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Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments
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Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments

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AACIMP 2011 Summer School. Science of Global Challenges Stream. Lecture by Michele Guida.

AACIMP 2011 Summer School. Science of Global Challenges Stream. Lecture by Michele Guida.

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  • 09/09/11 L’indagine dell’Universo affascina. I metodi per studiarlo sono attraverso le particelle che riceviamo, la radiazione elettromagnetica, e sul posto. Sul posto direi che è difficile se si eccettua lo studio dell’Eliosfera e dei pianeti. Le particelle interferiscono col mezzo che attraversano, eccetto le particelle neutre (neutroni e neutrini) Inoltre la Terra è per fortuna nostra ben protetta: magnetosfera, atmosfera.. Questa protezione vale anche per la radiazione, ma parte di questa riesce a penetrare l’atmosfera. La radiazione ha tre caratteristiche: Intensità, spettro e polarizzazione. Dualismo onda-fotone. L’occhio umano è in grado di misurare due di queste tre grandezze: intensità e spettro solo nel visibile. Chi produce la radiazione? Ci sono le vere e propire sorgenti di luce e quelle sorgenti che si dicono secondarie.
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  • Radioactivity is defined as spontaneous nuclear transformations that result in new radioactive elements. There are three kinds of radiation. An Alpha particle is a high energetic helium nucleus ejected by the nuclei of some unstable atoms. These are large subatomic fragments consisting of 2 protons and 2 neutrons. They travel only a few inches through air and can easily be stopped with a sheet of paper. A Beta particle is an ordinary electron that is ejected from the nucleus of an unstable radioactive atom; this particle has a negative electrical charge and very small mass. Beta particles can travel a few feet through air and can be stopped with a few sheets of aluminum foil. Gamma rays are waves, not particles. Gamma rays (gamma photons) are emitted from the nucleus of some unstable (radioactive) atoms. Gamma photons are the most energetic photons in the electromagnetic spectrum. Gamma rays have a high penetrating power - it takes a thick sheet of metal such as lead, or concrete, to significantly reduce them. Gamma rays do not directly ionize other atoms, although they may cause atoms to emit other particles which will then cause ionization.
  • NORM is an acronym for Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material. NORM is any nuclide that is radioactive in its natural state (i.e., not man-made), but does not include source, by-products or special nuclear material. NORM has been present in the earth’s crust since its formation, is found in trace quantities everywhere and in the tissues of all living beings. There are over fifty naturally-occurring radio nuclides, the most common being Uranium, Thorium and Potassium-40, and their radioactive decay products, such as Radium and Radon. 
  • The sources of most NORM are isotopes of Uranium-238 and Thorium -232, which are naturally present in subsurface formations, from which oil and gas are produced. The primary radionuclide of concern in NORM wastes is Radium-226, which is derived from the Uranium 238 series. This chart shows the decay scheme of Uranium-238 series. This has a half life of 4.5 billion years.
  • NORM was first recognized as a potential problem in the Canadian oil fields in 1904. The earliest reports about NORM’s existence in oil fields were released in 1930, but these reports were scattered, rare, and went unnoticed. At the same time, elevated levels of Radium were also detected in the Russian oil fields. These findings were paid little attention as the whole radiation protection field was in its early stages. It only started to develop in the 1950’s and 1960’s. In 1953, the United States geological society published the first paper on Uranium in gas formations. In 1985, when high levels of NORM were detected in facilities operating in the North Sea, it became a cause for concern for the oil and gas industry located in this area. After 1985, more attention was paid to the issue of NORM, and measures were taken to address these issues. The American Petroleum Institute (API), and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), came out with guidelines and regulations to govern NORM.
  • There are many NORM nuclides in the earth’s crust, but it is the nuclides that tend to accumulate in the oil and gas facilities that are of concern to us. These nuclides are Ra-226 (Radium), Ra-228 (Radium), U-238 (Uranium), Rn-222 (Radon), Pb-210 (Lead), and Po-210 (Polonium).
  • The origins of NORM in the oil&gas industry, indicating where NORM can accumulater in the extraction, transport and processing phases.
  • The radiation that is emitted by NORM also falls under these three categories: Radium-226 and Lead-210 are Gamma rays, Radium-228, Lead-210, Bismuth-210 are Beta particles Radium-226, Uranium-238, Polonium-210 and Lead-210 are Alpha particles
  • The natural levels of NORM can be significantly increased or “enhanced” as a result of activities like mining and oil production. This enhancement is referred to as TENORM – Technically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material. Sometimes, NORM can accumulate at much higher concentrations than its original natural level due to these activities. In the oil and gas industry, NORM tends to accumulate in media such as scale, sludge, scrapings and thin films in gas plants.
  • There are two main types of scale – Sulfate and Carbonate. Radium falls in the category of group II-A in the chemical periodic table, hence it behaves chemically similar to Calcium (Ca), Barium (Ba) and Strontium (Sr), which also fall under the same category in this chart. Therefore it co-precipitates with Ca, Ba and Sr to form physically radioactive scales, like Calcium Carbonate, Strontium Sulphate and Barium Sulphate (CaCO3, SrSO4 and BaSO4). The formation of scale is also enhanced when Sulfate-rich water, such as seawater, is injected into oil reservoirs, which contain formation water with high concentrations of barium and/ or strontium. When the seawater is injected into the reservoirs, there is an incompatibility between the two elements, which enhances the formation of scale. Scale accumulates in various parts of the production line, such as production tubing, well head, valves, pumps, etc. Scale inhibitors, like In-process addition and Down-hole squeezing, where the NORM is moved downstream, reduce scaling to a certain extent.
