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    Notes on english li00chasuoft Notes on english li00chasuoft Document Transcript

    • 1^ iffefil/lR '•ii&m' mmwm^mm^<^?m^m^
    • NOTES ON THE ENGLISH LITERATURE EXAMINATION RAPERS FOR ADMISSION TO HIGH SCHOOLS, (1878) BY G. A. CHASE, M.A., COLLBQIATB INSTITUTE, GALT. TORONTO JAMES CAMPBELL & SOK, PUBLISHERS. 1878.
    • Entered according to the Act of Parliament of Canada, in the year one thousand eight hundred and seventy-eight, by James Campbell & Son, in the office of the Minister of Agriculture,
    • INTRODUCTION In dealing with literature the teacher must have, as in his other work, one object steadily in view:—his pupils must understand clearly everything the lesson contains ; nothing must be taken for granted ; it will not do to take their own word for it, or to make them learn accurately the appended notes ; the teacher must satisfy himself in his own way that the work is uhderstood. It is very vexatious to find how little is really taken in by the pupil reading over a lesson in the usual way. The notes will give infor- mation, make suggestions, call attention to what might be passed over as mere common-place ; but they can never supply the place of the teacher ;he alone that can adapt the question to the it is needs or capacities of the pupil, he alone that can meet the difficul- ties and arouse the dormant intelligence of each. He will speedily find that he will have to draw largely upon his own knowledge, and rely upon notes only where his own resources fail. The lessons in literature must not be lectures, must not be exami- nations ; they must be a continued talk, a familiar conversation between teacher and pupil, for this is the only way that thought can be reached. The knowledge thus conveyed, and the mental activity thus aroused will be far more beneficial than any other kind of teaching can possibly be it makes intelligent boys and girls. ; The teacher will thus see that the very best author to compose "sets of questions on literature" is himself. There is not a more wearying, deadening, or destructive work for teacher or student than to set himself to studying literature by a series of questions. On the other hand, when his work is well prepared, the teacher will find nothing in the whole range of his work so delightful, so instructive to himself and to his charge as literature he will find, ; and be surprised to find, that on going over the same ground again, he will rarely ask the same question the same way new ideas ; will continually arise,new modes of illustration, new facts. The lesson must not be made prosy. It is well always to start with what the pupil knows himself, and gradually add with his own help to his stock of knowledge. Thus every question or objection on the teacher's part must have a definite bearing on the object in
    • INTRODUCTION. view. By way of illustration we may take " Iceland." The objects in view are a clear idea of the climate, the inhabitants, : to give the food, &c., &c. Beginning with the position of the island, its size, &c., — " Wouldn't a boy like to live in Iceland?" "Yes, sir." " No, sir." " You say, Yes, sir,' now why ?" ' " Because there's snow and ice to ride down hill and skate plenty of on." The other boy said " No, sir ;" " why would you not like to live there ?" " It's so cold." " So cold you like to ride down ! hill and skate, don't you ?" " Yes, sir." " Then you would like to have snow and ice in warm summer days, I suppose you're a soft ; boy." " But, sir, things can't grow where it is so cold." " Well what of that ?" " Why, people can't live where nothing grows." "But, your book says there are people living in Iceland. How do they live if nothing grows for them to eat ?" And thus question, objection, laugh and information will gradu- ally bring out and stamp upon the puoils' mind, the conditions of life in Iceland, the food, the occupations, the climate, the seasons, day and night ; the use of cold climates in moderating the heat of the more tropical ones ; the swarming seas supplying the lack of vegetation : thousand things all closely connected with in short, a this cold region. The illustration employed may seem silly to some ; but before condemning it, let the principle aimed at be as fully tested as it has been by the writer. In the following pages the notes are intended to meet the require- ments of teachers of the Fourth -book, generally, and of their pupils as well and it is to be hoped that the object aimed at will be fairly ; reached. Everything deemed a real difficulty has been touched upon, but a great deal has been left for the intelligence c- the teacher to complete. Few derivations, comparatively, have been given but all those that add force or beauty to the word, or from ; which anything can really be learned have been carefully inserted, and the teacher must not burden his pupils with more. Finally, it is earnestly recommended that these lessons in litera- ture should not be made into lessons in analysis and parsing if ; these latter must be taught, let them be taken completely apart by themselves else the pupils will be bewildered and disgusted. ; G. A. Chase. Gait, March, 1878.
    • NOTES TO THE FOURTH BOOK. THE NORWEGIAN COLONIES IN GREENLAND. William Scoresby, a celebrated Arctic explorer and man of science, was bom in Yorkshire in 1789, and died in 1857. As captain of a whaler, he made seventeen voyages to the coasts of Greenland and Spitzbergen, and wrote an account of them. In 1822 he explored the east coast of Greenland—then an unknown region. On his return to England he gave up the sea and became a clergj^man, but ardently studied physical science. He wrote several valuable works. The following are some of the other chief Arctic navigators : Corte Real 1500 Ross. 1818 Frobi.sher 1676 Parry (five voyages). ..... ..1818-1825 Davis 1585 Franklin 1823, 1845-6 Hudson 1610 Rae 1847 Baffin 1616 Kane 1853 Cook 1776 Hall 1854 McKenzie 1789 Nares 1875 (See Note on Sir J. Franklin.) Iceland— 309 miles long, 200 broad ; 500 miles north of Scotland. The longest day southern part is 20 hours ; in the north, about a week. in the The first visitors came frem Norway in the 8th century ; but the island was not settled till A.D. 874. (See Geography.) ErlcRauda— ("au" like "ou" in hound) alter "w" in sweet). -"Olaus" is the Latin —that is, He«ry the Red. f«rm of the Norwegian "Olaf." This Snoefellzness (pronounce nnu-fellz-ness) Olaf was the father of St. Olaf, Olaf — — ("u" as in "ugly") snow-cape, or II. (see Longfellow's "Tales of a Way- Sromontory ;"ne.ss," is the same as "the side Inn"); he introduced Christianity Jaze," in Norway and England, and into Norway. **no8e." Paganism—from Latin "pagdmis," a Disseminated— scattered abroad like villager, inhabitant of a distant country seeds — (Latin "semen" ; plural, "semi- district. In Italy the cities were the na."— seeds; "dis" — apart, abroad, asun- first to embrace Christianity ; the dis- der.) tant country districts were so slow in Finished picture— simply means that following the example of the cities in everything they could wish for was to this respect, that "paganus" soon came be found in this "green" land— just as to mean, not only a villager, but also nothing is wanting in a picture that is one who worshipped idols. In English perfect. the word has the latter signification only. — Cattle In some parts of Greenland the In the same way " heathen," dwellers — musk-ox is said to exist. — on the heath gets its present meaning. Exodus- agoingout— an emigration; the Benighted— literally, covered by the Exodus raelites of the Bible tells about the going out of Egypt. Is- night ; in deep ignorance ; — just as when we are in the dark we see nothing, 80 Leil — pronounce, "life." when ignorant we know nothing. Olaus Tryggeson (pronounce o-lah-us Gospel- -formerly spelled "god-spell," tryg-ge«-eon) —("y" like the sound next that is, good story or message — not
    • NOTES TO THE FOURTH READER. "God's message," as is sometimes said. As to be oblivious—This phrase %. {See the "good tidings" in Luke ii. 10.) equivalent to an adverb, modifyin^' Centuries— Is the cent in this word the " embarrassed or more strictly speak- "; same as cent, a piece of money ? ing, in apposition with " so ";— showing Osterbygdt—(pronounce ost-er-bygdt) — the extent, or degree, of the embarras- (see " "Trj'ggeson," CEIsterbygdt," (see above) — properly, " Snoefellzness," sing. above)"eastern colony; "Westerbydgt," In the opinion—Parse " in"; what was the opinion f western colony :— "bygdt" is the same as the Scotch " big (-gin),' a house, or Conlecture—The object of this verb is building. " whether they would wild Hamlets— " Ham" means home, some- Greenlanders""; the object of "at- times village : it is the same word as in tempt*' is "to conjecture," &c. (See " Wingham," &c. ; "let" means small. note on infinitives under "Discovery of Garde (pronounce gar-deh). America " below). 30 that a constant—This clause is ad- Whether they would be met with— verbial to the preceding, showing a "with" here, must be taken as a part result arising from it. verb,— would-be-met-with. The of the It Is generally believed—What does sentence, if properly composed, would " it " mean here ? be ' people would meet with them ; or SkrcelllngS~Norwegian,meaningwre<cA- — leaving out the "with" 'they would be ' es. (Sec "Snoefellzness," above.) met.' We are accustomed, however, to Wrapt— Should not this word be spelled such sentences as this one in the extract. " wrapped ?" When is 'ed " pronounced ' Mixed—Parse this word. like "t"l In "wrapped," try to sound Such a,s— such, qualifies implements ; "ed" like "d" and observe carefully " as" is the subject of the next verb. what change occurs on the " p." " one horn." There is Black DeSith—See History of England, Unicom— that is reign of Edward III. no such animal as is figured in the English coat of arms. The rhinoceros Scourged—Show that this word, which really means ivhipped, is properly used is often called a unicorn. In the ex- here as also, extingvished. tract Mr. Scoresby means the "nar- whal" or " sea-unicorn,"— a sea-animal ; Especially—modifies "is supposed." Queen Margaret— born in 1353, died in with a long horn or tusk sticking out of the fore part of its head. 1412 ; — queen of Norway, Sweden and Denmark. She was a very excellent Domestic implements— knives, axes, ruler, and greatly beloved, especially awls, &c., &c. by the Danes. Aborigines— the people in the earliest Embarrassed—The root of this word is country,— those who had their origin " bar ";— show how the idea of a " bar " in it, so to speak not colonists. ; is present in it. (See "benighted" Circumstance—in apposition to the above). Compare " barrier." sentence "he likewise coflBn." FOUNDING OF THE N. A. COLONIES. Close of the fifteenth, &C.—other dis- &c.,and making maps of the whole. coverers of the New World were John Columbus and others had discovered a Cabot (Cabo), 1497, who discovered Lab- new world, and then it remained for rador ; Sebastian Cabot, 1498, discovered others to find out all the particulars Newfoundland, and sailed down the about it and make use of them- coast the continent to Virginia of Leaving, &c.—this is a bad sentence as ; Amerigo Vespucci (Ali-mer-ee-go Ves- it stands, tlie word "leaving" cannot be putch-chee), 1498, coasted the eastern parsed; for there is no pronoun, express- part of South America, and, as he gave ed or understood, with which it is con- the first popular account of the New nected. We must change the con- World, it was called after his name. struction, and make it either, "If we In 1498, Vasco de Gama (gah-mah) dis- leave out of view," &c., or, " The efforts covered the way round the Cape of Good of . being left out of view, &c." :— . Hope to India. this latter being an absolute phrase. Minute and practical details—that Efforts of the Spaniards—They colo- is, in surveying the coast, exploring ized the West Indies, Florida, Mexico, bays and rivers, taking soundings, &c., all S. America, except Brazil.
