WAR BEGINS• The Delian league was not the only alliance. Cities in southern Greece banded togetheralongside Sparta.• Because it was located in the Peloponnesus, it was called the Peloponnesian League.• Spartans declared war on Athenians, thus beginning the Peloponnesian War.
THE ENEMY OF MY ENEMY IS MY FRIEND• At first it appeared that Athens would win. Their powerful navy dominated theMediterranean Sea. However, Sparta’s hatred of Athens was deep. The Spartans made adeal with Persia, their former enemy. They traded the Persians land for money. Spartathen used this gold to build a navy of their own.
ATHENS LOSES THE LEAD• In the third year of the war, more than half the people in the city ofAthens died – not from fighting - from illness. People from thesurrounding countryside had fled inside the city gates, fleeingSpartan attacks. The city was not prepared for that many people tolive in Athens. There was not enough food. They did not have a wayto safely remove waste. It was a mess.• One of those who died was the young leader Pericles.
WAR AT SEAS• Athens had a huge and powerful navy, thatallowed them to transport goods into the city.Also they ruled the seas for some time.• The fight spread out as far as the Greek colonyof Syracuse (modern day Sicily). BecauseAthenians were battling Sparta’s allies. Butsince Sparta now had a navy, they were ableto chase the Athenians all around theMediterranean and the Aegean.• The Athenian army was crushed by theSpartans and Sicilians. It was a disaster.Those who survived were taken prisoners.• The Athenian navy was destroyed almostentirely too.
WAR OF ATTRITION• Spartans surrounded Athens, in hopes that Athenians wouldcome out to fight. Instead, they locked themselves inside thecity, waiting for the Spartans to get tired and leave. TheSpartans on the other hand, expected for the Athenians tosurrender.• Before they left, Spartans would burn and destroy crops toleave Athenians without resources. This is called war ofattrition.• For decades, the war tore the city-states of Greece apart.Things got a lot worse after that. Athens suffered from poorleadership, a lack of food, and continued illness. They werestarving. The Spartans had the town surrounded. TheAthenians could not get to their crops. Finally, in April, in theyear 404 BCE, Athens surrendered.
ASK YOURSELF• Recall:• What is war of attrition?• Analyze:• What causes led to the defeat of Athens?• Evaluate:• What was the error in the Athenian strategy against Sparta?• Against the Persians, Greeks joined together to battle a common foe. This madethem powerful. After that, they fought each other. What was the result of this?
BIBLIOGRAPHY• Burstein, S. M., & Shek, R. (2012). World History (Teacher´s Edition) (1st Edition ed.).(H. McDougal, Ed.) Orlando, Florida, US.: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company.• Peloponnesian War for Kids: http://greece.mrdonn.org/peloponnesianwar.html• Images taken from www.google.com