  • Fluids flowing from wells are viscous and contain a mixture of oil, gas, water, and sand. Sulfate-reducing bacteria extract Uranium from this fluid and deposit it on the walls of the pipes. This results in accumulation on the interior surfaces of pipelines over a period of time. Pipelines are “scrapped” regularly, using a device called a scrapper. This device is inserted in one end of the pipeline, and it scrapes the residues on the inner surfaces of the pipeline, pushing it until it reaches a scrapper trap, where the waste “scrapings” are collected. On completion, the scraper is removed.
  • When Radon is produced with oil and gas, it usually follows the gas stream. Radon has a boiling point between that of ethane and propane. Therefore, if natural gas is broken into fractions, a disproportionately high percentage of Radon can concentrate in the propane stream in comparison to the ethane stream. Radon-222 produces radioactive nuclides. In the oil and gas industry, Po-210 and Pb-210 are of significance. Bi-210 (5 d) can also be found. Most Radon decay products (90-99 per cent) are attached to ambient aerosols, airborne particulates or surfaces. This could result in the formation of thin radioactive films on the inner surfaces of gas processing equipment, such as scrubbers, compressors, reflux pumps, control valves and product lines. When Radon is produced with oil and gas, it usually follows the gas stream. Radon has a boiling point between that of ethane and propane. Therefore, if natural gas is broken into fractions, a disproportionately high percentage of Radon can concentrate in the propane stream in comparison to the ethane stream. Radon-222 produces radioactive nuclides. In the oil and gas industry, Po-210 and Pb-210 are of significance. Bi-210 (5 d) can also be found. Most Radon decay products (90-99 per cent) are attached to ambient aerosols, airborne particulates or surfaces. This could result in the formation of thin radioactive films on the inner surfaces of gas processing equipment, such as scrubbers, compressors, reflux pumps, control valves and product lines.
  • There are two scenarios of potential exposure to enhanced levels of NORM. The first exposure scenario is contamination: When an unprotected worker is exposed to the interior surfaces of NORM-contaminated equipment, he could be exposed to external as well as internal radiation. This could be through inhalation, ingestion and absorption of NORM radioactive nuclides. The second scenario could arise when a worker is in close vicinity to contaminated equipment. Here he can be exposed to gamma radiation that is penetrating through the steel walls. This exposure scenario is very unlikely, firstly because only Ra-226 can emit gamma radiation with enough energy to penetrate through thin steel walls, and secondly, extremely high levels of NORM contamination are required for significant exposure to take place.
  • The health hazards associated with exposure to NORM are generally low. Even high concentrations of NORM are usually less radioactive than man-made sources. Therefore, radiation–induced, acute or life-threatening effects are not expected after a short period of exposure to NORM. However, chronic exposure to NORM without the use of adequate protection equipment could increase the likelihood of incurring cancer.
  • The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) recommends the limit of 270 pico curies per gram (pCi/g) for Ra-226 and its sub-elements (nine, including Ra-226). In 1996, the European Council issued radiation protection regulations, which require all member countries to develop and implement NORM-specific guidelines. In Saudi Arabia, there are no NORM specific guidelines as yet. The King Abudulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST ) issued the first radiation protection standards in 1997, which closely follows the IAEA standards. The 1997 standards only contain surface contamination limits.
  • To what extent could NORM accumulate in oil and gas producing facilities? SHELL conducted a survey of NORM levels reported by oil companies worldwide. This table summarizes the concentration of world-wide reported levels of NORM in scale, sludge and scrapings. The lower levels of NORM are on the left and the maximum NORM levels reported are on the right. As shown in the table, these values can be significantly higher than the natural levels of NORM. In Saudi Aramco, the highest measured concentration is approximately 8500 pCi/g of Uranium. However, more samples need to be analyzed specially for sludge and scrapings to have a better assessment of NORM levels in Saudi Aramco facilities.
  • This chart displays levels of Radon gas (Rn-222) in natural gas, NGL and propane. This is just one element in NORM. The EPA limit for Radon in air is 4 pCi/ liter.
  • A worker’s radiation dose depends on many factors, such as the type of work that he does, the NORM activity assigned, the time spent on this activity, and the protective measures he employs. For example, a worker cleaning a vessel with sludge that contains 700 pCi/g Ra-226 and Ra-228, spends about 2000 hours per year in this activity, and is more prone to receiving high radioactive doses. Here he is exposed to 36.4 milli sievert (mSv) per year, while the recommended level is 1 mSv
  • The first step toward workers’ protection is identifying NORM-contaminated equipment by using adequate detection instruments. If contamination is suspected, than methods to locate the contamination and bring about awareness should be implemented immediately. NORM potential negative health effects can be significantly reduced by wearing suitable protective clothes such as gloves and coveralls. The use of adequate respirators will prevent the inhalation and ingestion of NORM nuclides. Only a small percentage of workers need to wear Personal Protection Equipment (PPE) for a limited time while performing certain activities, such as maintenance or cleanup of contaminated equipment.
  • NORM nuclides are found as part of the natural composition of earth crust in trace amounts. In reservoir rock formations such as sandstone and limestone, uranium and Thorium are found in varying concentrations on the order of ppm As you can see from the table Uranium & Thorium concentrations vary significantly from one rock formation to another During geological time frame, these nuclides leach into formation water mainly, and decay producing series of other radioactive materials such as radium. One of NORM decay product chain is Radon, Radon is a radioactive gas which accumulates with natural petroleum gas. Another source of NORM accumulation that we encounter in Saudi Aramco is originating from Seawater. It is a well known fact that Uranium exists in seawater in parts per billion concentration
  • The sources of most NORM are isotopes of Uranium-238 and Thorium -232, which are naturally present in subsurface formations, from which oil and gas are produced. The primary radionuclide of concern in NORM wastes is Radium-226, which is derived from the Uranium 238 series. This chart shows the decay scheme of Uranium-238 series. This has a half life of 4.5 billion years.
