WHAT IS OROGENY? Processes of mtn building <ul><li>Deformation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Folding and thrust-faulting </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Metamorphism </li></ul><ul><li>Intrusions: batholiths, etc </li></ul><ul><li>Volcanic Activity </li></ul>
TYPES OF MOUNTAINS <ul><li>Volcanic: Shield and composite </li></ul><ul><li>Fault-block: normal faulting and tension </li></ul><ul><li>Folded: reverse faults and compression </li></ul><ul><li>Complex: mixture of most of the above </li></ul>
Mauna Kea Shield volcano Hot Spot Basalt Mauna Loa in Background Kilaeua is Behind Mauna Loa
Kilaeua Newest ground in The world Asthenosphere coming To the surface
Alternating normal faults lead to a characteristic pattern called a Horst and Graben system. An area under tension will often have Multiple mountain ranges as a result.
Basin and range province: tilted fault-block mountains in Nevada. The results of a horst and graben system. Nevada is under tension Because of rising magma which is unzipping the system, all the way From Baja California Sierra Nevada and Wasatch Ranges part of this system
REVERSE FAULTS: Hanging wall moves up relative to footwall Result of compression: plates colliding Two types: low-angle or thrust faults, and high-angle reverse faults Individual layers can move 100’s of kilometers Alps are a great example