    • FOUNDING OF THE N. A. COLONIES. Turn theni to account—make use of other nation could drive the French away. them for their own advantage,—as trad- Established footing— her power was ing with the Indiana, fishing, &c. , &c. made sure or established in Nova Scotia. Basque (bask)—& race of people living in Nova Scotia— Latin for "New Scotland." France and Spain in the region of the Acadia—or rather, Acadie (ah-cah-dee). western Pyrenees ; they are neither Dr. Dawson, of McGill College, Mon- French nor Spanish, but are thought to an Indian word mean- treal, says this is be of the same race as the Turks. ing place or region ; this word occurs in Breton— belonging to Brittany (French, other names in Nova Scotia, as Tracodie, Bretagne), the north-west peninsula of Shubenacadie. Acadia extended to the France the people, who are of the same ; St. Croix river, between New Brunswick race as the Welsh, or the Scotch High- and Maine, thus including Nova Scotia landers, are hardy sailors. and New Brunswick. Newfoundland-7ieif-/Mn-Zan(i (last syl- Pioneer— one who goes before others to lable strongly accented) is the invariable prepare the way. In the army it means pronunciation in the Maritime Provinces a soldier whose duty it is to make {See "Voyage of the Golden Hind.") Verazzano— pronounce, ver-adz-zah-no. Ealeigh — roads, dig trenches, mines, &c. See note under "Voyage of the Golden Hind." See the same for Francis I.— king of France, a contem- porary of Henry VHI. of England. "SirH. Gilbert." Jacques Cartier- pronounce, jack ("j Disastrous— In former days there were like "z" in azure), car-t'-ya ("car" as in men called ctstrologers (from " astron" "carry"): "Jacques" in English is James, a star), who pretended they could fore- For an account of Cartier, Champlain, tellevents from the appearance of the • Roberval, Verazzaiii, see Hist. (A Canada. stars. If the stars were not favorable, Anticosti—so called from the Indian itwas termed a disaster ("dis," apart, name, "Natiscotie." or away from astron); compare "ill- ; St. Lawrence— (French, St. Laurent)— starred." Of course, people, and good, so called from the Gulf of St, Lawrence, sensible people too, believed in these which name was given to it by Cartier, astrologers. when, on his second voyage, he entered Auspices— This word belongs to the same it on August 10, 1535, St. LawTence's class as "disaster," only the events day. were foretold from the flight or sin^ng Koberval — he was appointed governor of birds.— Latin, "avis," bird ; "spicio," of the new colony, but he and Cartier to behold. This was the custom among did not agree, and so after a year he the ancient Romans. went home to Fi-ance ; six years after- Possession was taken of the country wards he set out again, but was never — See note on this expression under heard of more. " The Buccaneers." Compare the two. Transatlantic— across (trans) the At- Vicissitudes— repeated changes, from lantic. prosperous to the opposite. Civil dissensions —the wars between Often privations " contests." — Parse tkese words; the Catholics and Protestants, and that also, between Henry IV. and those who Took root—The colony is compared to a wished to keep him from being king. tree which strikes its roots into the — Civil wars are wars carried on between ground, and so grows. the inhabitants of the same country. Virginia — discovered by one of Raleigh's Discord being brought throne- . . . expeditions, and called by this name by Turn this ijidepcndent phrase into a Queen Elizabeth, because she was uu- sentence. All such phrases can be turned married. into adverbial sentences. Plantation— here this word means "col- Champlain— pronounce " ch" like "sh." ony," a sense now but little used ; the Amicable confederacies — friendly ordinary meaning is a large farm or es- unions, or agreements, in which each tate in wann countries devoted to rais- ))arty is bound to helj) the other. ing such crops as sugar-cane, tobacco, Humbled them—This was done chiefly cotton, &c., &c. We never hear of by meaMs of the guns of the French, of a wheat plantation. which the Indians were very much "Exodns—See Note under "Norwegian afraid. Colonies in Greenland." Fostered— took care of the settlements ; Pilgrim Fathers-('S'ee 'pilgrim' in the dic- a foster-child one adopted by a person is tionary). In Queen Elizabeth's reign there and brought up as his own. were a groat many people— protestants— Consolidating her supremacy— ma- who did not like the form of worship in king her i)ower, lier poseeasion of the the Church of England, and so would aew country sure, or solid,— ho that no not attend it ; they were therefore fined.
    • NOTES TO THE FOURTH READER. imprisoned, and some of them even put Grants of land, &c.—The king was "Browiiist" was the name supposed to own ail the newly dis- I to death. jjiren to these people A good many of covered land, and "o <'ould give it to them left England and went to Holland ; whom he pleased. In Canada we have but, getting tired of that country, they I j — "crown lands," that is, lands not set sail for America in the "Mayflower," owned by any one man, but by the and landed at Plymouth, in Alassachu- I I country; the Government sells this December, 1620. setts, in There they [ land, or the treeson it, or does with it could worship God as they pleased. See I what isthought best for the country, Mrs. Hemans' poem, "The Pilgrim j Wm. Penn—a celebrated Quaker who Fathers," beginning with j lived in the reigns of Charles II.. James " The breaking waves dashed high II., and William III. Although he had On a stern and rock-bound coast." I j a grant of the land from the king, he Laid the foundation— started or began. I preferred to buy it honestly from the Indians, to whom it really belonged ' These States" are compared to a house; ' ; we begin a house with the foundation, the colony thus escaped the Indian so these Pilgrim Fathers, being the first I wars. settlers, began the "States." Quaker— or " Friend," as they call them- Inaugurate— begin, commence, enter selves a religious sect founded by one , upon. The men who, among the Ro- George Fox in Cromwell's time. They mans, took the auspices (see above), are opposed to all war they have no ; — were called "augurs," a word of the sacraments, and no ministers in their same root as " auspices," and if the churches ; any one speaks who feels in- auspices were favorable, the Romans clined to or, as they say, "as the ; immediately entered upon what they Spirit moves them." f h»y "often use ar had to do. Though we use the word peculiar style of language, saying 'thee" "inaugurate" no%v, we know that birds where other people use " you." can tell us nothing about the affairs of Pennsylvania— that is Penn's woods, men. (Latin "sylva," wood.^). Independence of a continent—This is New York -called such from James, not quite true. Canada forms a part of Duke of York, to whom Charles II. America, and is not independent of granted It. The Dutch called it " New Great Britain. Netherlands ;" New York city was "New Asylum, &C ,— a place of protection. Amsterdam. From the beginning of Elizabeth's Henry Hudson.—This famous English reign to the end of Charles IPs, the navigator, while in the service of the Catholi.« were bitterly persecuted Dutch, discovered in 1609, the Hudson they were fined, imprisoned, and under River ;-the Dutch, consequently, claim- Elizabeth, put to death for their re- ing the surm^iding country as theirs. ligion. They were allowad to hold no In the follow..:;,' year he was sent out office, could not be lawyers or doctors, by the English to explore the Northern could not vote;—these were some of Seas, and discoveretl the strait and bay — their disabilities, what they were un- now called by his name. His crew able t"> be or to do. mutinied, and putting him, his son. and Carolina— the Latin for Charles is " Ca- some others into open boats, sent them rolus." adrift ; they were never heard of after- — Puritan a name given by way of con- wards. tempt, in Elizabeth's reign, to those When— This word does not connect the people belonging to the Church of clause following it to the preceding one England, who desired a greater punty as adverbial of time ; the two sentences in the church ; they wished to be as are rather separate; "when" here different as possible from the Catholics denotes not time but order. in their manner of worship. They were — Planted settled. (See "plantation" persecuted by Elizabeth and her two above). successors ; the Brownists were the ex- Swamped —overpowered, destroyed. A treme type of these Puritans, and left " boat swamps" when it fills with water. the Church of England. In America Note— Pupils will not, it is to be hoped, it was a long time before they them- imitate Mr. Pedley's English -.-swamped, selres learned that every person has a planted, when, leaving—and others not right to worship God as ho pleasos. noted, are all bad.
