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Skeletal tissuesch7group Skeletal tissuesch7group Document Transcript

  • Student Name _____________________________________________________________________________________CHAPTER 7SKELETAL TISSUESH ow strange we would look without our skeleton! It is the skeleton that provides therigid, supportive framework that gives shape to our scopic investigation will make the study of this system easier as you logically progress from this view to macroscopic bone formation and growthbodies. But this is just the beginning, because the and visualize the structure of long bones.skeleton also protects the organs beneath it, main- Bones are classified structurally by theirtains homeostasis of blood calcium, produces blood shape: long bones, short bones, flat bones, andcells, and assists the muscular system in providing irregular bones. They are also classified by the typesmovement for us. of cells that form the bone: compact bone and After reviewing the microscopic structure of cancellous, or spongy, bone. Throughout life, bonebone and cartilage, you will understand how formation (ossification) and bone destructionskeletal tissues are formed, their differences and (resorption) occur concurrently to assure a firmtheir importance in the human body. Your micro- and comfortable framework for our bodies.I TYPES OF BONESMatching—identify each structure with its corresponding description. a. epiphysis1. ___________ the thin membrane that lines the b. medullary cavity medullary cavity2. ___________ an example of a flat bone c. carpal d. articular cartilage3. ___________ the shaft of the long bone e. femur4. ___________ an example of a long bone f. endosteum g. vertebra5. ___________ the thin layer that cushions jolts h. diaphysis and blows i. patella6. ___________ an example of a sesamoid bone j. periosteum7. ___________ an attachment for muscle fibers k. scapulae8. ___________ an example of a short bone9. ___________ the end of a long bone10. ___________ the tube-like, hollow space in the diaphysis of long bones11. ___________ an example of an irregular bone******If you had difficulty with this section, review pages 189-190 Copyright © 2003, Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved. 57
  • 58 Study and Review Guide to accompany Anatomy & Physiology, 5th editionII BONE TISSUE STRUCTURE, FUNCTION. AND HOMEOSTASISMultiple Choice — select the best answer.12. Which of the following is NOT a component 15. The cells that produce the organic matrix in of bone matrix? bone are: a. inorganic salts a. chondrocytes. c. osteocytes. b. organic matrix b. osteoblasts. d. osteoclasts. c. collagenous fibers d. all of the above are components of bone 16. The bones in an adult that include red matrix marrow include all of the following EXCEPT:13. Small spaces in which bone cells lie are called: a. ribs. c. pelvis. a. lamellae. b. tarsals. d. femur. b. lacunae. c. canaliculi. 17. Low blood calcium evokes a response from: d. interstitial lamellae. a. calcitonin. b. thyroid.14. The basic structural unit of compact bone is: c. parathyroid hormone. a. trabeculae. d. none of the above. b. cancellous bone. c. osteon. d. none of the above.True or false18. ______________ Haversian canals run lengthwise, whereas Volkmanns canals run transverse to the bone.19. ______________ Giant, multinucleate cells that are responsible for bone resorption are called osteocytes.20. ______________ Bone marrow is found not only in the medullary cavities of certain long bones but also in the spaces of cancellous bone.21. ______________ Calcitonin functions to stimulate osteoblasts and inhibit osteoclasts.22. ______________ Hematopoiesis is a term referring to the formation of new haversian systems.23. ______________ Yellow marrow is found in almost all of the bones of an infants body. *If you had difficulty with this section, review pages 190-196III BONE DEVELOPMENT, GROWTH, RESORPTION, AND REPAIRMultiple Choice — select the best answer.24. The primary ossification center is located at 25. The primary purpose of the epiphyseal plate the: is: a. epiphysis. a. mending fractures. b. diaphysis. b. enlarging the epiphysis. c. articular cartilage. c. providing bone strength. d. none of the above. d. lengthening long bones.
