Questionnaire Design Business Research


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Questionnaire Design Business Research

  2. 2. “ It is not every question that deserves an answer.” Publius Syrus (roman,1st century B.C.)
  3. 3. A Good Questionnaire Appears <ul><li>As easy to compose as a good poem </li></ul><ul><li>But, it is usually the result of long, painstaking work </li></ul>
  4. 4. QUESTIONNAIRE DESIGN: AN OVERVIEW OF THE MAJOR DECISIONS <ul><li>1. What should be asked </li></ul><ul><li>Questionnaire relevancy </li></ul><ul><li>All information collected should address a research question in helping the decision maker in solving the current marketing problem </li></ul><ul><li>Questionnaire accuracy </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing the reliability and validity of respondent information requires that: </li></ul><ul><li>2. How should each question be phrased? </li></ul><ul><li>3. In what sequence should the questions be arranged? </li></ul><ul><li>4. What questionnaire layout will best serve the research objectives? </li></ul><ul><li>5. How should the questionnaire be pretested? Does the questionnaire need to be revised? </li></ul>
  5. 5. PHRASING QUESTIONS <ul><li>Open ended questions </li></ul><ul><li>Pose some problem and ask respondents to answer in their own words </li></ul><ul><li>What things do you like most about your job? </li></ul><ul><li>What comes to mind when you look at this advertisement? </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><ul><li>Advantages: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Are most beneficial in exploratory research, especially when the range of responses is not known. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>May reveal unanticipated reactions toward the product. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Are good first questions because they allow respondents to warm up to the questioning process. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disadvantages: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>High cost of administering open-ended response questions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The possibility that interviewer bias will influence the answer </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bias introduced by articulate individuals’ longer answers </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Fixed –alternative questions </li></ul><ul><li>Questions in which respondents are given specific, limited-alternative responses and asked to choose the one closest to their own viewpoint . </li></ul><ul><li>Did you work overtime ? </li></ul><ul><li>Yes or NO. </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><ul><li>Advantages : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Require less interviewer skill </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Take less time to answer </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Are easier for the respondent to answer </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Provides comparability of answers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disadvantages: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of range in the response alternatives </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tendency of respondents to choose convenient alternative </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Types of Fixed-Alternative Questions <ul><li>Simple-dichotomy questions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires the respondent to choose one of two alternatives (e.g., yes or no). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Did you make any long distance calls last week? (Yes or No). </li></ul><ul><li>Determinant choice questions </li></ul><ul><li>Requires the respondent to choose one response from among multiple alternatives (e.g., A, B, or C). </li></ul><ul><li>Please give us information about your flight </li></ul><ul><li>First class </li></ul><ul><li>Business Class </li></ul><ul><li>Coach class </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Frequency Determination Questions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Asks for an answer about general frequency of occurrence (e.g., often, occasionally, or never). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How frequently do you watch MTV Channel? </li></ul><ul><li>Every Day </li></ul><ul><li>5-6 times a week </li></ul><ul><li>Once a week </li></ul><ul><li>Never </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Checklist questions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows the respondent to provide multiple answers to a single question by checking off items. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Please check which of the following sources of about investments you regularly use </li></ul><ul><li>Personal advice of your broker </li></ul><ul><li>Brokerage research reports </li></ul><ul><li>Reports on internet </li></ul><ul><li>Non of these </li></ul>
  12. 12. Structured Unstructured Undisguised Disguised Classifying Surveys by Degree of Structure and Degree of Disguise Example: Typical descriptive survey with straight-forward, structured questions Example: Survey with open-ended questions to discover “new” answers or focus group interview Example: Survey interview to measure brand A’s image versus competitive brands’ images or brand recall (unaided recall) Example: Projection techniques used mostly for exploratory research
  13. 13. PHRASING QUESTIONS FOR SELF-ADMINISTERED TELEPHONE AND PERSONAL INTERVIEW SURVEYS <ul><ul><li>The means of data collection—telephone interview, personal interview, self-administered questionnaire—will influence the question format and question phrasing . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Eg. How you are satisfied with after sale service of your laptop? </li></ul><ul><li>Very satisfied </li></ul><ul><li>Somewhat satisfied </li></ul><ul><li>Slightly dissatisfied </li></ul><ul><li>Very dissatisfied </li></ul>
  14. 14. ART OF ASKING QUESTIONS <ul><li>Avoid complexity :Use simple , Conversational language </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid leading and loading questions </li></ul><ul><li>Leading : A questions that suggest or implies certain answers. </li></ul><ul><li>Loaded : A questions that suggest socially desirable answer or is emotionally changed </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid ambiguity : Be specific as possible </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Avoid double barreled Items </li></ul><ul><li>A questions that may induce Bias because it covers two issue at once. </li></ul><ul><li>Between you & your husband who does the housework over and above that done by any hired help? </li></ul><ul><li>I do all of it </li></ul><ul><li>I do almost all of it </li></ul><ul><li>I do over half of it </li></ul><ul><li>We split the work fifty-fifty. </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid making assumptions </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid Burdensome questions that may tax respondent Memory </li></ul>