    • VOYAGE OF THE GOLDEN HIND. VOYAGE OF THE GOLDEN HIND. Sir Humphrey Gilbert. He was a half-brother of Raleigh , lik- the latter he took — part ill the busy scenes of the time, in war, commerce, privateering against the Spanish, discovering and colonizing. His privateering was not always successful ; the ladt expedition of tlie kind being particularly unfortunate. Raleigh—(Sir Walter), the " Shepherd I Shipwright—this word is almost gone of the Ocean," as his friend, the poet I out of use we say ship-carpenter in- , Spenser, called him, was born in 1552. stead we still have millwright, wheel- ; j Possessed of a most impetuous and | wright, &c. Wright is another form of generous nature, he left college when the word work. Mineral men— miners. j only seventeen to take part with the } Huguenots in lie civil w^rs in France ; f : Omitting—this word qualifies "we." thence to Holland to fight, and in 1780 ) Morns-dancers—that is Moorish dan to Ireland ; three years afterwards he cersthese dancers, in imitation of the ; j went with Gilbert to Nev'fouiidland I Moorsof Spain, were dressed fantasti- then he tried to found a colony in cally, often like noted persons of former | North Carolina when the war with ; days, such as Ilobin Hood and his Spain broke out he was foremost in the company. They had bells around their fight, fittuig out privateers to catch ancles, rode hobby-horses, &c. lUe^ treasure-ships; trying again to found " Lady of the Laice " Canto vi : j colonies again in the fleet for an at- ; "There morricers, with bell at heel. tack on the hated Spaniards, his was — | I And blade in hand, their mazes wheel." a life of intense activity VViiile Queen | Conceits— here means fancy things, Elizabeth lived good fortwne attended toys, trinkets, &c.,— an American would — him, lOr he was high in her favor, ; say ''notions." Barque —(or bark), a three -masted vessel, i and he received large e>ftates both in I England and in Ireland. lialclgh wasput the two front ones having square sails, and the other a sail like a schooner. } in prison by James I for plotting ! against him, and while there he wrote ; Looming— when an object " looms up' his unfinished "History of the World." ! it is always indistinct, as if in a mi:<t, Tired of prison, liP was released to go on ; seems larger than it really is, and is an expedition to a gold-mine in Ameri- ; generally distant. ca, which he said he knew ; but he 1 Dense fog— everybody has heard of the attacked the Spaniards, was defeated, dense fogs of Newfoundland ; they are caused, it is said, bv the warm waters j and on his return to England in 1618, put to death by James to please the i of the Gulf Stream meeting, near this Spaniards. ! i.sland, the cold currents from the Arctic Ocean. Impoverished -made poor; the dlsas- '< ters were especially the partial loss of i It was just—what does "it" stand for a small sent out against the Span- here? iards, &c. fleet 1 i Ships of various nations' —these were engaged in the fisheries Patent— a document obtained from Gov- St. John's— in Newfoundland , St. John, I ernment granting certain privileges. in New Bruiiswick ! St. Johns, in Que- Gilbert's was to colonize, and to have ' ; the profits of certain lands whose names bec. Note the spelling. Salvo of ordnance— a discharge of can- ! were mentioned in the paper, for a certain time. Among us, when a man I non, as a salute. Ordnance large guns, — invents a new machine, kc, &c., he i cannon. Ten-ton cutter— see "cutter" i in Reid's applies to the Government for a patent, ' which gives him the sole right to maim- i dictionary. A ton, in measuring the facture and sell that machine for a capacity of a vessel, consists of 40 cubic 1 certain length of time. The document feet. is open at one end, hence its name from j ' Bearings—the position, or direction of one from another. — the Latin "pateo," to be open. I Like the swan—people once believed Chronicler- one who writes down ac- that when tiie swan was about to die it counts of events in the order of time in sang beautifully. which they occur. | They in the Delight—we would rather Faculty— here means craft, trade, call- say now those. ing ;— this use of the word has passed Winding— wind in g, putting xoirul into, away. We now use it in the sen.se of or blowing, a musical instrument ; the dexterity, knack, cleverness, and of past tense and yi-x^t participle is proper- powers of the mind or body. ly "winded," though we generally soe
    • NOTES TO THE FOURTH READER. "wound"; as "the hunter wound his swamped, or struck an iceberg. horn. Twelve of the clock— notice this form. Haughtboys—spelled now " hautboys." How do we say it ? See dictionary. Whereof—of which— that is, the lights Battel —beating-, or sounding-; "left'' This word is not much used now. ended, left off. Us in the— that is " ns who were in" &c. Lowering-pronounce lou-er-ing, threat- " In " may be parsed as connecting " us " enin5?,looking dark. This is the same and "Hind." word as " lowering " (lo-ering), pro- "TfiXhal—xoith that , thereupon. nounced differently to show the different As was this— that is, as this purpose meaning ; when a storm threatens, the was. Parse " this." clouds are " loiver." To possess, &C.— infinitives used a^ Cast away— wrecked, lost. It is not nouns in apposition with "purpoge." known whether the "Squirrel" was DISCOVERY OF AMERICA. "Robertson," (William), a popular preacher and historian, and principal of the Uni- versity of Edinburgh died in 1791. He wrote a " History of Scotland," a " History of ; Charles V.," and a " History of America." His writings contain a very large numbe»- of words derived from the Latin. ColumhUS— (Co?o?n&o, in Italian ; Colon, isfaction for this, because his enemies in Spanish.)— This greatest of all navi- were favor(^ by the ungrateful Ferdi gators was born at Genoa in 1436, or nand. One more voyage that turned out 1446, as some say. Little is known of badly and Columbus returned to Spain his early life, except tliat he was a care- to find Isabella dead, and to die in pover- ful student of navigation and geography. ty at Valladolid. Ferdinand gave him He early formed the idea that, as the | a splendid funeral and a monument, as earth was round, the East Indies could if that could make up for his unjust be reached by sailing west ; so he set off treatment. After some years, the re- to Lisbon, then the centre of maritime mains of Columbus were taken up and enterprise, and laid his plans before the removed to Hayti ; but early in the pres- king, John XL Disgusted with the ent century they were again tak^n up, treatment bo received in Lisbon, Colum- and now repose in Havana. Columbus, bus went to Spain, to the court of Fer- imlike most men, never allowed the iinand and Isabella; here, after long wrongs he suffered to dishearten him in years of waiting and attempted journeys 1 his great work. to England and elsewhere, he got his Wished rather, &c. - -the people thought wish ; three ships, fitted out, it is said, that Columbus was leading his sailors to by the queen who sold her jewels to get certani death. the necessary mouej% were put inder Altered his course— where would Col- his cominaTKl, and he started fromPalos umbus have made land if he had con- westward over an unknown sea. With tinued to sail due west from Palos? the greatest difficulty, and with danger To tack— this is a sea term, meaning to even to his own life from the frightened change the course of a vessel. and mutinous sailors, he pressed on, and It must ever be borne in mind that "in- at length reached one of the Bahama finitives" are to be pareed according to islands, San Salvador, it is thought, Oct. their office in a sentence. Here " to tack" 12, 1492 After discovering Cuba, Hayti, is an infinitive, the object of "required ;" and other islands, he returned to Spain, farther down, " to have"&c. is an infinitive March 15, 1493, and was received with in apposition with " it" as are also, " to the greatest joy, as one returned from rekindle," and "to think," &c. ; "to the dead. In September of the same quell," is an infinitive used as an adverb, year he started again, and discovered expressing the purpose of "employing," Jamaica and other islands ; in 1498, on &c. his third voyage, he coasted the north- Provided— this word has here really the ern part of S. America, and discovered force of a conjunction ; it maj', however, the Orinoco ; but on arriving at the be regarded as forming with "it being," Spanish colony in Hayti, the governor understood, an absolute phrase. An put him in irons and sent him home a absolute (or independent) phrase can prisoner, to the great indignation of the always be turned into an adverbial sen- Spanish people. He never obtained sat- tence.
