Neurotransmittersystemsof the brain and their functions<br />
Neurotransmitter, drugsandbrainfunction// Ed. ByR.Webster. Oxford University Press, London. 2001.<br />J.R.Cooper, F.E. Bl...
Allbiologicalfunctionsaretheoutputofcomplexnetworkofinteractionsofneurons.<br />Inspiteofthefactthatsimilarspikesaretheout...
Schematicrepresentationofaexcitatorysynapseinthebrain<br />
Schematic representation of a neuron<br />Differentsynaptic arrangements  of a neuron :<br />axo-dendritic,  <br />B) axo-...
What is neurotransmitter? <br />Neurotransmitter is a substance which is released at the end of a nerve fiber by the arriv...
PostsynapticeventsIonicbasisforexcitatorypostsynapticpotentials (EPSPs) andinhibitorypostsynapticpotentials (IPSPs)<br />
Theactionpotential: ionicconductancesunderlyingtheactionpotentialrecordedfromasquidaxon<br />
Transmitterrelease<br />
Ionotropicreceptor<br />
Transmembranetopologyofthesubunitsofthreedifferentfamiliesofionchannelreceptorsdenotedas 4-TM, 3-TM and 2-TM receptors<br />
Metabotropicreceptor<br />
Metabotropicreceptor<br />Four classes G –protein are known:<br /><ul><li> Gs – activates adenylyl cyclase
Gi – inhibits adenylyl cyclase
Gq – activates phospholipase-C
Go – inhibits voltage-depended Ca2+ and K+ channels</li></li></ul><li>Cholinergicpathways<br />BM – nucleusbasalismagnocel...
Themodel of a acetylcholine synapse <br />ACh – acetylcholine<br />ChAT - cholineacetyltransferase<br />AchE - acetylcholi...
Nicotinicreceptorofacetilcholine<br />
Schematicrepresentationofmuscarinicreceptor<br />
Whatdoesacetylcholinedointhebrain?<br />Acetylcholinehelps to regulate: <br />movement<br />cortical excitability<br />aro...
Thedistributionofnoradrenerdicneuronsinthebrain<br />
Brainareasreceivingaprominentnoradrenergicinnervation<br />
Model of a noradrenaline synapse illustrating the presynaptic and postsynaptic events<br />NE –  noradrenaline; <br />DA –...
Subdivisionsofalpha- andbeta-adrenoceptorfamilies<br />Adrenoceptor<br />alpha-                   beta-<br />alpha-1      ...
Whatisthefunctionofnoradrenalineinthebrain? <br />influence arousal<br />selectiveattention<br />emotionalbehaviour<br />
Dopamine neuronal pathways<br />AMYG, amygdala; CN, caudate nucleus; MFB, medial forebrain bundle; NcA, nucleus accumbers;...
Schematic model of a dopaminergic nerve terminal<br />
Schematic diagram of the anatomical arrangement of D1and D2 receptors<br />
Centralfunctionsofdopamine<br />motoractivity<br />psychoses<br />rewardandreinforcement<br />
Dopamineandmotorfunction<br />
5-HT neuronalpathways<br />
Raphenucneiprojectionstothebrainregions<br />
Thesynthesisof 5-HT<br />
Model of a serotonin (5-HT) synapse<br />AC – adenylylcyclase; <br />DAG, - diacylglycerol; <br />IPS – inositoltriphospha...
Essentialfeaturesof 5-HT receptorsubtypes<br />5-HT1A - thiractivationinduces hypothermia, increases food intakeand reduce...
Whatdoes 5-HT dointhebrain?<br />5-HT helps to regulate: <br />mood <br />anxiety <br />sleep<br />body temperature<br />a...
Differenttypesof GABA neuronsin CNS<br />
Fastinhibitory GABA transmition<br />
Chlorinedistributionandthe GABAAresponse<br />
Schematic model of the GABAA receptor structure<br />
Structureof GABAA receptor<br />Subunitcombinationschangereceptorfunction<br />
Metabotropic GABA  receptors<br />
Pathways for glutamate utilization and metabolism<br />
Receptorsofglutamate<br />Ionotropic<br />–AMPA (predominantlyNa+/ K+ conductance)<br />– Kainate (Na+/K+ /Ca2+conductance...
