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Covalent bond nomenclature
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Covalent bond nomenclature

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  • Objectives:
    To write systematic names and formulas for binary molecular compounds.
  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Sulfur-dioxide-3D-vdW.png
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Sulfur-trioxide-3D-vdW.png
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Iodine-monochloride-3D-vdW.png
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Nitrous-oxide-3D-vdW.png
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Dinitrogen-trioxide-3D-vdW.png
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Dinitrogen-pentoxide-3D-balls.png
    Technical Note: Iodine trichloride is actually a dimer with the formula I2Cl6
  • Transcript

    • 1. Covalent Nomenclature
    • 2. Writing Formulas of Covalent Molecules Covalent Molecules contain two types of nonmetals Key: FORGET CHARGES What to do: Use Greek prefixes to indicate how many atoms of each element, but don’t use “mono” on first element. 1 – mono 6 – hexa 2 – di 7 – hepta 3 – tri 8 – octa 4 – tetra 9 – nona 5 – penta 10 – deca
    • 3. Binary Compounds Containing Two Nonmetals To name these compounds, give the name of the less electronegative element first with the Greek prefix indicating the number of atoms of that element present, followed by the name of the more electronegative non- metal with the Greek prefix indicating the number of atoms of that element present and with its ending replaced by the suffix –ide. Prefixes you should know: Mono Di Tri Tetra Penta Hexa Hepta Octa Nona Deca 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
    • 4. Writing Formulas of Covalent Molecules EXAMPLES: carbon dioxide CO dinitrogen trioxide N2 O5 carbon tetrachloride NI3 CO2 carbon monoxide N2 O3 dinitrogen pentoxide CCl4 nitrogen triiodide
    • 5. Binary Compounds Containing Two Nonmetals (Type III Compounds) 1. ________________ diarsenic trisulfide 2. ________________ sulfur dioxide 3. P2O5 ____________________ 4. ________________ carbon dioxide 5. N2O5 ____________________ 6. H2O ____________________ As2S3 SO2 diphosphorus pentoxide CO2 dinitrogen pentoxide dihydrogen monoxide
    • 6. Binary Molecular Compounds N2O dinitrogen monoxide N2O3 dinitrogen trioxide N2O5 dinitrogen pentoxide ICl iodine monochloride ICl3 iodine trichloride SO2 sulfur dioxide SO3 sulfur trioxide
    • 7. Nomenclature Review Flow Chart
    • 8. Metal + Nonmetal? Formula  Name? Ionic Covalent Two Nonmetals? Multiple Single Use Prefixes!!! *Mono* Hexa Di Hepta Tri Octa Tetra Nona Penta Deca 1. Write name of cation (metal) 2. Determine the charge on the metal by balancing the (-) charge from the anion 3. Write the charge of the metal in Roman Numerals and put in parentheses 4. Write name of anion (Individual anions need –ide ending!) Steps 1 & 4 ONLY d,f-block Pb,Sn Columns 1, 2, 13 Ag+ , Zn2+ (Except: NH4 + )
    • 9. Name  Formula? No Prefixes? Prefixes? 1. Determine the ions present and the charge on each (Roman Numeral = cation charge, otherwise use PT) 2. Balance formula (criss-cross) 3. Reduce subscripts (if needed) 1. FORGET CHARGES!!! 2. Use prefixes to determine subscripts 3. Do NOT reduce subscripts! Ionic Covalent
    • 10. Naming Simple Chemical Compounds Ionic (metal and nonmetal) Covalent (2 nonmetals) Metal Forms only one positive ion Forms more than one positive ion Nonmetal Use the name of element Use element name followed by a Roman numeral to show the charge First nonmetal Second nonmetal Before element name use a prefix to match subscript Use a prefix before element name and end with ide Single Negative Ion Polyatomic Ion Use the name of the element, but end with ide Use the name of polyatomic ion (ate or Ite)