    • DISCOVERY OF AMERICA. Sonnding line— or " lead," as it is usu- to leave it there,—to signify to whom ally called on shipboard, consists of a the land belonged by right of discovery. small-sized rope with a heavy "lead" In Canada the French hung up a shield or " sinker " attached to one end, and with an inscription, instead of the flag. marked off into fathoms by pieces of Could not comprehend—Why could leather, &c. ; nowadays tubes are often not the natives comprehend what the fastened to the lead, for the purpose of Spaniards were doing ? obtaining a little of the mud of the sea- Foresee the consequences-destruction bottom. of the natives in the West Indies Such land birds as— "aa" is here a colonists from all nations coming to relative pronoun. the new land ;—in short, America as it Cane— a piece of sugar-cane, or some Illustrate more fully. such plant. is. — Children of the sun The great god of the Mexicans and of these Caribs, was Nigna— pronounce— 7iee?i-yaft. the sun ; the ancient Persians (Gebers) He ordered the sails to be fiirled— and Arabians also worshipped the sun ; Mr. Abbott would call this infinitive, "complementary"; so also, "ships to Apollo, or Phoebus, was the sun-god of lie to." See Abbott's " How to Parse." the old Greeks and Romans, and so was Balder of the old heathen English, Furled— rolled up. Germans, Danes, &c. When these Iiie to— A vessel is said to " lie to " when people had no knowledge of the true she has part of her sails furled, and the God, they deemed the sun their greatest rest arranged in such a manner as to benefactor, and so worshipped him. stop her headway. — The climate it must be kept in mind that in western Europe the climate is Keeping— This word is loosely used here; it can hardly, from the sense of the much warmer than in the same latitude passage, refer to Columbus ; the phrase in eastern North America this is caused ; may be regarded as an absolute one, by the warm waters of the Gulf Stream "keeping" &c., being turned into striking on the western coast of Europe, ' strict watch being kept.' It might be along with the warm south-west winds allowable to take "keeping" as refer- blowing off the Atlantic. The place ring to ships,'— perhaps, the best way ' where Columbus landed lies more than to deal with it. 600 miles farther south than Spain. Forecastle — accent the first syllable Every herb, shrub, &c.— Name the strongly (see Chambers' dictionary). native products of the West Indies — Worcester defines this word, " In mer- that are brought into Canada. chant ships the fore part of the vessel — Fainted Thus our wild Indians put on under the deck, where the sailors live." " war-paint" yet. More commonly it is a house built on Transports of joy— showing their great deck in the fore part of the vessel, and joy by their actions, such as leaping, occupied by the common sailors onlj-. dancing, &c., &c. Pedro Guttierez— pronounce pay-dro, — Hawk-bells In former times hawks goot-tee-a-rdyth, the "oo" as in "boot." were much used in hunting, and even — Pedro our ^^ Peter." as pets. When carried about in the Salcedo— pronounce sal-thay-do. . hand with a bright hood over their Comptroller- see Chambers' Etymologi- head, they often had little bells fas- cal — Dictionary ; in this passage the tened to their legs or around their word evidently means the sailing-master, neck. — the one who had the management Bauble— (or "bawble")— here means any of the ships. trifling toy. Originally it mean* a short Land— San Salvador, one of the Bahamas. stick with a comical-looking head carved Te Deum— a Latin hynin of thanksgiving on it, and carried by clowns, or jesters, beginning with "te Deum laudamus" in the households of kings or noblemen. —we praise thee, O Lord— used in Trunk of a single tree— compare Hia- Roman Catholic churches ; in the watha's canoe. Church of England service the English Such provision as— Parse "as" here : translation is employed. compare note on " as" above. Took solemn possession — practice on making a discovery of a it was the Note.— It seems to be pretty well estab- lished that America had been reached new land, to erect the flag of the nation by the Norwegians at least two hundred to which the discoverer belonged, and years before the time of Columbus.
    • NOTES TO THE FOURTH READER. DEATH OF MONTCALM. A death—Wolfe's. See History of Can- j use the broadsword ; they are armed ada. with rifle and bayonet like the other This war— it hegan in 1754. Read care- soldiers. fullyabout this war in the History of Supported— helped. Canada. Having thrown— Parse this. Fort William Henry—stood at the Troops of the line— the regular soidiera, south-west comer of Lake George not the French Canadians or volunteers. Fort Ticonderoara, on the south-west Ramparts—the fortified walls of the side of Lake Champlain, where Lake city. George flows into it. Martello tOWer-These were small round Quebec— this name is said to be an In- towers built of stone ; they were gener- dian word—Kepec—meaning "strait." ally built near the coast, to protect it IJaies—fortifications. from invasion. Cathedral— the chief church of a dio- So much the better—" the" is here an cese — the bisliop's church, or seat, as ; adverb ; — the meaning is * so much bet- the word means. ter by this. Marquis de Vaudreuil—pronounce— Then I shall- " then" is not an adverb mar-kee, ("mar" as in "marry")— de- of time here ; compare with ' * then vo-dre-ee (the * e in de and dre the ' a couple of lines before. same as " u" in dust.) Lieutenant du roi—lieutenant of the Come to bum—to burn, to look, to re- king. turn, are infinitives showing the pur- Roussiilon— roos-sce-2/on. pose ; hence th»y are adverbial. Cape Rouge -red cape, five or six miles 6calp— The Indians always scalp their above Quebec. There is another cape slain enemies ; that is, tear off the hair of this name, many miles below Quebec. from the top of the head, with the skin For myself— Parse for; words have to attaclied. be supplied. Break up the camp—leave it. Moment—weight, importance. Bridge of boats— made by fastening Perplexities.—from Latin, per— com- boats side by side and laying plar.ks — pletely ; plecto interweave : difficulties across them. The bridge here referred that are like a tangled string, all inter to was across tlie St Charles, leading to woven. the French camp. Magnanimous— great-souled, noble. Only gun— The banks were so steep that AsI commanded— Parse " as ;" is it the the English could drag only one cannon object of commanded? up them. Engage— promise, undertake. Broadswords— This was the old " clay- Ursullne—an order of nuns named after more" of the Highlanders. The High- landers in the British army do not now St. Ursula, a native of Naples. JACQUES CARTIER AT HOCHELAGA. Cartier—iSee note on "Founding of N. steamers, and ships come up to Montreal A. Colonies." Read carefully about now, because a channel lias been dredged Cartier in the Ilistoiy of Canada. (or scooped out) through Lake St. Peter. Hochelaga- hosh-lah-gah. Friendly— an adverb here. Why do we Pinnace— usually an eight oared boat not say friendlily ? that can be used with sails also. Cartier's Of long time—What would we say now? pinnace would now be called a good- In full dress— dressed in their uniforms. sized yacht. Metropolis-literally the mother city— Hermerillon—Aare-mare-ee-T/o(n). the city, among the old Greeks, from Long-boat—the longest boat in a ship. which colonists set out. It now merely St. Croix -pronounce, sa{n)-crwar—Q'y!a," means the largest city in any district or as in "walk"). Now called St, Charles. country. Richelieu "but"). — Hochelai—AosA-Zaft-ce. reesh-l'-yu See map. — ("u" as in Palisades- a sort by driving stout of fortification stakes, sharpened at the top, deeply into the ground. made Wintering of the Freneh-They suffered much from cold, hunger, and sickness Huron — tribe The territory of these Indians began about Cornwall and ex- ; 25 of the French died. tended westward to the great lakes. Shallowness of the water —Ocean
    • THE BUCCANEEKS. CORTEZ IN MEXICO. Cortez—iffor-tdith) ; born in 1485. He Gorgeous-This word always conveys the came as an adventurdt to the W Indies. idea of large size with beauty and In 1519 he landed in Mexico with 700 men, color; hence, not a delicate beauty. 80 of whom were horsemen, and 10 can- We can say a sunset is magnificent or non. The natives whom Cortez first met gorgeous; the Falls of Niagara are were hostile to Montezmna, and this in- magnificent but not gorgeous, because duced- him to march to the capital where of the absence of bright colors. the king was. The Spaniards were re- So worked that he, &c.—The arded as immortal by the Mexicans, but clause beginning with "he" is adver- when the head of a Spaniard was sent to bial, modifying "worked"; or more Montezuma another opinion was formed, accurately, in apposition with "go," and Cortez and his men were in great which, however, modifies "worked." danger. This led to the seizure of Mon- It shows the manner or extent of the tezuma who, to get free, gave Cortez a "working." vast amount of gold and gems. The As to drive— this is bad English ; say governor of Cuba now became jealous of ' that the Mexicans were driven to re- Cortez, and sent Narvaez to replace him ; volt';—this clause modifies "extrava- but Cortez attacked Narvaez and took gant "; or, as in the preceding note. him prisoner, and thus kept his com- BlOOdhomid— a large, powerful hound, mand till he was called home to Spain. with a very keen scent, and very fierce. As usual, the Spanish king was un- Slain their king- Another story sayn grateful. Montezuma was only wounded, and Voyages of discovery— Other Spanish feeling deeply disgraced, starved him- discoverers were — Balboa, who first : self to death. saw the Pacific ; Ponce de Leon, the dia- Creed—their religious belief ; Latin cre- coverer of Florida ; Magellan, the first do — to believe. to sail round the world ; De Soto^ the Blood or tears—The Spaniards were discoverer of the Mississippi. extremely cruel towards the natives; — Set afloat started, planned. they cared not how many people they Griialva.