Ionotropicreceptorsofglutamate<br />
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Neurotransmitter systems of the brain and their functions

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AACIMP 2011 Summer School. Neuroscience Stream. Lecture by Evgenia Belova.

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  • Neurotransmitter systems of the brain and their functions

    1. 1. Neurotransmittersystemsof the brain and their functions<br />
    2. 2. Neurotransmitter, drugsandbrainfunction// Ed. ByR.Webster. Oxford University Press, London. 2001.<br />J.R.Cooper, F.E. Bloom, R.H.Roth. ThebiochemicalbasisofNeuropharmacology. / Oxford University Press, USA; 2007.<br />Е.И.Белова Основы нейрофармакологии Аспект Пресс. Москва. 2010.<br />
    3. 3. Allbiologicalfunctionsaretheoutputofcomplexnetworkofinteractionsofneurons.<br />Inspiteofthefactthatsimilarspikesaretheoutputofanyneuron, theresultoftheirteamworkisthecomplexofphysiologicalandpsychologicalconditionsandfunctions.<br />2.Differentneuronsinteractbysynapsecontacts.<br />3. Theinformationtransmitioninthechemicalsynapsesiscarriedoutbyneurotransmitters.<br />
    4. 4. Schematicrepresentationofaexcitatorysynapseinthebrain<br />
    5. 5. Schematic representation of a neuron<br />Differentsynaptic arrangements of a neuron :<br />axo-dendritic, <br />B) axo-somatic, <br />C) axo-axonic<br />D) dendro-dendritic. <br />
    6. 6. What is neurotransmitter? <br />Neurotransmitter is a substance which is released at the end of a nerve fiber by the arrival of a nerve impulse and by diffusing across the synapseor junction effects the transfer of the impulse to another nerve fiber. (or muscle fiber or some receptor).<br />Neuromodulatorsasopposedtoneurotrasmitters:<br />don't have their own effect, they can only modulate the effect of neurotransmitters. <br />Their actions are slow and can take hours.<br />Their receptors are not always placed in synapses, but on different membranes inside and outside the neuron.<br />
    7. 7. PostsynapticeventsIonicbasisforexcitatorypostsynapticpotentials (EPSPs) andinhibitorypostsynapticpotentials (IPSPs)<br />
    8. 8. Theactionpotential: ionicconductancesunderlyingtheactionpotentialrecordedfromasquidaxon<br />
    9. 9. Transmitterrelease<br />
    10. 10. Ionotropicreceptor<br />
    11. 11. Transmembranetopologyofthesubunitsofthreedifferentfamiliesofionchannelreceptorsdenotedas 4-TM, 3-TM and 2-TM receptors<br />
    12. 12. Metabotropicreceptor<br />
    13. 13. Metabotropicreceptor<br />Four classes G –protein are known:<br /><ul><li> Gs – activates adenylyl cyclase
    14. 14. Gi – inhibits adenylyl cyclase
    15. 15. Gq – activates phospholipase-C
    16. 16. Go – inhibits voltage-depended Ca2+ and K+ channels</li></li></ul><li>Cholinergicpathways<br />BM – nucleusbasalismagnocellularis; Ms – medialseptum; <br />DB – diagonalisbroco; MPO – magnocellularpreopticnucleus; OB – olfactorybulb; PPTN – pedunculo-pontinetegmentalnucleus<br />
    17. 17. Themodel of a acetylcholine synapse <br />ACh – acetylcholine<br />ChAT - cholineacetyltransferase<br />AchE - acetylcholine esterase <br />CT - plasma membrane transporterofcholine<br />VAT – vesicular amine transporter. <br />
    18. 18. Nicotinicreceptorofacetilcholine<br />
    19. 19. Schematicrepresentationofmuscarinicreceptor<br />
    20. 20. Whatdoesacetylcholinedointhebrain?<br />Acetylcholinehelps to regulate: <br />movement<br />cortical excitability<br />arousal and sleep<br />cognition and reward<br />
    21. 21. Thedistributionofnoradrenerdicneuronsinthebrain<br />
    22. 22. Brainareasreceivingaprominentnoradrenergicinnervation<br />