  • Additional term
  • In nuclear physics , secular equilibrium is a situation in which the quantity of a radioactive isotope remains constant because its production rate (due, e.g., to decay of a parent isotope) is equal to its decay rate. Secular equilibrium can only occur in a radioactive decay chain if the half-life of the daughter radionuclide B is much shorter than the half-life of the parent radionuclide A. In such a situation, the decay rate of A, and hence the production rate of B, is approximately constant, because the half-life of A is very long compared to the timescales being considered.
  • Distance Ranges that it can cover before stopping
  • Radon is a noble gas, with a half-life of 3.8 days. It is not chemically active and is around long enough to migrate through porous materials like the ground and your house foundation. Radon enters the home through any of the seven mechanisms listed above. The radon itself has a small chance of decay as you breath it in and out. Most of our actual dose comes from the decay products of radon, sometimes called radon daughters or radon progeny. These radon progeny are particles not gases, and can be deposited in your lungs as you breath. There they have some chance of decaying before your body can get rid of them, resulting in a radioactive dose. With respect to the water supply, it is estimated that a concentration of 10,000 pCi/liter of water results in an increase of indoor air radon levels of 1 pCi/liter.
  • Scrivere meglio le fasi della procedura di misure
  • It is partitioned by Weigel’s equation
  • Struttura metallica aperta
  • TRADURRE Polje= large flat plain
  • Leggermente arroccato
  • riserve This model assumes that the rate of exchanges of gases between the water and the atmosphere is controlled by molecular diffusion through a stagnant film, tens of microns thick, at the water-air interface.
  • metodo del tempo di volo e importanza della separazione k/pi pi/k…
  • Date per la prox installazione
  • Date per la prox installazione
  • Date per la prox installazione
  • Transcript

    • 1. Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) in natural and anthropic environments [email_address] contact C.U.G.RI. interUniversity Centre for Research on the Prediction and Prevention of Major Hazards, Italy ____________________________________________________
    • 2.  
    • 3. The term radiations generally refers to a number of different physical phenomena, which all have in common the propagation of energy in space and time When radiations hit or penetrate inside matter the energy is absorbed, causing , i. e. an increase of temperature around the absorption point. Radiations
    • 4. Radiations For example , the visible light , the radio-TV waves, the emission of particles or photons (X o  ) by a radioactive element, are all different forms of radiations . Radiations can be simply subdivided into: • particle-like radiations having a mass like the electrically charged particles and the neutrons, and • wave-like radiations like phtotons ( X o  ) which are massless and electrically charge less
    • 5. Radiations <ul><li>The absorption of radiation by the matter in which it penetrates can cause not only a local increase of temperature but also that </li></ul><ul><li>The generated heat produces a combustion; </li></ul><ul><li>Light impresses a photographic film; </li></ul><ul><li>Damages more or less serious can be done to a living organism by the most energetic radiations. </li></ul>
    • 6. Radiations <ul><li>The most energetic radiations, thus, can produce </li></ul><ul><li>a harmful action to biological matter, as a direct </li></ul><ul><li>consequence of the physical processes of “excitation” </li></ul><ul><li>and “ionization” of atoms and molecules contained in </li></ul><ul><li>the biological tissues hit by radiation. </li></ul><ul><li>According to the values of the energy and the effect </li></ul><ul><li>produced on the matter, radiations can be distinguished in: </li></ul><ul><li>Ionizing radiations </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Non-ionizing radiations (EM radiation) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    • 7. Ionizing radiations <ul><li>When a radtiation carries sufficient energy it is able to ionize </li></ul><ul><li>matter, for example, a biological tissue in which penetrates, </li></ul><ul><li>that is, producing free positive and negative charges . </li></ul><ul><li>The ionization of matter can occur either directly or indirectly. </li></ul><ul><li>Accordingly the ionizing radiations can be distinguished into: </li></ul><ul><li>directly ionizing radiations and </li></ul><ul><li>indirectly ionizing radiations </li></ul>
    • 8. Measurement Units of the radiation energy <ul><li>The energy of radiation is typically measured in: </li></ul><ul><li>electronvolt ( eV ) </li></ul><ul><li>1 eV is defined like the energy that a unitary </li></ul><ul><li>charge (i.e., an electron) acquires travelling </li></ul><ul><li>across a potential difference of 1 Volt. </li></ul>
    • 9. Energy of radiations <ul><li>eV multiples: </li></ul><ul><li>keV (100 eV) (X-rays) </li></ul><ul><li>MeV (10 6 eV), (nuclear processes) </li></ul><ul><li>GeV (10 9 eV). (pre-LHC* era particle accelerators) </li></ul><ul><li>TeV (10 12 eV) (LHC era) </li></ul><ul><li>PeV (10 15 eV) (cosmic rays) </li></ul><ul><li>EeV (10 18 eV) (cosmic rays) </li></ul><ul><li>* LHC = Large Hadron Collider @ CERN, Geneva, Switzerland </li></ul>
    • 10. Some words about energies and their measument units
    • 11.  
