Sustainable use of Baltic Sea natural resources based on ecological engineering and biogas production - a good example on land and water management
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Sustainable use of Baltic Sea natural resources based on ecological engineering and biogas production - a good example on land and water management

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AACIMP 2010 Summer School lecture by Fredrik Gröndahl. "Sustainable Development" stream. "Sustainable Use of Baltic Marine Resources and the Production of Biogas" course....

AACIMP 2010 Summer School lecture by Fredrik Gröndahl. "Sustainable Development" stream. "Sustainable Use of Baltic Marine Resources and the Production of Biogas" course.
More info at http://summerschool.ssa.org.ua

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Sustainable use of Baltic Sea natural resources based on ecological engineering and biogas production - a good example on land and water management Sustainable use of Baltic Sea natural resources based on ecological engineering and biogas production - a good example on land and water management Presentation Transcript

  • Sustainabel use of Baltic Sea natural resources based on ecological engineering and biogas production - a good exampel on land and water management Fredrik Gröndahl, Industrial Ecology, KTH SE-100 44 Stockholm, Sweden Fredrik Gröndahl (fgro@kth.se) Industrial Ecology KTH, Stockholm, Sweden Fredrik Gröndahl, Industrial Ecology, KTH
  • Fredrik Gröndahl, Industrial Ecology, KTH
  • • Eutrophication – the most serious environmental problem of the Baltic Sea • Action plan by the Helsinki Comission (HELCOM) – 21 000 tonnes N, 290 tonnes P – Good ecological status 2021 Fredrik Gröndahl, Industrial Ecology, KTH
  • Sustainable use of Baltic sea biomass resources based on ecological retrieval of biomass (reed and algae) for production of energy and new innovative products (including fertilizers) with an associated waste stream. Blue squares indicate technology dependent processes and the yellow clouds shows the sustainability and feasibility aspects. Gröndahl et. al. 2008 Fredrik Gröndahl, Industrial Ecology, KTH
  • Objectives of the study • Compare the efficiency of reed and macro algae harvesting and mussel farming with respect to nutrient removal from the Baltic Sea. • Provide and compare energy budgets for the full process chain from harvesting of biomass to biogas production for reed, macro algae and mussels. Fredrik Gröndahl, Industrial Ecology, KTH
  • Rivers 706 000 tons/y Agriculture Traffic Atmospheric N-Fixation by deposit Cyanobacteria 264 000 tons/y 400 000 tons/y Baltic Sea Traffic 909 000 tons/y Sediments and Biomass Point Sources Loss 39 000 tons/y Denitriphication Waste water 500 000 tons/y treatment
  • Fredrik Gröndahl, Industrial Ecology, KTH
  • Figure 1: Nodularia spumigena (Helcom, 2004) dw 16 - OP dw 16 - N dw 22 - GPT dw 19 - N dw 20 - OPB Figure 11: The forming fabrics after being pulled through algal rich water
  • Forming fabric Figure 7: Forming fabric is Figure 6: Outline of an oil boom with attached to the oil boom skirt forming fabric attached
  • Fredrik Gröndahl, Industrial Ecology, KTH
  • Reed • Grows as large monospecific stands along the Baltic coast of Sweden • Swedish total reed area: 100 000 ha • Biomass above ground in the middle, and south of Sweden in august: 1 kg dw/m2 Fredrik Gröndahl, Industrial Ecology, KTH
  • Aquatic Plant Harvester RS 2000 • Floating device with front conveyors • Makes harvest of water plants possible (i.e. both algae and reed) Fredrik Gröndahl, Industrial Ecology, KTH
  • Algae • Heavy algal blooms and growth due to surplus of nutrients, and internal distribution of N and P. • Harvestable amount of algae along the South coast of Sweden: 43 000 tonnes dry weight • Collection take place in the water (within an area 100 m from the coastline) • Assumptions of quantities per hectare is based on the present collection performed by the municipality of Trelleborg Fredrik Gröndahl, Industrial Ecology, KTH
  • Fredrik Gröndahl, Industrial Ecology, KTH
