LecturePLUS Timberlake 1
Chapter 9
Acids and Bases
Strengths of Acids and Bases
Making Dilutions
LecturePLUS Timberlake 2
Strengths of Acids and Bases
Strong acids completely ionize (100%) in
aqueous solutions
HCl + H2O...
LecturePLUS Timberlake 3
NH3, A Bronsted-Lowry Base
When NH3 reacts with water, most of the
reactants remain dissolved as ...
LecturePLUS Timberlake 4
Strong and Weak
Acids and Bases
Strong acids
HCl, HNO3 ,H2SO4
Most other acids are weak.
Strong b...
LecturePLUS Timberlake 5
Learning Check SW1
Identify each of the following as a
1) strong acid or base 2) weak acid
3) wea...
LecturePLUS Timberlake 6
Solution SW1
Identify each of the following as a
1) strong acid or base 2) weak acid
3) weak base...
LecturePLUS Timberlake 7
Antacids
Used to neutralize stomach acid (HCl)
Many contain one or more weak bases
Alka-Seltzer...
LecturePLUS Timberlake 8
More Antacids
Milk of Magnesia: Mg(OH)2
Rolaids: AlNa(OH)2CO3
aluminum sodium dihydroxy carbonate...
LecturePLUS Timberlake 9
Dilutions
 Add water
 Volume increases.
 New concentration is less than initial
LecturePLUS Timberlake 10
Concentration of A Diluted
Solution
A 25 mL sample of a 6.0 M KOH is diluted by
adding 75 mL of ...
LecturePLUS Timberlake 11
Learning Check SW 2
A 125 mL sample of a 3.0 M HCl is diluted
by adding 250 mL of water. The new...
LecturePLUS Timberlake 12
Solution SW 2
3) 1.0 M
moles HCl = 0.250 L x 3.0 moles = 0.75 mole
1 L
new M = 0.75 mole 1.0 M H...
LecturePLUS Timberlake 13
Learning Check SW 3
A 50.0 mL sample of 15% sucrose solution is
diluted by adding 200. mL of wat...
LecturePLUS Timberlake 14
Learning Check SW 3
A 50.0 mL sample of 15% sucrose solution is
diluted by adding 200. mL of wat...
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Strong and weak acids and bases

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Strong and weak acids and bases

  1. 1. LecturePLUS Timberlake 1 Chapter 9 Acids and Bases Strengths of Acids and Bases Making Dilutions
  2. 2. LecturePLUS Timberlake 2 Strengths of Acids and Bases Strong acids completely ionize (100%) in aqueous solutions HCl + H2O H3O+ + Cl- (100 % ions) Strong bases completely (100%) dissociate into ions in aqueous solutions. NaOH Na+ (aq) + OH- (aq) (100 % ions)
  3. 3. LecturePLUS Timberlake 3 NH3, A Bronsted-Lowry Base When NH3 reacts with water, most of the reactants remain dissolved as molecules, but a few NH3 reacts with water to form NH4 + and hydroxide ion. NH3 + H2O NH4 + (aq) + OH- (aq) acceptor donor + +
  4. 4. LecturePLUS Timberlake 4 Strong and Weak Acids and Bases Strong acids HCl, HNO3 ,H2SO4 Most other acids are weak. Strong bases NaOH, KOH, and Ca(OH)2 Most other bases are weak.
  5. 5. LecturePLUS Timberlake 5 Learning Check SW1 Identify each of the following as a 1) strong acid or base 2) weak acid 3) weak base A. ___ HCl (aq) B. ___ NH3(aq) C. ___ NaOH (aq) D. ___ H2CO3 (aq)
  6. 6. LecturePLUS Timberlake 6 Solution SW1 Identify each of the following as a 1) strong acid or base 2) weak acid 3) weak base A. _1__ HCl (aq) B. _3__ NH3(aq) C. _1__ NaOH (aq) D. _2__ H2CO3 (aq)
  7. 7. LecturePLUS Timberlake 7 Antacids Used to neutralize stomach acid (HCl) Many contain one or more weak bases Alka-Seltzer: NaHCO3, citric acid, and aspirin Di-gel: CaCO3 and Mg(OH)2 Gelusil: Al(OH)3 and Mg(OH)2 Maalox: Al(OH)3 and Mg(OH)2 Mylanta: Al(OH)3 and Mg(OH)2
  8. 8. LecturePLUS Timberlake 8 More Antacids Milk of Magnesia: Mg(OH)2 Rolaids: AlNa(OH)2CO3 aluminum sodium dihydroxy carbonate Tums: CaCO3 Tempo: CaCO3, Al(OH)3, Mg(OH)2
  9. 9. LecturePLUS Timberlake 9 Dilutions  Add water  Volume increases.  New concentration is less than initial
  10. 10. LecturePLUS Timberlake 10 Concentration of A Diluted Solution A 25 mL sample of a 6.0 M KOH is diluted by adding 75 mL of water. Calculate the new concentration of the KOH solution. Moles KOH = 0.025 L x 6.0 moles = 0.15 moles 1 L New volume = 25 mL + 75 mL = 100. mL = 0.100 L New molarity = 0.15 moles = 1.5 M 0.100 L
  11. 11. LecturePLUS Timberlake 11 Learning Check SW 2 A 125 mL sample of a 3.0 M HCl is diluted by adding 250 mL of water. The new concentration of the HCl solution is 1) 8.0 M 2) 1.5 M 3) 1.0 M
  12. 12. LecturePLUS Timberlake 12 Solution SW 2 3) 1.0 M moles HCl = 0.250 L x 3.0 moles = 0.75 mole 1 L new M = 0.75 mole 1.0 M HCl 0.750 L (new volume)
  13. 13. LecturePLUS Timberlake 13 Learning Check SW 3 A 50.0 mL sample of 15% sucrose solution is diluted by adding 200. mL of water. The new concentration of the sucrose solution is 1) 3.0 % 2) 7.5 % 3) 10. %
  14. 14. LecturePLUS Timberlake 14 Learning Check SW 3 A 50.0 mL sample of 15% sucrose solution is diluted by adding 200. mL of water. The new concentration of the sucrose solution is 1) 3.0 % g sucrose = 50.0 mL x 15 g sucrose = 7.5 g 100 mL new % = 7.5 g sucrose = 3.0 % sucrose 250 mL (new volume)

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