    23. 23. Model of a noradrenaline synapse illustrating the presynaptic and postsynaptic events<br />NE – noradrenaline; <br />DA – dopamine; <br />DOPA – 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine<br />AC – adenylylcyclase; AR - adrenergic receptor; DAG - diacylglycerol; IP3 – inositoltriphosphate; <br />PLC – phospholipase C; NET – plasma membrane noradrenaline transporter, VMAT – vesicular monoamine transporter.<br />
    24. 24. Subdivisionsofalpha- andbeta-adrenoceptorfamilies<br />Adrenoceptor<br />alpha- beta-<br />alpha-1 alpha-2beta-1 beta-2<br />
    25. 25. Whatisthefunctionofnoradrenalineinthebrain? <br />influence arousal<br />selectiveattention<br />emotionalbehaviour<br />
    26. 26. Dopamine neuronal pathways<br />AMYG, amygdala; CN, caudate nucleus; MFB, medial forebrain bundle; NcA, nucleus accumbers; OT, olfactory tubercle; PUT, putamen; SN, substantianigra.<br />
    27. 27. Schematic model of a dopaminergic nerve terminal<br />
    28. 28. Schematic diagram of the anatomical arrangement of D1and D2 receptors<br />
    29. 29. Centralfunctionsofdopamine<br />motoractivity<br />psychoses<br />rewardandreinforcement<br />
    30. 30. Dopamineandmotorfunction<br />
    31. 31. 5-HT neuronalpathways<br />
    32. 32. Raphenucneiprojectionstothebrainregions<br />
    33. 33. Thesynthesisof 5-HT<br />
    34. 34. Model of a serotonin (5-HT) synapse<br />AC – adenylylcyclase; <br />DAG, - diacylglycerol; <br />IPS – inositoltriphosphate; <br />PLC - phospholipase C; SERT – plasma membrane serotonin transporter; <br />VMAT – vesicular monoamine transporter<br />
    35. 35. Essentialfeaturesof 5-HT receptorsubtypes<br />5-HT1A - thiractivationinduces hypothermia, increases food intakeand reduces anxiety<br />5-HT2A Well-known agonist at these receptors is LSD. All atypical neuroleptics such as clozapine, risperidone, olanzepine act as antagonists of these receptors.<br />5-HT3 receptors are ionotropic. Theyare best known for their stimulation of transmitter release (DA, NA, ACh, GABA).<br />5-HT4 –agonists of this receptors are being explored as possible cognitive enhancers.<br />5-HT5– Many usedinclinicantipsychotic agentsand some antidepressant drugs havehigh-affinity to this receptor where they act as antagonists. <br />
    36. 36. Whatdoes 5-HT dointhebrain?<br />5-HT helps to regulate: <br />mood <br />anxiety <br />sleep<br />body temperature<br />appetite<br />sexual behavior<br />movement<br />intestinal motility<br />cardiovascular function <br />nociception<br />
    37. 37. Differenttypesof GABA neuronsin CNS<br />
    38. 38. Fastinhibitory GABA transmition<br />
    39. 39. Chlorinedistributionandthe GABAAresponse<br />
    40. 40. Schematic model of the GABAA receptor structure<br />
    41. 41. Structureof GABAA receptor<br />Subunitcombinationschangereceptorfunction<br />
    42. 42. Metabotropic GABA receptors<br />
    43. 43. Pathways for glutamate utilization and metabolism<br />
    44. 44. Receptorsofglutamate<br />Ionotropic<br />–AMPA (predominantlyNa+/ K+ conductance)<br />– Kainate (Na+/K+ /Ca2+conductance)<br />–NMDA(predomimantlyCa2+, lessNa+conductance) – potential-dependent<br />Playdistinctivefunctionalrole<br />Canbetargetsfordifferentdrugs<br />Metabotropic<br />–mGluRgroupsI, II andIII<br />Canbeimplicatedinmemory, pain, enxiety<br />
    45. 45. Ionotropicreceptorsofglutamate<br />
    46. 46. NMDA receptor<br />
    47. 47. Functionalrolesofglutamatereceptors<br />Epilepsy<br />Pain<br />Memory<br />Excitotoxicity<br />Development<br />
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