Australopithecus  Homo cepranensis  Paranthropus  Australopithecus robustus  Homo antecessor anamensisOne Happy Family