0
11
The Chemistry ofThe Chemistry of
Acids and BasesAcids and Bases
22
Acid and BasesAcid and Bases
33
Acid and BasesAcid and Bases
44
Acid and BasesAcid and Bases
55
Acids
Have a sour taste. Vinegar is a solution of acetic acid. CitrusHave a sour taste. Vinegar is a solution of acetic...
66
Some Properties of Acids
þ Taste sour
þ Corrode metals
þ Electrolytes
þ React with bases to form a salt and water
þ pH ...
77
Some Properties of Bases
 Taste bitter, chalkyTaste bitter, chalky
 Are electrolytesAre electrolytes
 Feel soapy, sl...
88
Some Common Bases
NaOHNaOH sodium hydroxidesodium hydroxide lyelye
KOHKOH potassium hydroxidepotassium hydroxide liquid...
99
Acid/Base definitions
• Definition #1: Arrhenius (traditional)
Acids – produce H+
ions (or hydronium ions
H3O+
)
Bases ...
1010
Arrhenius acid is a substance that produces H+
(H3O+
) in water
Arrhenius base is a substance that produces OH-
in wa...
1111
Acid/Base Definitions
• Definition #2: Brønsted – Lowry
Acids – proton donor
Bases – proton acceptor
A “proton” is re...
1212
A Brønsted-Lowry acid is a proton donor
A Brønsted-Lowry base is a proton acceptor
acid
conjugate
base
base
conjugate...
1313
ACID-BASE THEORIESACID-BASE THEORIES
The Brønsted definition means NHThe Brønsted definition means NH33 isis
aa BASEB...
1414
Conjugate PairsConjugate Pairs
1515
Learning Check!
Label the acid, base, conjugate acid, andLabel the acid, base, conjugate acid, and
conjugate base in ...
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Acids and base basics

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  • Transcript of "Acids and base basics"

    1. 1. 11 The Chemistry ofThe Chemistry of Acids and BasesAcids and Bases
    2. 2. 22 Acid and BasesAcid and Bases
    3. 3. 33 Acid and BasesAcid and Bases
    4. 4. 44 Acid and BasesAcid and Bases
    5. 5. 55 Acids Have a sour taste. Vinegar is a solution of acetic acid. CitrusHave a sour taste. Vinegar is a solution of acetic acid. Citrus fruits contain citric acid.fruits contain citric acid. React with certain metals to produce hydrogen gasReact with certain metals to produce hydrogen gas.. React with carbonates and bicarbonates to produce carbonReact with carbonates and bicarbonates to produce carbon dioxide gasdioxide gas Have a bitter taste.Have a bitter taste. Feel slippery. Many soaps contain bases.Feel slippery. Many soaps contain bases. Bases
    6. 6. 66 Some Properties of Acids þ Taste sour þ Corrode metals þ Electrolytes þ React with bases to form a salt and water þ pH is less than 7 þ Turns blue litmus paper to red “Blue to Red A-CID”
    7. 7. 77 Some Properties of Bases  Taste bitter, chalkyTaste bitter, chalky  Are electrolytesAre electrolytes  Feel soapy, slipperyFeel soapy, slippery  React with acids to form salts and waterReact with acids to form salts and water  pH greater than 7pH greater than 7  Turns red litmus paper to blue “Turns red litmus paper to blue “BBasicasic BBlue”lue”
    8. 8. 88 Some Common Bases NaOHNaOH sodium hydroxidesodium hydroxide lyelye KOHKOH potassium hydroxidepotassium hydroxide liquid soapliquid soap Ba(OH)Ba(OH)22 barium hydroxidebarium hydroxide stabilizer for plasticsstabilizer for plastics Mg(OH)Mg(OH)22 magnesium hydroxidemagnesium hydroxide “MOM” Milk of magnesia“MOM” Milk of magnesia Al(OH)Al(OH)33 aluminum hydroxidealuminum hydroxide Maalox (antacid)Maalox (antacid)
    9. 9. 99 Acid/Base definitions • Definition #1: Arrhenius (traditional) Acids – produce H+ ions (or hydronium ions H3O+ ) Bases – produce OH- ions (problem: some bases don’t have hydroxide ions!)
    10. 10. 1010 Arrhenius acid is a substance that produces H+ (H3O+ ) in water Arrhenius base is a substance that produces OH- in water
    11. 11. 1111 Acid/Base Definitions • Definition #2: Brønsted – Lowry Acids – proton donor Bases – proton acceptor A “proton” is really just a hydrogen atom that has lost it’s electron!
    12. 12. 1212 A Brønsted-Lowry acid is a proton donor A Brønsted-Lowry base is a proton acceptor acid conjugate base base conjugate acid
    13. 13. 1313 ACID-BASE THEORIESACID-BASE THEORIES The Brønsted definition means NHThe Brønsted definition means NH33 isis aa BASEBASE in water — and water isin water — and water is itself anitself an ACIDACID BaseAcidAcidBase NH4 + + OH- NH3 + H2O BaseAcidAcidBase NH4 + + OH- NH3 + H2O
    14. 14. 1414 Conjugate PairsConjugate Pairs
    15. 15. 1515 Learning Check! Label the acid, base, conjugate acid, andLabel the acid, base, conjugate acid, and conjugate base in each reaction:conjugate base in each reaction: HCl + OHHCl + OH--    Cl  Cl-- + H+ H22OO HH22O + HO + H22SOSO44    HSO  HSO44 -- + H+ H33OO++
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