    • 12. <ul><li>Electromagnetic (EM) radiation propagates by means of transverse </li></ul><ul><li>waves with a velocity c = 3 10 8 m/s, in the vacuum and in the matter </li></ul><ul><li>with v = c/n , where n is the refraction index of the material in which it </li></ul><ul><li>travels. </li></ul><ul><li>EM radiation is characterized by : </li></ul><ul><li>Intensity or Amplitude </li></ul><ul><li>Wavelength ,  , (or frequency  = c/n  ) </li></ul><ul><li>Polarization </li></ul>Electromagnetic (EM) radiation
    • 13. Waves The energy carried by EM radiation increases with its frequency and diminishes with its wavelength Waves’ main characteristics: wavelength and amplitude amplitude wavelength ( λ )
    • 14. Electromagnetic (EM) waves IR - VISIBLE - UV  = 1mm – 10 -9 m heat, light, chemical reactions X-RAYS – GAMMA RAYS  = 10 -8 – 10 -12 m Medical diagnostic tools MICROWAVES  = 10cm – 1mm radar, mobile phones, ovens RADIO  = 1km – 10cm Radio-TV broadcasting
    • 15. <ul><li>EM spectrum in different scales: </li></ul><ul><li>wavelength ,  </li></ul><ul><li>frequency,  =c/  </li></ul><ul><li>energy, E=h  </li></ul><ul><li>Energy is measured in electronVolt (eV) </li></ul><ul><li>1 eV = 1.6 10 -19 J </li></ul><ul><li>1 J = 1 Joule </li></ul>EM waves spectrum energia Lunghezza d’onda frequenza
    • 16. EM spectrum Increasing energies (frequences  ) Increasing wavelength (  ) Infrared red orange giallo green blue purple ultraviolet Example: heat example: sun tanning bed
    • 17. 1fm 1pm 1nm 1 μ m 1m m 1m GAMMA RAYS X-RAYS ULTRA- VIOLET INFRA- RED MICRO- WAVES RADIO WAVES EM spectrum WAVELENGTH (m) VISIBLE 10 -14 10 -12 10 -10 10 -8 10 -6 10 -4 10 -2 1 10 2 ENERGY
    • 18. Brief Review of Radioactivity and Radionuclides basic concepts
    • 19. Conventional notation for the chemical elements <ul><li>mass number A c (electric charge) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>X </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>atomic number Z </li></ul><ul><li>X = symbol of the chemical element </li></ul><ul><li>atomic number Z = number of protons (electrons) </li></ul><ul><li>mass number A = number of nucleons (protons/neutrons) </li></ul>
    • 20. Periodic table of Atomic Elements (by Dimitri Ivanovic MENDELEEV, 1869 ) Z number of protons period group
    • 21. Nuclides <ul><li>Element symbol X, mass number A and atomic number Z. </li></ul><ul><li>The following symbol denotes what in Nuclear Physics is defined as NUCLIDE </li></ul>X Z A
    • 22. Isotopes and other iso- <ul><li>According to A, Z e N (number of neutrons), </li></ul><ul><li>Nuclides can be distinguished in: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Isotopes </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Isobars </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Isotones </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Isomers </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    • 23. Isotopes and other iso- 222 Rn 220 Rn Isotopes Z 89 89 N 133 131 ---- ----- ------ A 222 220
    • 24. Z-N diagram of Nuclides
    • 25. Radioactivity and the Atomic Nucleus <ul><li>1896 </li></ul><ul><li>Henri BECQUEREL discovered a so far unknown type of radiation (  rays) emitted by Uranium minerals, capable to expose a photographic plate </li></ul><ul><li>1898 </li></ul><ul><li>Pierre and Marie CURIE succeeded to discover and isolate 2 new radioactive elements: Polonium and Radium . </li></ul>Ernest RUTHERFORD investigated the nature of the different types of radiations emitted by radioactive materials:  rays 4 times heavier than Hydrogen,  rays essentially electrons,  rays chargeless, similar to X-rays but much more penetrating.  :  stopped by 1/100 mm of aluminum plate.  :  stopped by 1 mm of aluminum plate. Ernest RUTHERFORD Pierre and Marie CURIE Henri BECQUEREL e -
    • 26. Review of Radioactivity and …
    • 27. Radioactive Decays Number of protons Number of neutrons Z N A = N + Z c.e. = electronic capture
    • 28. Review of Radioactivity and …
    • 29. Review of Radioactivity and …
    • 30. Review of Radioactivity and …
    • 31. Review of Radioactivity and …
    • 32. Review of Radioactivity and …
    • 33. Review of Radioactivity and …
    • 34. Review of Radioactivity and …
    • 35. <ul><li>1908-1910 - Esperiments by GEIGER, MARSDEN and RUTHERFORD: </li></ul><ul><li>bombing of thin metallic plates with  ; on the average 1  over 20000 was scattered at an angle larger than 90°. </li></ul><ul><li>1900 – THOMSON’s Atomic Model: </li></ul><ul><li>The atom is a homogeneous (electrically neutral) system, containing electrons uniformly distributed in it, whose charge is balanced by some point-like positive charges (“plumcake” model) </li></ul>Rutherford’s Atomic Model: atom is a sort of a small solar system . <ul><li>1919 – Rutherford assumed that inside the nucleus there were positively charged particles: protons . </li></ul>Thomson’s Atom
    • 36. <ul><li>1913 – atomic model: Emission or absorption of </li></ul><ul><li>quantized radiation (  E = h  ) only between two </li></ul><ul><li>“ different energy states”. </li></ul>Niels BOHR
    • 37. The energy levels What happens when energy is given to the atom? Excited states Ground state
    • 38. 2 PROTONS 2 NEUTRONS  Radiation  . . . .
    • 39.  Radiation . 1 ELECTRON  
    • 40.  Radiation 
    • 41. Relative Penetrating Power
    • 42. Review of Radioactivity and … = 3.7 x 10 10 Bq old unit
    • 43. Review of Radioactivity and …
    • 44. Review of Radioactivity and …
    • 45. NORM Definition <ul><li>Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM) </li></ul><ul><li>– any nuclide that is radioactive in its natural state (i.e. not man-made), but not including source, by-product, or special nuclear material. </li></ul><ul><li>The associated radioactivity is </li></ul><ul><li>Naturally Occurring Radioactivity (NOR) </li></ul>
    • 46.  