  • Copyright © 2003, Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 59Student Name____________________________________________________________________________26. The epiphyseal plate is composed mostly of: 28. The first step to healing a bone fracture is: a. chondrocytes. a. callus formation. b. osteocytes. b. fracture hematoma formation. c. osteoclasts. c. alignment of fracture. d. none of the above. d. collar formation.27. Bone loss normally begins to exceed bone gain between the ages of: a. 30 and 35 years, c. 55 and 60 years. b. 35 and 40 years, d. 65 and 70 years.True or false29. ______________The addition of bone to its outer surface resulting in growth in diameter is called appositional growth.30. ______________Most bones of the body are formed by intramembranous ossification.31. ______________Once an individual reaches skeletal maturity, the bones undergo years of metabolic rest.32. ______________Lack of exercise tends to weaken bones through decreased collagen formation and excessive calcium withdrawal.33. ______________When bones reach their full length, the epiphyseal plate disappears.******If you had difficulty with this section, review pages 197-201IV CARTILAGE____________________________________________________________Multiple Choice — select the best answer.34. The fibrous covering of cartilage is: 36. Vitamin D deficiency can result in: a. periosteum. a. scurvy. b. perichondrium. b. rickets. c. chondroclast. c. osteochondroma. d none of the above. d. none of the above.35. The external ear, epiglottis, and the auditory tube are composed of: a. hyaline cartilage. b. fibrocartilage. c. elastic cartilage. d. none of the above.True or false37. ______________ Both bone and cartilage are well vascularized.38. ______________ The intervertebral discs are composed of fibrocartilage.39. ______________ The growth of cartilage occurs by both appositional and interstitial growth. Copyright © 2003, Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 60 Study and Review Guide to accompany Anatomy & Physiology, 5th editionLabeling—label the following diagrams. ****** If you had difficulty with this section, review pages 191,193,202, and 203 Copyright © 2003, Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 61Student NameV MECHANISMS OF DISEASEFill in the blanks.40. ________________ is the most common type of skeletal tissue tumor.41. ________________ is the most common primary malignant tumor of skeletal tissue.42. ________________ is a common bone disease often occurring in postmenopausal women and manifesting symptoms of porous, brittle, and fragile bones.43. ________________ is also known as osteitis deformans.44. ________________ is a bacterial infection of the bone and marrow tissue.****** If you difficulty with this section, review pages 204-206Crossword PuzzleAcross Down1. Ossification that replaces cartilage with bone 2. Bone-absorbing cell5. Spongy bone (two words) 3. Bone marrow (two words)7. Contains osteons (two words) 4. Bone-forming cell9. Ends of long bone 5. Cartilage cell 6. Bone formation 8. Bone cell Copyright © 2003, Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 62 Study and Review Guide to accompany Anatomy & Physiology, 5th editionAPPLYING WHAT YOU KNOW45. Mrs. Harris is a 60-year-old white woman. She has noticed in recent years that her height has slightly decreased. Recently, she fractured her wrist in a slight fall. Which skeletal system disorder might she be suffering from? What techniques could be used to diagnose her condition? What treatments are available?46. Mrs. Ferine had advanced cancer of the bone. As the disease progressed, Mrs. Ferine required several blood transfusions throughout her therapy. She asked the doctor one day to explain the necessity for the transfusions. What explanation might the doctor give to Mrs. Ferine?47. Dr. Kennedy, an orthopedic surgeon, called the admissions office of the hospital and advised them that he would be admitting a patient in the next hour with an epiphyseal fracture. Without any other information, the patient is assigned to the pediatric ward. What prompted this assignment?48. Ms. Strickland was in an auto accident. When the surgeon described the details of the surgery to her family, he stated that he was able to "patch" her fractures. Explain what he might have meant by "patching" the fractures. DID YOU KNOW • Approximately 25 million Americans have osteoporosis. Four out of five are women.ONE LAST QUICK CHECKFill in the blanks.49. There are__________________types of bones.50. The ________________ _________________ is the hollow area inside the diaphysis of a bone.51. A thin layer of cartilage covering each epiphysis is the __________________ _________________52. The_______________________lines the medullary cavity of long bones.53. _____________________is used to describe the process of blood cell formation.54. Blood cell formation is a vital process carried on in ______________________ ___________________ ____________________________55. The___________________is a strong fibrous membrane that covers a long bone except at joint surfaces.56. Bones may be classified by shape. Those shapes include__________________,_________________, ______________________, and____________________. Copyright © 2003, Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 63Student Name57. Bones serve as the major reservoir for ______________________, a vital substance required for normal nerve and muscle function.58. _________________________ is the most abundant type of cartilage.Matching—identify the term on the left with the proper selection on the right.59. ___________ trabeculae a. outer covering of bone b. dense bone tissue60. ___________ compact c. fibers embedded in a firm gel61. ___________ spongy d. needlelike threads of spongy bone e. ends of long bones62. ___________ periosteum f. connect lacunae63. ___________ cartilage g. cartilage cells h. structural unit of compact bone64. ___________ osteocytes i. bone cells j. ring of bone65. ___________ canaliculi66. ___________ lamellae67. ___________ chondrocytes68. ___________ haversian system Copyright © 2003, Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.