—gree-hyal-va. killed, nor how much sorrow they Diego Velasquez-dee-a-^o vel-as-cdith : caused. Whenever Spanish command- he was governor of Cuba at this time, ers received a commission from the and had got a great deal of treasure by king of Spain to make discoveries, they trade with the Mexicans ; so he thought always said it was for the purpose of the country must be rich, and sent out extending the true religion, Chris- Cortez to conquer it. tianity this was true to some extent ; Lay to— iSee note under "Discovery of but gold and gems they mostly went America." for, and in pursuit of these they cared Cruel excesses— among the West India little what sufferings they inflicted on islands; the Spaniards carried on a the natives. cruel war of externiiuation against the Etiquette— i^t'C-ket .'—custom in particu- Caribs of the islands. They tried to lar places or circumstances. reduce them to slavery, but failed. THE BUCCANEERS. Buccaneers— This word is said to be de- would now be called piracy, though rived from the Carib (native West Indian) deemed honorable in those times. word "boucan," a sort of gridiron on Highway of the seas— On land, a high- which the natives dried or roasted their way is a road on which everybody has a meat. Besides selling hides to the Dutch right to travel, because no person owns and others, the buccaneers sold this it ; so the sea is called a highway be- dried meat. cause no one nation owns it, and all Seaports —Columbus started from Palos; have a right to sail on its waters. * Cabot, from Bristol ; Cartier, from St. Preyed upon— that is, plundered. The Malo. song-books of sailors contain many songa Adventurer— as boys would say, " one about famous pirates, such as Kidd, who goes to seek his fortune." Ward, and Kelley, who plundered the It must be remembered that.in Queen vessels of every nation and killed their Elizabeth's days, Drake, Hawkins, Ra- crews. The only places where pirates leigh and others did tliiii'.'-s at son, thnt now exist are among the East Indi*
    • 10 NOTES TO THE FOURTH READER. islands, and along the coast of China. immense sums of money have been The English have gun-boats out there wasted in this foolish pursuit continually engaged in hunting the pi- Honor among thieves—that is, thieves rates and destroying their vessels and will not steal from each other, :hey — villages. act towards each other like honorable A powerful association— The island of men ; hence there was no need of bolts, Madagascar was, about the beginning of &c. with the buccaneers. , the 18th century, the head-quarters of In guise of a visor—" guise," form or another association of pirates they ; shape ; " visor," literally, the eye-piece tried for a long time to get England to of the cap. take them into her service, but in vain Induced to bind themselves, &c.— at last Charles XII. of Sweden agreed to This is done still but the laws made by ; receive them, as he wanted them for a the English Government to regulate war he was going to enter upon against the practice, are very strict. The per- England in the reign of Geo. I. , 1715. sons so engaged come from Chma, Pursued and murdered-This was one Hindustan, &c. and are called " coolies." , of the causes of the "Spanish War" of TortUga—an island near the north coast 1739. See Greene's History of England. of Hayti ; there is another of the same American continent— that is, South name north of Venezuela. America the northern coast of this was ; called- the "Spanish Main." — Desperadoes thoroughly bad men, ready to commit any crime however Smugfrler— one who brings goods secret- bad or cruel. ly into a country, so as to escape paying Boarding— rushing upon the deck of the duty on them. In former times the vessel. smugglers were hung. Quieting their conscience -When the Because such— Parse " such." buccaneers felt they ware doing wrong Coast-guards—war vessels to protect in plundering the Spaniards, they said the coasts. to themselves that they w'ere paying Interloper- one who comes into a place the Spaniards back for their cruelty to where he has no right to be. others. Offensive and defensive— an agreement Poetic justice.— In stories in poetry we or alliance between two or more, by always see that the good are rewarded, which each is bound to assist the other and the bad are punished, though this either in defending himself from at- 8 by no means the case in real life. tack or in attacking others. Now, the Spaniards had been very bad Independent of peace or war—that is, to the Mexicans, and the buccaneers un- these buccaneers would attack the Span- dertook to punish them for it thus ; ish at any time, no matter if it was a doing the justice that poetry demands, time of peace or of war in Europe. and that we feel is right. It must not Mine of St. Domingo— The Spanish for be the persons who are injured that a time forced the natives to work in the inflict the punishment, else it would be mines ; but, finding them too weak and revenge ; it must be others ; and thus too stubborn, they imported negroes these prevent the wrong-doers from from Africa, thuj starting slavery and — going unpunished, which is the law the slave-trade in America. of poetry, and which pleases us. It was taken possession of—This is By thus assuming- ^sstt)«Miflf must be an irregular construction, and caimot be regarded as a noun, the object of "by," satisfactorily explained ; it will be as though from its force as a verb it has well to call "was taken possession of" a an object after it so also with " with- ; verb in the passive voice ; we feel that out publicly offering " below. this is the force, at least. In the active Acquitted distinction—acted voice it would be, "a number took pos- very bravely. session of it ;" in the passive, properly, Miguel de Basco-tnee-grat/ day bas-co. "possession was taken of it by a num- PortobellO —a town and fortress a little ber." Theirregularity consists in mak- east of Aspinwall, on the isthmus ing "i<" (the object of a preposition) Darien. the subject in the passive, instead of Galleon -a large Spanish ship having a "possession." great number of cannon, and used for St. Christopher— or St. Kitt's one of ; carrying treasure from America to Spain. the West India islands. Eclipsed— This word means, in this place, Unless a will was found-Pirates often "greatly surpassed." Show its connec- had the reputation of bur3'ing their tion with "hidden," "obscured," as the treasure ; Capt. Kidd is famous in this sun is by the moon during an eclipse. respect, and his buried treasure has Southern Ocean— Balboa, a Spaniard, been sought from New York to Halifax was the first European who saw the
    • THE EARTHQUAKE OF CARACCAS. 11 Pacific he gazed on it for the first time ; After deducting, .&C.-Compare this with Sept. 25, 1513, and gave it the name of the Note on " Leaving out of view," in the South Sea. It was only in the latter Founding of the N. A. Colonies. part of the last century that there was Five hundred men— After hundred, any navigation of importance in the thousand, dozen, score, the preposition Pacific. The great ignorance regarding "of" is understood; as, a hnndred of the South Sea was the reason the " South men. These words are nouns, not Sea Bubble " had such success at first. adjectives. Magellan, in 1521, was the first to sail Jamaica—This island was captured from across the Pacific ; in Queen Elizabeth's the Spaniards by the English admirals days. Sir Francis Drake performed the Penn and Ven|bles, in 1656, and colon- arae feat ; the chief navigators of this ized by Cromwell. ocean in last century, were Cook, Anson, LaPerouse, Carteret, Van Dieman, Van- Deputy—one who acts in the place of another. couver, Bougainville. A great deal yet remains to be explored. Gave no quarter—that is, he put them Cliagret-near Aspinwall. to death. THE EARTHQUAKE OF CARACCAS. "Humboldt,"— Alexander Humboldt, bom in 1769, died in 1859, was the greatest of all naturalists. He early devoted hiiriself to the study of Natural History, and science generally but, not content with books, he longed to examine tropical countries for ; himself. In 1799 he visited the Spanish possessions in South America, and spent five years in exploring them, learning their plants, animals, physical features, history, &c. In 1804 he returned to Europe, and, among other things, he wrote a most interesting account of his travels. In 1829 he visited the Ural and the Altai mountains, exploring the country in those regions. From time to time he took part in politics, being employed by his sovereign, the king of Prussia, on many unportant occasions. Ho wrote many books, all of the highest value. Terra firma— the solid ground. Under arms having their weapons On the one hand— Parse " on." with them. Osciiiation— swinging, heaving. San JuajL—san-hwavr-i" a." like ah"); Holy Thursday— or, Ascension Day— St. John. the day of Christ's ascension to heaven ; Capuchin—the name of an order of the last Thursday but one before Whit- monks. sunday — the seventh Sunday after Caxa,sna.tSi—cah-rah-(fwah- tr Easter Buttresses— masses of ston*. or brick- Undulation— motion like that of waves. work, built up against some structure (Latin " unda " a wave.) to support or strengthen it. Ebullition— boiling. Calamities of Lisbon, &c.— Avilai.—ah-vee-lah ; SiUa—see-j/a?i. At Lisbon, in 1755, the earth gaped Vaulted— curved, arched. open and swallowed up a great many Qtrz.Q.iB.—grah-th eea-. thousands of people who were on their Nave— central part. knees^ praying in the great public So great .... any vestige—See note square ; over 60, OW perished within six on " so worked" in " Cortez in Mexico." minutes ; in 1698, at Messina, and other Vestige— trace, remnant: Latin, "vesti- places around, 100,000 people perished ; gium"— footstep. in 1746, at Lima, out of more than 4000 8uartel-coo-ar-^s2^-quarter3, dwellings. people, only 200 escaped. UStom-hOUSe— the building containing GMSLyra.—gtoah-ee-ra ; Rio— rec-o. the offices of those who have to collect Falling of the earth- Durint? earth- the duty, or tax, paid on bringing quakes the ground sometimes is raised foreign goods into the country. up permanently, and sometimes, as Troops of the line— See note under here, it ginks. " Death of Montcalm,"