    • 47. Types of NOR Universidad Nacional del Altiplano, Puno, Perù, 7 Febbraio 2006 M. Guida, Università di Salerno, Italia
    • 48. Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials NORM
    • 49. Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials NORM
    • 50. Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials NORM
    • 51.  
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    • 57.  
    • 58. Uranium-238 4.5 By Radon-222 3.8 d Radium-226 1620 Y Th-234 Pa-234 U-234 Th-230 . Principal decay Scheme of Uranium Radon – Daughters
    • 59. Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials NORM
    • 60. Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials NORM
    • 61. Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials NORM
    • 62. Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials NORM
    • 63. Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials NORM
    • 64. Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials NORM
    • 65. Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials NORM
    • 66. Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials NORM
    • 67. Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials NORM
    • 68. Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials NORM
    • 69. Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials NORM
    • 70. Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials NORM
    • 71. Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials NORM
    • 72. Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials NORM
    • 73.  
    • 74. Where anthropogenic Norm & Tenorm? <ul><li>¿Qué es NORM y TENORM? </li></ul><ul><li>Recopilación de industrias afectadas </li></ul><ul><li>Minería y procesado de metales: Al, Cu, TiO 2 , Zr, Fe-acero, Sn, oro, arenas de minerales pesados, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Industrias de minerales </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Producción de fertilizantes fosfatados </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cerámicas y materiales de construcción </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Combustibles: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Petróleo y gas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Centrales térmicas de carbón </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Otras actividades </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Producción de energía geotérmica </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tratamiento de aguas: potables y residuales </li></ul></ul>M. Guida, Università di Salerno, Italia Universidad Nacional del Altiplano, Puno, Perù, 7 Febbraio 2006
    • 75.  
    • 76.  
    • 77. M. Guida, Università di Salerno, Italia Universidad Nacional del Altiplano, Puno, Perù, 7 Febbraio 2006 Actividades que pueden generar NORM Minerales y materiales extraídos Otros procesos Aluminio Cobre Yeso Hierro Mo Fosfato Fósforo Tierras raras Estaño Titanio Zirconio Térmicas de carbón Energía geotérmica Petróleo y gas Tratamiento aguas residuales Pasta de celulosa Fabricación de cerámica Dióxido de titanio Fundición metales (Fe, Cu, etc.) Arenas abrasivas y refractarias Materiales de construcción Electrónica
    • 78.  
    • 79.  
    • 80. Principal radionuclides occurring M. Guida, Università di Salerno, Italia Universidad Nacional del Altiplano, Puno, Perù, 7 Febbraio 2006 Radionucleido Semivida Tipo de radiación Comentarios 40 K 1.28·10 9 a β , γ No genera cadena 238 U 234 U 230 Th 226 Ra 222 Rn 210 Pb 210 Po 4.47·10 9 a 2.5·10 5 a 7.54·10 4 a 1600 a 3.82 d 22 a 138.4 d α , γ α α , γ α , γ α β , γ α , γ Genera fraccionamiento de 4 subseries con T1/2 alto: 238 U, 230 Th, 226 Ra y 210 Pb 235 U 231 Pa 227 Ac 7.04·10 8 a 3.3·10 4 22 a α , γ α , γ α , γ Poco interés radiológico ya que: ( 235 U) = 0.044 ( 238 U) 232 Th 228 Ra 228 Th 1.41·10 10 a 5.75 a 1.91 a α , γ β α Genera fraccionamiento de 3 subseries con T1/2 alto: 232 Th, 228 Ra y 228 Th
    • 81. Brief History of NORM in Oil & Gas industry <ul><li>Early accounts of NORM </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Canadian oil field (1904) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Radium in Russian fields (1930) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uranium in gas formations (1953) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>NORM in north sea (1985) </li></ul><ul><li>Guidelines (API, IAEA, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Regulations </li></ul>
    • 82. <ul><li>The oil and gas industry is a global industry that operates in many of the Member States of the IAEA. </li></ul><ul><li>There are several sectors in the industry, including: </li></ul><ul><li>(a) The construction sector responsible for manufacturing and fabricating facilities and equipment, </li></ul><ul><li>(b) The exploration sector responsible for finding and evaluating new resources, </li></ul><ul><li>(c) The production sector responsible for developing and exploiting commercially viable oil and gas fields, </li></ul><ul><li>(d) ‘Downstream’ sectors dealing with transport of the raw materials and their processing into saleable products, </li></ul><ul><li>(e) Marketing sectors responsible for the transport and distribution of the finished products. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
    • 83. <ul><li>Radioactive materials, sealed sources and radiation generators are used extensively by the oil and gas industry, and various solid and liquid wastes containing naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) are produced. </li></ul><ul><li>The presence of these radioactive materials and radiation generators results in the need to control occupational and public exposures to ionizing radiation. </li></ul><ul><li>Various radioactive wastes are produced in the oil and gas industry, including the following: </li></ul><ul><li>(a) Discrete sealed sources, e.g. spent and disused sealed sources; </li></ul><ul><li>(b) Unsealed sources, e.g. tracers; </li></ul><ul><li>(c) Contaminated items; </li></ul><ul><li>(d) Wastes arising from decontamination activities, e.g. scales and sludges.   </li></ul>
    • 84. <ul><li>These wastes are generated predominantly in solid and liquid forms and may contain artificial or naturally occurring radionuclides with a wide range of half-lives. </li></ul><ul><li>  Work activities and situations which involve potential exposure to ionizing radiation and radioactive materials: </li></ul><ul><li>(a) Industrial radiography, including underwater radiography; </li></ul><ul><li>(b) Use of installed gauges, including those used to make level and density measurements; </li></ul><ul><li>(c) Use of portable gauging equipment; </li></ul><ul><li>(d) Well logging, including ‘measurement while drilling’ and wireline techniques; </li></ul><ul><li>(e) Work with radiotracers; </li></ul><ul><li>(f) Generation, accumulation and disposal of NORM and the decontamination of equipment contaminated by NORM; </li></ul><ul><li>(g) Radioactive waste management; </li></ul><ul><li>(h) Accidents involving radioactive sources and materials. </li></ul>
    • 85.  