  • Fredrik Gröndahl, Industrial Ecology, KTH
  • Fredrik Gröndahl, Industrial Ecology, KTH
  • Fredrik Gröndahl, Industrial Ecology, KTH
  • Fredrik Gröndahl, Industrial Ecology, KTH
  • Fredrik Gröndahl, Industrial Ecology, KTH
  • Fredrik Gröndahl, Industrial Ecology, KTH
  • Fredrik Gröndahl, Industrial Ecology, KTH
  • Mussels • Grow on hard substrates down to dephts of 30 m, prefers salinity above 18 PSU. • Reduced growth rate, and size compared to the North Sea (3 cm in Baltic Sea). • Dominate the Baltic Sea – 90 % of the animal biomass growing on hard bottoms • Clean water – Filter feeding through their gills – Feed on phytoplankton – Filtration rate: 1-4 liters per hour Fredrik Gröndahl, Industrial Ecology, KTH
  • Long line mussel farming • Rope wires are held up by floating barrels • Mussel lines are hanged from the rope wires • The larvae settle on the mussel rigs from where they feed on foodstuffs that naturally exists in the surrounding water. • The mussels are harvested through scraping the mussels off the lines by a machine Fredrik Gröndahl, Industrial Ecology, KTH
  • Photo; Pia & Karl Norling
  • Kalmarsund, 14 month The biomass after 1 year was 4 kg m-1 or 16 kg for a long line. Fredrik Gröndahl, Industrial Ecology, KTH
  • Fritt val av foder Kokt musselkött Vanligt foder
  • Kompostering av musslor
  • Biogas • Biogas is formed when volatile solids are broken down anaerobically by methane forming microorganisms. • Biogas mainly consists of methane (50-60 volume-%) and CO2 (25-40 volume-%) (hydrogen gas, sulphur-hydrogen, and steam) • Formation occurs in four steps – Methane formation • Sensitive step • High concentration of ammonia, phosphorus, potassium, heavy metals, sulphur and certain fatty acids can restrain the sensitive methane forming bacteria • Different factors have influence on the biogas production, such as temperature and technique of the biogas production process, pre- treatment of the substrate and chemical composition of the substrate Fredrik Gröndahl, Industrial Ecology, KTH
  • System boundaries Fredrik Gröndahl, Industrial Ecology, KTH
  • Nutrient removal efficiency • Comparison of nutrient contents of the three biomasses, based on living weight • Nitrogen content of mussels > 3 times higher • Phosphorus content of mussels > 2 times higher • Harvest of mussels is most efficient according to nutrient removal Fredrik Gröndahl, Industrial Ecology, KTH
  • 2500 En erg y co n ten t [M J/to n n e w w ] 2000 1500 1000 500 0 Algae Reed Mussels Sludge Fredrik Gröndahl, Industrial Ecology, KTH
  • Energy demands 600 Energy demands [MJ/tonne ww] 500 400 300 200 100 0 Algae Reed Mussels Fredrik Gröndahl, Industrial Ecology, KTH
  • Energy balance 6.E+05 Net energy benefit [MJ/tonne N] 5.E+05 4.E+05 3.E+05 2.E+05 1.E+05 0.E+00 Algae Reed Mussels Fredrik Gröndahl, Industrial Ecology, KTH
  • Conclusions • Reed has the highest net energy benefit, followed by macro algae. • Blue mussels are not suitable for biogas production, but are better than reed or algae when the ambition is to remove nitrogen or phosphorus from the Baltic Sea. • Biogas production from reed and macro algae may be important in the future but need further investigations. Fredrik Gröndahl, Industrial Ecology, KTH
  • Advantage with Biomanupulation and the production of Biogas • Biogas means less CO2 and is thus an important contributor to decreasing climate change. • The establishment of wetlands will stimulate biological diversity in the region and will deal with the nutrient load from surrounding farm land. • Harvesting of the reed belt will remove the nutrients from the wetland area. • Harvesting of macro algae will remove nutrients and heavy metals from the Baltic Sea and improve local beaches for recreation purposes. • The removal of Cyanobacteria will remove nutrients from the Baltic Sea, but perhaps the most important contribution is that it will improve recreational value in the region. • When the shallow coastal waters are cleansed from oxygen-depleting, decaying accumulated macro algae, large areas will again become available to sustain the growth of juvenile fish.