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  • Ch11

    1. 1. HypercalcemiaPolydipsia<br />By Stefana Sas<br />
    2. 2. Hypercalcemia Polydipsia<br />hyper- OVER<br />-emia BLOOD CONDITION<br />-calc/o CALCIUM<br />poly- MANY<br />-dipsia THIRST<br />
    3. 3. hypercalcemia<br />Hypercalcemiais a disorder that most commonly results from malignancy or primary hyperparathyroidism and consists in an abnormally high level of calcium in the blood;<br />Calcium plays an important role in the development and maintenance of bones in the body. It is also needed in tooth formation and is important in other body functions. As much as 99% of the body's calcium is stored in bone tissue. A healthy person experiences a constant turnover of calcium as bone tissue is built and reshaped. The remaining 1% of the body's calcium circulates in the blood and other body fluids. Calcium in the blood plays an important role in the control of many body functions, including blood clotting, transmission of nerve impulses, muscle contraction and other metabolic activities.<br />
    4. 4. Hypercalcemia symptoms<br />The effects of hypercalcemia are: constipation, fatigue, lethargy, depression, kidney stone, bone pain<br />Other symptoms can include : anorexia, nausea, vomiting, pancreatitis and increased urination<br />Abnormal symptoms : peptic ulcers, heart rhythms<br />Severe hypercalcemia (above 15-16mg/dL or 3.75-4 mmol/l) is considered a medical emergency because coma and cardiac arrest can result<br />
    5. 5. Hypercalcemia treatments<br />- Intravenous fluids to rehydrate you<br />- Loop diuretic medications (such as furosemide) to help flush excess calcium from your system and keep your kidneys functioning<br />- Intravenous bisphosphonates, a group of drugs that includes pamidronate (Aredia) and zolendronate (Zometa), to prevent bone breakdown<br />- Calcitonin, a hormone produced by your thyroid gland, to reduce bone reabsorption and slow bone loss<br />- Glucocorticoids(corticosteroids) to help counter the effects of too much vitamin D in your blood caused by hypercalcemia<br />- Hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis to remove excess waste and calcium from your blood if your kidneys are damaged and you don't respond to other treatments<br />
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    7. 7. Hypercalcemia complications<br />Osteoporosis. If your bones continue to release calcium into your blood, you may develop the bone-thinning disease osteoporosis, which could lead to bone fractures, spinal column curvature and loss of height.<br />Kidney stones. If your urine contains too much calcium, crystals may form in your kidneys. Over time, the crystals may combine to form kidney stones (renal lithiasis). Blockage from a stone can lead to kidney damage, and passing a stone can be extremely painful.<br />Kidney failure. Severe hypercalcemia can damage your kidneys, limiting their ability to cleanse the blood and eliminate fluid. If kidney damage is severe, you may lose kidney function permanently, resulting in end-stage renal disease. People with end-stage renal disease require either permanent dialysis — a mechanical filtration system for removing toxins and waste from your body — or a kidney transplant to survive.<br />Nervous system problems. Because calcium helps regulate your nervous system, severe hypercalcemia can lead to confusion, dementia and coma, which can be fatal.<br />Abnormal heart rhythm (arrhythmia).Hypercalcemia can affect the electrical impulses that regulate your heartbeat, causing your heart to beat irregularly.<br />
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    9. 9. polydipsia<br />Polydipsia is a medical term meaning excessive thirst. The fluid is usually water, though some people may think of alcohol because of the etymologically related term dipsomaniac, meaning an alcoholic;<br />Polydipsia is almost always associated with polyuria (excessive urination), if the condition is prolonged beyond a few hours in those with functioning kidneys;<br />Polydipsia it is characteristic of several different conditions, including diabetes mellitus, in which an excessive concentration of glucose in the blood osmotically pulls intracellular fluid into the bloodstream and increases the excretion of fluid via increased urination, which leads to hypovolemia and thirst. In diabetes insipidus the deficiency of the pituitary antidiuretic hormone results in excretion of copious amounts of dilute urine, reduced fluid volume in the body, and polydipsia. In nephrogenic diabetes insipidus there is also copious excretion of urine with consequent polydipsia. Polyuria resulting from other forms of renal dysfunction also leads to polydipsia. The condition also may be psychogenic in origin.<br />
    10. 10. Polydispia complications<br />