    • 86. Which NORM ! <ul><li>NORM nuclides of interest to oil & gas industry </li></ul><ul><li>Radium-226 & Radium-228 </li></ul><ul><li>Uranium </li></ul><ul><li>Radon-222 </li></ul><ul><li>Lead-210 </li></ul><ul><li>Polonium-210 </li></ul>
    • 87. Origins of NORM in the Oil & Gas Industry Courtesy by Gas/Oil Separation Plants (GOSP)
    • 88. Radiation Emitted by NORM <ul><li>Gamma rays </li></ul><ul><li>Ra-226 and Pb-210 </li></ul><ul><li>Beta particles </li></ul><ul><li>Ra-228, Pb-210, Bi-210 </li></ul><ul><li>Alpha particles </li></ul><ul><li>Ra-226,U-238,Po-210 and Pb-210 </li></ul>
    • 89.  
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    • 91.  
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    • 95.  
    • 96.  
    • 97. Radioactive Material/ Sources found or used in the Oil and Gas Industry <ul><li>Offshore Operations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Radiography </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Surveys </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Well Logging </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nucleonic Gauges </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Safety Systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tracers </li></ul></ul>
    • 98. Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM) <ul><li>Contaminated plant / equipment / pipework sent for cleaning </li></ul><ul><li>Waste removed from vessels and pipelines sent for treatment / disposal </li></ul><ul><li>Samples sent for radiochemical analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Radionuclides present may differ, e.g. - </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ra-226, Ra-228 + Daughters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pb-210, Po-210 + Daughters </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Excepted Packages, Industrial Packages and Unpackaged SCO-1 </li></ul><ul><li>UN2910, UN2912, UN2915 </li></ul><ul><li>Sea, Road and Rail </li></ul>
    • 99. Where NORM accumulates <ul><li>Scale </li></ul><ul><li>Scrapings </li></ul><ul><li>Sludge </li></ul><ul><li>Thin films (radon progeny) </li></ul>NORM may accumulate in the following media:
    • 100. NORM in Scale Courtesy by
    • 101. NORM in Scale <ul><li>Types of scales </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sulfate: SrSO4 and BaSO4 (RaSO4) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbonate: CaCO3 (RaCO3) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Effect of water mixing </li></ul><ul><li>Change in pressure/temperature </li></ul><ul><li>Scale accumulates in: production tubing, well head, valves, and pumps </li></ul><ul><li>Scale inhibitors </li></ul>
    • 102. NORM in Pipelines Scrapings <ul><li>Crude pipelines </li></ul><ul><li>(Radium & Pb-210) </li></ul><ul><li>Seawater pipelines </li></ul><ul><li>(Uranium) </li></ul>Courtesy by
    • 103. NORM in Gas Processing Facilities <ul><li>Radon path </li></ul><ul><li>Radon progeny </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pb-210 (22 years) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Po-210 (138 days) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bi-210 (5 days) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Form thin films on: compressors, reflux pumps, control valves, product lines/vessels. </li></ul>Boiling Point (  K, 1 Atm) Ethane 185 Radon 211 Propane 231
    • 104. NORM Exposure Scenarios <ul><li>Contamination </li></ul><ul><li>Inhalation </li></ul><ul><li>Ingestion </li></ul><ul><li>Absorption </li></ul><ul><li>Irradiation </li></ul><ul><li>External Exposure </li></ul>
    • 105. NORM Health Impact <ul><li>No short-term acute effects </li></ul>Chronic exposure (unprotected) Higher possibility of cancer
    • 106. NORM Regulations <ul><li>Specifies contamination limits: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Equipment, waste and soil </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nuclide dependent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Country dependent </li></ul></ul><ul><li>EURATOM 96/29 “May 2000” </li></ul>Courtesy by Country Limit of 226 Ra (pCi/g) Canada 8 UK 10 USA 5 to 30
    • 107. NORM Levels World wide reported levels of NORM Courtesy by
    • 108. NORM in Natural Gas <ul><li>Radon gas (Rn-222) </li></ul><ul><li>EPA limit for Radon in air is 4 pCi/ liter </li></ul>Courtesy by Medium Specific activity pCi/liter Natural gas 0.14 – 5400 NGL 0.27 – 40500 Propane 0.27 – 113400
    • 109. Workers’ Radiation Dose <ul><li>Worker’s dose depends on: </li></ul><ul><li>Type of work </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cleaning vessels/tanks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintenance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>NORM activity </li></ul><ul><li>Time </li></ul><ul><li>Protective measures </li></ul>
    • 110. Workers Protection <ul><li>Awareness/training </li></ul><ul><li>Protective clothes </li></ul><ul><li>Respirators’ use </li></ul><ul><li>Practice good hygiene </li></ul><ul><li>Limited work scenarios </li></ul>
    • 111. NORM Monitoring NORM Detected? Normal Operation NORM Free Equipment Identify NORM Contaminated equipment/waste Decontaminate NORM equipment Workers Protection & Contam. Control Assess Radiological Risks Interim Storage of NORM equipment NORM Waste Permanent Disposal NORM waste Interim Storage Yes No NORM Contaminated Equipment NORM Waste NORM Waste NORM Management Process Cycle Release for general use Courtesy by