    • 12 NOTES TO THE FOURTH READER. CONQUEST OF PERU. Huayna Capac— the Spanish pronun- of the Azores ; and to Portugal, all east — ciation would be hwah-ee-na ca-pac. Buascar hwas-car. Atalmalpa—- of that meridian. belong to Spain. Hence Peru would atah-wal-pa. — — Allegiance from the Latin, and "ligo"— to bind. "ad"— to Juncture literally, a joining; time, The friar said moment, occasion. that the Inca was bound to the Pope ; Pizzaro— (born in 1471) had come to the that is, he was the Pope's servant. See West Indies and was with Balboa when "homage," above. the latter discovered ^he Pacific. He Declared-- What is the object of this verb? traded with the natives on the Pacific On this— what? coast in 1515, and learned from them of Insult offered—The friar said that the th^ existence of a rich country farther Inca had insulted God by throwing the south. Roused by the reports of what Bible on the ground. Cortez had done in Mexico, he returned to Panama, a settlement made by Bal- Body-guard — a company of soldiers whose duty it specially is to protect a boa, for volunteers to invade Peru ; but particular person. Here it wasthelnea. not being able to find enough, he went Devoted loyalty— a loyalty that leaCs a to Spain, laid his plans before the king, person to give up property, or life who named him Captain Gen era! of Peru, itself, to serve his sovereign. mother's A with leave to conquer what he could. love is devoted, for she thinks only of m 1532 he landed in Peru with 180 sol- her children, not of herself. diers, 27 of whom were cavalry, and on Characterized—that is, the character of hearing that Atahualpa was with his the Peruvian possesses enduring bravery army to the east of the Andes, he march- and devoted loyalty. ed thither. Then follows what is rela- Following the practice— It was also ted in the extract. the practice of the ancient Persians to In Ills desperation—in the dangerous flee from the battle-field when their lead- situation in which he found himself. er was killed. Possessing himself, &c.— Compare the Their terror . . crowd— T^eir is plural, conduct of Cortez toward "Montezuma." crowd is singular why should it not ; Our country- Spain. be i^s instead of their? Give the rule. Inca— the Peruvian name for king. The dreams— Pizarro had been told be- Eemorseless cruelty—literally, cruelty fore he invaded Peru, that gold was as for which he was not sorry; it reall3' plenty there as iron was in Spain ; and means, excessive cruelty, pitiless. gems were as numerous as pebbles; Dexterous audacity— boldness or dar- and gold and gems was the base pur- ing well carried out. pose for which the Spaniards came to Homage— promise of obedience and sub- Peru. mission to a superior. Pizzaro promised Baflles all description— cannot pos- to be a faithful subject of the Inca. sibly be fully described. Don TXdJlCisco-done fran-this-co ("thi" Wedges— simply masses of metal, gener- like "thi" in " tAin^r ")— that is, Sir ally squared roughly. Francis. "Don" is a title of honor Caciques— ca/i-see/cs ; native chiefs. among the Spaniards. "Pesos—pay-soks. Descendants of the sun-The Peruvians Commander-in-chief- Give the plural believed that their Incas were the child- of this word. ren, or descendants, of the god of the sun; the old Greeks and Romans thought For ambition should have —who of the Spaniards the rule over the land, &c. their kings were descendants of the Put to death— The Inca was condemned gods ; and before the English became to be burnt alive ; but, as he consented Christians they too believed that the an- to be baptized, the sentence was changed cestor of their kings was the god, Woden. to beheading. — — Palanquin pal-an-Jceen the litter on Puppet—This word means here a person which the Inca was carried by his at- with no will of his own, doing just what tendants. Dominican order of monks friar — do-min-ic-an called after St. Dominic; — an another wants him to do ; just as a boy's " dancing-jack" is made to dance by pulling a string or wire. " "—a monk—literally, "brother." friar Worse than all— The construction la, Pope had .... Spain— In 1493, the * the Spaniards quarrelled among them- Pope, Alexander VI. in order to prevent , selves, which was worse than all '; the quarrels between the Spanish and Por- antecedent of " which " is the clause— tuguese arising from their discoveries, * the Spaniards &c. ' granted to the Spaniards all new coun- Chazcas— cAa^A-ccw; Biego-dee-a-go tries west of the meridian 300 miles west in English, James.
    • CONQUEST OF WALES. 13 CONQUEST OF WALES. NOTK.— It may be as well at the outset to say, that the greater part of this extract isuntrue, and slanders the king. Teachers must call particular attention to this fact See Green's " Short History of the English People," but especially E. A. Freeman's " Life of Edward I." Hebrews—The Jews in England in these times, and Edward even went to Ches- early days were not under the protection ter, the nearest town to Llewyllyn's of the law ; and it was customary for a new home, to satisfy him ; but all to no pur- king, on coming to the throne, to pub- pose. Llewellyn was conquered and lish a proclamation sayin" that he took treated most (generously by Edward. the Jews under his protection ; for this, Five years after this, David, Llewellyn's they had to pay a tax. They were the brother, revolted and massacred' an chief money-lenders of the time, and de- English garrison ; and it was in t^war manded a very high per cent., often as that followed on this act that the vVelsh high as sixty-five; this made them hat«d; prince was killed and Wales annexed to besides they used to cut (clip) pieces off England. the coins, thus making money bad; they Suzerain— one who is above or lord over were accused of murdering Christian another. children too. At last, in 1290, Edward People— the verb must be supplied, and was forced by the outcries ofthe nation "Welsh'" is the subject. to banish them ; he had tried very often Indomitable- unconquerable. to protect them, and is not to be blamed Soothsayer—Tliis word z formed from for their expulsion from England. The sooth," truth and " sayei," one who '* ; Jews did not return to England till ;— a prophet. saj's about 1650, and even then ministers and Merlin— this was the gieat prophet and lawyers petitioned Cromwell to expel magician of the Welsh ; he lived during them ; but he was too noble, too grand the latter part of the 5th century. It a man, to do that. was said he prophesied, that "when Nearly a thousand, &c—at the con- money became round, a Welsh prince quest of Britain by the English, begun should reign over Britain ;" the first about A. D. 450. part had now been done, and the Welsh Scots .... Saxon— It must be remem- were trying to get the second part of bered that the Highlanders only were the prophecy fulfilled by rebelling. See the real Scots ; the Lowlanders were Mr. [Tennyson's "Vivien," in the "Idylls pure English, or Saxon, as the extract of the King." calls them. See " Green's History " in Inspired— Parse this word. reference to the Scots, reign of Edw. Bards—This story of Edward's treatment Observed— What is the object of this of the bards is not true ; Edward was verb ? too wise and kind-hearted to do such a Marauding excursions— raids, as we thing. often say. Cruelty— Mr. Freemtn shows fully that Warders . . march— that is, " Guar- . Edward was the very opposite of dians " of the boundary between Eng- cruel. Once he exclaimed, "3/ at/ show land and Wales ; icarder is the same as — mercy ? why, I will do that for a dog guarder ; march, is the same as mark if he seeks niy grace !" The old chron- or boundary. icler says of him " This prince was : Principle .... system—The principle slow to all manner of strife, discreet meant here is, that if a vassal (or subject and wise, and true of his word." His lord) was called to appear before the motto was "Serva pactem— keep your king and he refused, his lands were de- word." clared forfeited to the king and he him- Oflce Of bard— Explain carefully the self a traitor. author's meaning here. Superiority— Tliis superiority was ob- Medium— means, or way there were no : tained by King Offa and acknowledged newspapers in those days, and but few by Welsh princes when there was a books. Eowerful king on the English throne ; Gray— an English poet born in 1716 and lewellyn never denied it ; but at this died in 1771. He wrote " Elegy in a time the Welsh were excited and thought Country Churchyard," and many fine they could gain their independence. "Odes." The immediate trouble that led to war Editors .... opposition— In our days was Llewellyn's refusal, under various the editors write articles in their papers pretexts, to come to Edward's corona- on the doings of the government, or on tion ; he was summoned seven or eight