  16. 16. WHAT IS THE BEST QUESTION SEQUENCE? <ul><li>ORDER BIAS </li></ul><ul><li>Bias caused by the influence of earlier questions in questionnaire . </li></ul><ul><li>FUNNEL TECHNIQUE </li></ul><ul><li>Asking general questions before specific questions on order to obtain unbiased responses. </li></ul><ul><li>FILTER QUESTION </li></ul><ul><li>Question in a questionnaire that screams out respondent not qualified to answer a second question </li></ul><ul><li>PIVOT QUESTION </li></ul><ul><li>Filter question use to determine which version of second question will be asked </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Factors Influencing the Sequencing Questions </li></ul><ul><li>Anchoring effect </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The first concept measured tends to become a comparison point from which subsequent evaluations are made. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Randomization of items on a questionnaire susceptible to the anchoring effect helps minimize order bias. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Order of alternatives on closed questions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The order of choices should be rotated if producing alternative forms of the questionnaire is possible. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. WHAT IS THE BEST LAYOUT? <ul><li>Layout of traditional questionnaire </li></ul><ul><li>Layout of internet questionnaire </li></ul>
  19. 19. LAYOUT OF TRADITIONAL QUESTIONNAIRE <ul><ul><li>Multiple-grid question </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Several similar questions arranged in a grid format. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The title of a questionnaire should be phrased carefully : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To capture the respondent’s interest, underline the importance of the research </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasize the interesting nature of the study </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Appeal to the respondent’s ego </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasize the confidential nature of the study </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To not bias the respondent in the same way that a leading question might </li></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 22. LAYOUT OF INTERNET QUESTIONNAIRE <ul><li>Graphical User Interface (GUI) </li></ul><ul><li>The researcher can control the background, colors, fonts, and other features displayed on the screen so as to create an attractive and easy-to-use interface between the user and the Internet survey </li></ul><ul><li>Layout Issues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Paging by going from screen to screen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scrolling layout gives the respondent the ability to scroll down </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Push buttons </li></ul><ul><li>A small outlined area, such as a rectangle or an arrow, that the respondent clicks on to select an option or perform a function, such as submit </li></ul>
  21. 23. <ul><li>Status bar </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A visual indicator that tells the respondent what portion of the survey he or she has completed. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Radio Button </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A circular icon, resembling a button, that activates one response choice and deactivates others when a respondent clicks on it. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Drop-down Box </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A space saving device that reveals responses when they are needed but otherwise hides them from view. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Check Boxes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Small graphic boxes, next to an answers, that a respondent clicks on to choose an answer; typically, a check mark or an X appears in the box when the respondent clicks on it. </li></ul></ul>
  22. 24. <ul><li>Open-ended Boxes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Boxes where respondents can type in their own answers to open-ended questions. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pop-up Boxes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Boxes that appear at selected points and contain information or instructions for respondents. </li></ul></ul>
  23. 26. SOFTWARE THAT MAKES QUESTIONNAIRE INTERACTIVE <ul><ul><li>Variable piping software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Allows variables to be inserted into an Internet questionnaire as a respondent is completing it. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Error trapping software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Controls the flow of an internet questionnaire . </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Forced answering software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Prevents respondents from continuing with an Internet questionnaire if they fail to answer a question. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interactive help desk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A live, real-time support feature that solves problems or answers questions respondents may encounter in completing the questionnaire . </li></ul></ul></ul>
  24. 27. HOW MUCH PRE TESTING AND REVISING ARE NECESSARY ? <ul><li>Pretesting Process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Seeks to determine whether respondents have any difficulty understanding the questionnaire and whether there are any ambiguous or biased questions. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Preliminary Tabulation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A tabulation of the results of a pretest to help determine whether the questionnaire will meet the objectives of the research. </li></ul></ul>
  25. 28. Designing Questionnaires for Global Markets <ul><li>Back Translation </li></ul><ul><li>Taking a questionnaire that has previously been translated into another language and having a second, independent translator translate it back to the original language. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A questionnaire developed in one country may be difficult to translate because equivalent language concepts do not exist or because of differences in idiom and vernacular. </li></ul></ul>
  26. 29. THANK YOU LMT School Of Management