    • 112. Courtesy by
    • 113. NORM Screening Zone - Al Midra & Reclamation Courtesy by
    • 114. Courtesy by
    • 115. Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM) sent to Drigg
    • 116. Radiography <ul><li>Service companies supply and use source(s) </li></ul><ul><li>Example radionuclides - </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Iridium-192 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Selenium-75 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ytterbium-169 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Type A and B Packages </li></ul><ul><li>UN3332, UN2916 and UN2917 </li></ul><ul><li>Air, Sea and Road </li></ul>
    • 117. Survey Work <ul><li>Service companies supply and use source(s) </li></ul><ul><li>Example radionuclides - </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Californium-252 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Caesium-137 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Excepted and Type A Packages </li></ul><ul><li>Road and Sea </li></ul>
    • 118. Well Logging <ul><li>Service companies supply and use source(s) </li></ul><ul><li>Example radionuclides - </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Am-241 / Be </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cf-252 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cs-137 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>H-3 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Excepted Packages, Type A and Type B </li></ul><ul><li>Road and Sea </li></ul>
    • 119. Summary - Packages & Uses <ul><li>Excepted Packages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NORM samples, smoke detectors, ‘low’ activity sources </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Industrial Packages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NORM contaminated equipment and waste </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Unpackaged </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NORM contaminated tubing / drill pipe </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Type A and B (U) and (M) Packages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ High’ activity sources </li></ul></ul>
    • 120. What Next about NORM in industry? <ul><li>Concluding remarks (P. A. Burns) from </li></ul><ul><li>the International Radiation </li></ul><ul><li>Protection Association (IRPA), 12 th International Congress, </li></ul><ul><li>Buenos Aires, Argentina, 19-24 October 2008 </li></ul>
    • 121. What’s out there (IRPA 12 cont’d ) <ul><li>Wide variety of NORM industries: </li></ul><ul><li>Uranium, Rare Earth minerals; </li></ul><ul><li>Coal, Oil, Gas; </li></ul><ul><li>Phosphates, Mineral Processing and others ; </li></ul><ul><li>NORM can concentrate in: </li></ul><ul><li>Products, by-Products and residues </li></ul><ul><li>Exposure to large populations: small doses </li></ul><ul><li>Exposure to small populations: larger doses </li></ul><ul><li>- Occupational exposure </li></ul>
    • 122. How to measure it (IRPA 12 cont’d ) <ul><li>Difficult measurement situations: </li></ul><ul><li>Measurement of Activity or activity concentration: </li></ul><ul><li>Long decay chains – Disequilibrium </li></ul><ul><li>Hard to measure – radium, radon, thoron, Pb210, Po210. </li></ul><ul><li>Modelling exposure pathways </li></ul><ul><li>Lot of assumptions </li></ul><ul><li>Averages adopted for widely varying situations </li></ul><ul><li>Assessing doses to individuals </li></ul><ul><li>- Large uncertainties – internal exposure </li></ul>
    • 123. What to do about it (IRPA 12 cont’d ) <ul><li>No one solution to NORM management </li></ul><ul><li>Wide variety of regulatory instruments required </li></ul><ul><li>Graded approach </li></ul><ul><li>- Exclusion, exemption, clearance, notification </li></ul><ul><li>- Registration, licensing </li></ul><ul><li>Managed as planned or existing exposure situations </li></ul><ul><li>Dose constraints or reference levels </li></ul><ul><li>Numbers of people exposed and magnitude of exposures should be optimised within Dose Bands </li></ul><ul><li>Flexibility required </li></ul>
    • 124. What about NORM in Europe?
    • 125. Summary <ul><li>NORM is a global issue for the oil & gas industry </li></ul><ul><li>NORM health hazards are controllable </li></ul><ul><li>Implementing NORM procedure will not obstruct operations </li></ul><ul><li>NORM limit varies </li></ul>
    • 126. NATURALLY OCCURRING RADIONUCLIDES IN RAW MATERIALS
    • 127. WATER PROCESSING: DRINKING and WASTE WATERS EUROPEAN COMMISSION, Sewage Sludge, Directorate General for the Environment, EC, Brussels, http://europa.eu.int/comm/environment/sludge/index.htm . T. Gafvert, C. Ellmark, E. Holm. Removal of radionuclides at a waterworks. Journal of Environmental Radioactivity 63 (2002) 105–115. ACTIVIDAD (Bq/kg seco) en lodos Al(OH) 3 y Fe(OH) 3 Lodos 239/240 Pu 232 Th 234 U 238 U 137 Cs 210 Pb 7 Be Al(OH) 3 0.86 4.53 45.0 61.8 < 2 230 280 Fe(OH) 3 0.72 4.54 43.7 62.8 < 2 368 353
    • 128. Origins of NORM in Natural Environments <ul><li>NORM in earth crust </li></ul><ul><li>NORM in reservoir rock formations </li></ul><ul><li>NORM in Formation water </li></ul><ul><li>NORM in Natural gas </li></ul><ul><li>NORM in Sea water </li></ul>Uranium ppm Thorium ppm Limestone 0.03 - 27 0 - 11 Sandstone 0.1 - 62 0.7 - 227
    • 129. Uranium-238 4.5 By Radon-222 3.8 d Radium-226 1620 Y Th-234 Pa-234 U-234 Th-230 . Principal decay Scheme of Uranium Radon – Daughters