    • 14 NOTES TO THE FOURTH READER. any other subject for the information Haughty—high, lofty. (French, *'hauV of the people. Some papers always -high.) speak ag:ainst what the government Conway— in the north does, and so are said to be in opposition. So these Welsh bards always spoke Haggard — here means, grief : it is generally applied to the of Wales. sunken with against the government of Edward, and thus were in opposition, like the news- — face pale with grief, or careworn ; not necessarily thin. papers. Fire —earnestness, eagerness. Seize .... wait — these verbs are in the subjunctive mood. Deep sorrows— The bard played notes that showed the deepest sorrow. Ruthless— pitiless: the bard wishes that ruin may seize Edward and his army. — Desert cave barren, deserted cave; the caves are in thecliflf, and the torrent Conquest's crimson wing— Edward I. is the Conway ; the echoes in the caves had made a conquest of Wales, and and the sighing among the branches of the?e was a great deal of bloodshed the oaks threaten vengeance on Edward. hence the word crimson. The poet Vocal no more—After the overthrow of seems to represent victory (or conquest) Wales (Cambria's fatal day) the woods as a bird (say an eagle) with bloody and caves no longer resounded with the wings hovering over Edward's army, or music of the bards,— they were too sad perhaps perching on his standards, as to sing. poets sometimes say. Hoel— a young Welsh hero slain in the battle of Cattraeth, in the year 570, in They mock . . . state—" idle state which the English of Northumberland means a mere useless show, or display of pomp ; "mock the air" simply means defeated the Welsh. that the display of power had no real Happily— modifies "assumed." strength init to protect the descendants Instead of—The object of this preposi- tion is the phrase following. ofEdward from the woes that awaited them, or Edward himself from the tor- Share, &C.— The author means, that the ments of a guiltj conscience. Welsh have become completely mixed up with the English, and have done Hauberk— armour for the neck, but in- their share towards gaining whatever cluding the chest too this armour was ; glory England has obtained in war or often made of links fitting closely in peace ; whereas, if Wales had gained together— ^zois^ed mail. its independence, it is so small a country Virtues—bravery, honesty, truthfulness, that it would have been of no importance mercy; a good statesman, lawyer and in Europe ; just as a tree growing in the soldier. shade of a very large one, is poor and Cambria— Wales. weak and of but little use. HERMANN, THE DELIVERER OF GERMANY. Tiberius— ti-&^-ree-tw—the step-son of representing the power of the magis- the Roman emperor Augustus he ; trates to punish by death, and the rods was for some time commander of the to punish otherwise. Roman army along the Rhine. On the — Symbol The German free-men were death of Augustus in A.D. 14, Tiberius never punished corporally, though became emperor. slaves were ; these fasces were a sign to gnlntillVLS—quin-til-ee-us. them that they were in the power of Xtorted — Latin, torqueo — to twist or others who could treat them as they wring —as money were wrung out of if — saw fit a thing most galling to the them. This was the usual way with high-spirited Germans. the Romans ; and when a general had Inly chafed—As chafing hurts the body, conquered a country he came home to so these things hurt their mind- Rome enormously wealthy, no matter angered them. how deeply he may have been in debt Hostages—The Germans promised to before. The Romans stirred up wars obey the Romans but the latter, fear- ; for this very purpose of plunder. ing that the promise might be broken, Pettifoggers— a class of lawyers who took the children of the German nobles undertake only little cases, no matter to Rome, so that, if the Germans re- how mean or tricky they are. belled, those children would be put to rasces—/(fe-sees—these were always car- death if the Romans chose ; as the ried before the magistrates ; the axe parents would not like this, they would
    • THE EUKNING OF MOSCOW. 15 try to make their fellow-countrymen Peoples— The plural of people means dif- keep their promise, so that their chil- ferent races or nations. dren might be safe. Legion— a division in the Roman amry, Yoke—The yoke is an emblem of servi- varying from 4000 to 6000 men. tude,—as an ox is yoked when serving Couriers- literally, runners — messen- man. gers. Draining, &C.—taking from the Ger- Segestes—se-gds-tees. mans the treasure and property of all Cherusci cher-us-ci their country lay ; kinds, and making the young men along both sides of the Weser. become Roman soldiers. Principality— a country ruled by a Dissimulation— pretending one thing prince. while meaning another. JAjp-pe—lip-pe —(" e " as " u " in " cut "). map of western Germany. See Napoleon— (see History of England);— the great army he took into Russia, Entrenched—literally, "in a trench"; for instance, was largely composed of but here the word means, that they Germans. formed some sort of fortifications, of trees, &c. When the Romans subdued a country Trophies- proofs or signs of victor}'. they made numbers of the young men become Roman soldicrs,but would hardly Marhod— He ha,d been a hostage at ever allow them to stay near home, for Rome and was educated by Augustus. fear that when these men had learned He extended his kingdom from Ba- the Roman way of fighting they would varia nearly as far as Hungary. At a rebel and beat their masters. latertime he was suspected by the other Gennan princes, driven from his To lay, &C.— this infinitive, and "to country, and died at Rome. make," and "to inflame," are in appo- Marcomanni— that is, "men of the sition to "msc." mark" or boundary. See note on Altars and neartllS— that is, their re- " Warders of the March," under "Con- ligion, home, possessions— everything quest of Wales. dear to them. Barbarians—The Romans and Greeks Unanimously — Latin, '* unus •' —one used to call all other nations "bar- " animius — the mind ; with one mind. barians." Thus, in the Acts of the Woden— or Odin, as the Danes called Apostles, the inhabitants of Melita, him our *' Wednesday " is " Woden's where Paul was shipwrecked, are called day." ; ^ barbarians. THE BURNINft OF MOSCOW. Signal —complete, remarkable. The only Czar— a king. literally, The Czar was excuse for this war was that the Rus- unable to oppose the great French sians would not obey Napoleon's will army, (see note on Hermann), and so in everything,— more especially in his took the plan of destroying the country endeavor to crush Britain. He was before them, so that the French might determined to make all Europe do as get no food. he wished. In order, &c.—this is in construction Elements— Formerly earth, air, fire, and with "were removed." water, were called the elements that — Exchange— the building where mer- is, they were the simple things, not chants meet to transact busines.s. made up of others. Chemistry haa proved that this notion is untrue. Presentiment — Latin "pre" before; Till Napoleon invaded " sentio " to feel. The French felt that, Child of victory- Russia he was almost alwaj's victorious. as they had been the cause of this Vast host— nearly 500,000 soldiers ; only great destruction, vengeance would fall a few thousands returned. Napoleon on them. intended to stay the winter in Moscow, Elfects— goods. the old capital, and conquer the rest Natural feelings— feelings of nature— of Russia the next summer. that is, regard for those who were dear Parapet— see Chambers' dictionary. to them, parents, children, friends, &c. Muscovite - Russian ; Russia is some- Equally brutish— The French were so times called Muscov}'. wild with their success that they did So deserted that, &c.— The clause after not care what acts they performed ; the "that" is adverbial to "deserted." Russians wore so full of misery that
    • 16 NOTES TO THE FOURTH READER. they took no heed of anything ;—both to row in the galleys— a large, flat- were like brutes. bottomed boat, used on the Mediter- Sutlers—provision dealers who follow ranean. armies and sell food, &c,, to the soldiers. Incendiary criminals—the prisoners Galley-slaves —These were criminals who, on being released, were to fire the who, as a punishment, were condemned city. THE BATTLE OF THERMOPYLAE. Raleigh— See note to "Voyage of the precipice descending straight down to Golden Hind.*' the sea. Xerxes—zerx-ees— celebrated king of a, Leonidas — le-dn-id-as — Sparta always Persia, who invaded Greece in 480, B.C. had two kings. for the purpose of annexing it to his Sparta-a city in Laconia, in the Pelopon- empire. nesus (now Morea) famous for its war- Hellespont— now the Dardanelles. riors. — Thrace now the east and central part Lacedemonians— Ids-S-de-mM-ee-ans— ofTurkey south of the Danube. Look Spartans. up on the map of Ancient Greece all the Tepeatae—fej-e-a-fee—people of TegSa, a places mentioned. city in Arcadia in the central part of — Leaving in construction witli "I," Peloponnesus. — — below. Mantineans man-tin-^e-ana ^in the How .... multitudes— one objects of "leaving::" Greece " being another. of "the lake , the . . same country as Tegea. Peloponnesians — pel-o-pon-nei-si-ans. Thebans— people of Thebes, a large city LiSSUS— in Turkey, west of the Maritza. in north-central modern Greece. Pissyrus— a small town in Thrace. Thespians— people of Thespise, a little Some old writers say that Xerxes took town south of Thebes. over 5,000,000 people with him; it would Locrians—people of Locris, the country need a river to supply them all. It is round Thermopylae. best not to believe the story too fully. One handful — We say now "a" handful. Accidents— occurrences, circumstances. So might— "«o" refers to "ignorant." Renegade— One who gives up his party At first— Supply "he had an encounter," (or principles) and go«s over to the other &c. we would now say, "in the first ; side. place,'' or "first." Let upon the hacks— attack them in Thermovy^ss—ther-nidp-il-lee; that is, the rear. — "hot gates ;" there being hot springs •Hadnot, &c.— Supply "if" before this. near this passage through the moun- Make good— defend, keep. tains. Thermopylae is in the northern Out of their strength— that is, out of part of Greece. their fortification. Thessaly — the north-east country of Greece ; now, the southern province of Virtue good man — From ; it the Latin, "vir"—a man, here means bravery an — Turkey. old use of the word. Manhood comes Sometime— formerly, once. nearest this fild meaning. PhOCians —people of Phocis, in central World of men— See the size of Xerxes Greece,-noio northern Greece ; the cele- army, above. brated city of Delphi was in their Doubt what inconvenience—to fear country. that he might be put into great danger. Wall With gates— that h, right across Such as had not— "as" is aj-elative the path. On one side of the narrowest pronoun here. part of the path the mountains rose high Singular -remarkable. and steep ; on the other there was a Dieneces— dj:-en-e-ces. THE DESTRUCTION OF POMPEIL Vora.-^eVL~pom-p6e-ee-i. Senate— the council, or parliament, of Watering-place— that is, a place to Rome. The name " senate " comes which people resort for a length of from the Latin word " senex," an old time for the purpose of bathinq-, either man ; because at first the councillors at the sea-side, as at Tadousac, Cacouna, were all old men. or Murray Bay ; or where there are Villas— generally, pretty little country mineral springs, as at Saratoga in New houses owned "by people linng in the York State, north of Albany. city.
    • THE DESTKUCTION OF POMPEII. 17 Broils—quarrels. formed of small, square tiles, arranged Politics— This is one of those words that in various patterns ; this, however, is have no singular form. Mention tesselated work, properly. others of the same kind. Archives— ar-A-iues— records, papers of Frescoes— pictures made with a peculiar public importance. kind of paint upon freahly laid plaster Cabinet— generally, a small, private the colors sink into the plaster and room. thus become durable. 'Antiquities— relics, remnants of a past Then as beautiful- Parse " then." age. Gala dresses— showy, bright dresses, Peristyle- a court, or square (parse) ; or holiday dresses. with pillars on three or four sides ; a Vase— Stfe dictionary. We sometimes room surrounded with pillars. hear a very affected pronunciation of While from behind—" While " is here a this word —"vawze"; it is to be hoped conjunction merely, equivalent to "and," that no pupil will imitate it, for it is in not introducing a dependent clause. accordance with neither French nor Legends— wild or romantic stories of Latin, nor yet English. The best the olden times. authorities are divided in their pro- Achilles Briseis— a-*iZ-Ze«— nunciation between " vaae " ("a" as in bri-s6e-is. Achilles was the most fa- "far") and " vace." mous of all the old Greek legendary Like— This word is never a preposition ; heroes Briseis was a beautiful maiden ; it is either an adjective or an adverb. who was made captive by Achilles, but After the verb "to be," it is an adjec- who was taken from him again. The tive, and the preposition "to" is to be story is told by the Greek poet Homer. supplied before the noun or pronoun — Europa was the beautiful daughter of after it. If, after "like," the verb Agenor, king of Phoenicia, carried off going before it is really understood by the god Jupiter. again, then "like" is an adverb if ; Amazons— These were a fabulous, war- not, it is an adjective. John skates like nation of women, renowned for like Henry ;— that is, like Henry skates their great beauty, living in the nor- — an adverb. thern part of Asia Minor battles with ; Belgravia—the most fashionable part them formed a favorite subject with of London. Greek and Roman painters. Acme — the highest point. Museum— mw-zJe-um a building (or — To find, &c.— u^ed adverbially with room) for containing curiosities or astonUihed. works of art. At Naples there is a Vestibule— a hall or porch in the front museum especially taken up with ob- part of a building. jects from Pompeii. — Impluvium a Latin word, meaning a Arabesq.ues — delicate fancy work of large basin in the first room on enter- fruits, flowers, &c but not of animals, , ing a Roman house, into which the — a kind of ornament brought into use rain-watei ran (" impluvo "—to rain by the old Saracens or Arabs ;—henc9 into) it also, as here, meant the room ; the name. as well as the basin. Bronze— a hard metal composed of cop- Household gods—Every Roman house- per and tin melted together ;—about hold had its gods, who, it was believed, nine parts of copper to one of tin ; the took especial care of it ; no one wor- color is yellowish. shipped these gods but the members of Tapestry— hangings of cloth, of wool, this family. See the story of Micah in or of worked with various figures ; silk, Judges xvii. they were generally placed around the Clients—These were not slaves, nor yet walls fastened up, or on frames that full Roman citizens ; they were at- could be moved about the room. tached to some Roman citizen— their Reclined— In ancient daj's people did patron-yfho protected them ; they ren- not sit at table as we do, but lay on dered various kinds of service in return. couches, supporting themselves on one — — Tablinum tab-Un-um (explained in elbow ; they ate with their fingers, not the extract). having knives and forks. Mosaic — mo-za-ic — pictures formed by Libation— wine or other liquor potired means of little i)iece3 of various colored out as a kind of sacrifice to the gods. stones, gems, glass, metal, &c., wedged Bacchus- &acZf-JIf««—the god of wine firmly together. The Italians are es- among the old Greeks and Romans. pecially skilled in this work,— imitating Horace—a famous Roman poet about the most delicately tinted flowers, or the time of Christ; he wrote a great the most gaudy insects. Sometimes deal in praise of wine, as did also the this word is applied to pavements Greek poet Anacreon (an-ic-re-on) ;—
    • 18 NOTES TO THE FOURTH READER. the latter died about 478 before Christ. Marks counters— it was once Palled— satisfied, or rather, more than supposed that Pompeii was overwhelmed satisfied,— sickened. with lava,— melted rock— from Vesu- Consuls—These were the highest oflScers vius; but pupils will see that every- or magistrates of ancient Rome; they thing made of wood, and all animals were elected every year the pro- ; would have been burned up, if this consuls we would now call ex-consuls, were true ; it was ashes and a deluge of as they had been consuls previously ; mud from the mountain that covered they governed distant parts of the the city. Roman empire for (pro) the consuls. Lurking . . . images— There was no end Gambled away—-See note on "ner- to the deceptions practiced on the idol- mann" worshippers by the priests. Like a pine tree— dark and spreading. Mysteries— Each temple had a sacred Is " like " an adjective here ? part into which only the priests ccald Scoria — cinders from volcanoes ; pumice go ; the figures painted in them repre- (ptim-iss) — a stone made and po- light sented some mystery or doctrine of rus by the gases of volcanoes ; it is the religion. gray in color, and lighter than water. Ghost, &c.— that is, the people who Catastrophe— Before this time Vesuvius were so civilized have passed away, we had never been known as a volcano. cannot see them ; but we can tell by In the four following lines " died " has what they have left behind them, what to be supplied in several places. they were ;— it gives us the shadow, as Began to dig— it is said that some per- it were, of the time past. sons were digging a well, and came to — Note. Two other towns, Herculaneum the slated roof of a house ; this led to and Stabise (bee-ee) were destroyed at the a general excavation. same time as Pompeii. TAKING OF GIBRALTAR. Gibraltar— This name means * the rock Hesse Darmstadt—ft^s-se ("e" as in of Tarik,' a Moorish chief tian who invad- " her") darm-stat —a country in Ger- ed Spain in the 8th century. many. Quarrel for its throne— Louis XIV., Isthmus—the neck of land joining Gib- king of France, was very anxious that raltar to the main land. the crown of Spain should come to him- Mole— a massive pier projecting out into self or to some one of his family, so that the water to break its force, thus form- he might have control of Spain as ing a sort of harbor on the opposite side. well as of France. William III., of — Pinnace See note on " Cartier at Hoche- England, feared that if Louis should get laga." his wish France would be too powerful Redoubt— a sort of fortification made of and would want to subdue other nations. earth. So William supported the claim of Capitulate— surrender, generally on cer- Charles (here called Charles III.) a son tain conditions. of the emperor of Germany, some of the Drawn Battle— that is, neither could Spaniards favored Charles,others favored claim the victory. Philip the grandson of Louis ; when the Leaving— Parse these two "leavings." old king of Spain was Oying he left the Villadarias-vti-Za-rfar-ee-as .-a grandee, crown to Philip ; and then war broke or noble of Spain. out. See " War of the Spanish succes- BaXtaMons—iat-tdl-yun .-a body of foot sion," in the History of England. soldiers (infantry) varying from 600 to 1000 men. Following reign- Queen Anne's. Frigates— smaller men of war with one — Council of war called together his chief officers and planned what was best covered deck for guns ; sometimes any small vessel. See Sir Humphrey Gilbert's to be done. frigate. Tetuan— a seaport in the northern part Forlorn hope— a body of soldiers sent of Morocco. on a desperate duty ; storming a fort- — Disproportionate The soldiers were not nearly so numerous as they ought ress, &c. Precipice —a perpendicular cliff, from to have been, seeing how importantthe which, if a person fell, he would go place was. head-first. Marquis de Saluces—mar-Me day sal- Transports— vessels for taking soldiers oo-thes. from one place to another.
    • TAKING OF GIBRALTAE. 19 Convoyed—guarded, accompanied. Its value . . . capture— This sentence is not clear. Perhaps we are to take the English and Dutch colors— that is, words after " than " to mean from what that had English and Dutch flags flying:. it was by those who captured the place." The Dutch were aUies of the English in The whole sentence might read "Its : this war. value .... and the nation froin what That of sir, &c.— Parse " that." it was (by the victors) at the period of Exertions of their boats-The sailors in its capture." the small boats towed the vessels away. usual, when a vic- King's lines— intrenchments, fortifica- Vote of thanks— It is tory has been gained, for parliament tions. to pass a vote of thanks to the army or To be compelled—used adverbially with navy, as the case may be. "vigorously." This sentence is rather QuadlTiple alliance~an alliance of four. loose. Say rather "but were so vigor- This one was between England, Holland, ously .... garrison, that they were, France, and Germany, against Spain, Sweden, and Russia, in 1718. Tesse— <es-sai/. Doubt that—The clause after "that" is Formally— in the manner or form usual. adjective to "doubt."
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