    • 130. RADIACTIVIDAD NATURAL La radiación natural a la que está expuesta la población proviene de la desintegración de isótopos radiactivos en la corteza terrestre, de la radiación cósmica y de los isótopos radiactivos que forman parte de los seres vivos, también llamada radiación interna Radón 40% Tratamientos Médicos 17% Rayos Cósmicos 12% Radiación Gamma 15% Radiación Interna 15% Otros 1% M. Guida, Università di Salerno, Italia Universidad Nacional del Altiplano, Puno, Perù, 7 Febbraio 2006
    • 131. Diagnóstico Radiológico (Rayos X) Medicina Nuclear Radioterapia RADIACIÓN EN MEDICINA El uso de la radiación en el diagnóstico y el tratamiento de enfermedades se ha convertido en una herramienta básica en medicina . Con ella se ha podido realizar exploraciones del cerebro y los huesos, tratar el cáncer y usar elementos radiactivos para dar seguimiento a hormonas y otros compuestos químicos de los organismos. M. Guida, Università di Salerno, Italia Universidad Nacional del Altiplano, Puno, Perù, 7 Febbraio 2006
    • 132. Corso di Laurea in Ingegneria Civile UNIVERSITA’ DEGLI STUDI DI SALERNO Facoltà di Ingegneria Building Materials brick granite Radioactiviy Index I : (Radiation Protection 112, 2000) I = A Th /200+A Ra /300+A K /3000 Concrete block
    • 133. I< 0.5 0.5 < I< 1 I >1 Materiali da costruzione Concentrazione media di 226 Ra (Bq/Kg) Concentrazione media di 232 Th (Bq/Kg) Concentrazione media di 40 K (Bq/Kg) Indice di Radioattività travertino 1 0 4 0,004 Marmo 4 1 8 0,021 Calcare 12 1 5 0,046 Gesso 8 3 160 0,095 Calce 9 6 265 0,148 Ghiaia 15 14 157 0,172 Calcestruzzo 22 16 237 0,232 Coppi 59 12 238 0,336 sabbia 18 22 530 0,346 Laterizi 29 26 711 0,463 Pietra 24 37 645 0,48 Argilla 37 40 550 0,506 Piastrelle 43 36 689 0,553 Serizzo 31 42 782 0,574 Cemento 42 66 369 0,593 Trachite 36 52 1154 0,764 Porfido 41 59 1388 0,894 Beole 63 48 1432 0,927 Gneiss 87 71 1040 0,991 Granito 89 94 1126 1,142 Ceneri di carbone 160 130 420 1,323 Peperino 159 171 1422 1,859 Pozzolana 164 229 1341 2,138 Sienite 317 234 1255 2,645 Tufo 209 349 1861 3,062 Lava 473 230 1781 3,32 Basalto 308 466 2178 4,082
    • 134. Corso di Laurea in Ingegneria Civile UNIVERSITA’ DEGLI STUDI DI SALERNO Facoltà di Ingegneria Radioactivity Index I in building materials F. Vigorito, Tesi di Laurea in Ingegneria Civile, Università di Salerno, 2006
    • 135.  
    • 136. Radon: Overview of Properties <ul><li>Radon is a unique natural element in being a gas, noble, and radioactive in all its isotopes. </li></ul><ul><li>Radon is the heaviest member of the noble gas family and is colorless, odorless, relatively chemically inert, naturally radioactive, and has the highest melting point, boiling point, critical temperature and critical pressure of noble gases. </li></ul><ul><li>It is soluble in water and has a higher solubility in some organic solvents. </li></ul><ul><li>As a noble gas, it is not immobilized by chemically reacting with the medium that permeates. </li></ul><ul><li>Free radon normally diminishes only by its radioactive decay as it moves from its source. </li></ul><ul><li>Its radioactivity allows radon to be measured with remarkable sensitivity. </li></ul>
    • 137. The three primary sources for natural radon are the parent isotopes of the two uranium series ( 238 U and 235 U) and the Thorium series ( 232 Th). U 238 4,5 10 9 y Ra 226 1622 y Rn 222 3,82 d Po 218 3.05 min Pb 214 26,8 min Bi 214 19,7 min Po 214 1,6 10 -4 s Pb 210 22,2 y Bi 210 5,03 d Po 210 138,4 d Pb 206 stable         
    • 138. Radioactive Decay <ul><li>Radioactive decay: </li></ul><ul><li>The solution is: </li></ul><ul><li>λ is related to the half-life: </li></ul><ul><li>For the general case of A-> B, where both A and B are radioactive , the differential equation describing the production of B from the decay of A and the subsequent radioactive decay of B: </li></ul><ul><li>If the half-life of the daughter radionuclide B is much shorter than the half-life of the parent radionuclide A, the decay rate of A, and hence the production rate of B, is approximately constant, because the half-life of A is very long compared to the timescales being considered. </li></ul>
    • 139. Radon Secular Equilibrium <ul><li>As Radon has a half-life (3.82 d) much longer than its daughter </li></ul><ul><li>radionuclides ( 218 Po – 3.05 m, 214 Pb – 26.8 m, 214 Bi – 19.7 m) </li></ul><ul><li>a radioactive equilibrium (called secular equilibrium) is achieved </li></ul><ul><li>after approximatively 3 h. </li></ul><ul><li>After that time, </li></ul><ul><li>the activity concentrations of the </li></ul><ul><li>short-lived decay products </li></ul><ul><li>are essentially equal to </li></ul><ul><li>that of the radon parent. </li></ul>
    • 140. Release Mechanism <ul><li>Most radon that is produced by the decay of radium never escapes from the mineral in which it is born. </li></ul><ul><li>The small fraction of radon that escapes is either released promptly as it is born or within the few days before it decays. </li></ul><ul><li>The release mechanism is the direct ejection of the radon atom by recoil from alpha emission. </li></ul><ul><li>Conservation of momentum reveals that emission of an alpha particle with 4.78 MeV by 226 Ra gives the 222 Rn nucleus a recoil energy of 86 keV. </li></ul>
    • 141. Release Mechanism Inside the same mineral grain From one mineral to adjacent mineral From mineral to water Stopped by intergranural material
    • 142. If the pore space contains water, the ejected radon atom will rest in the liquid and is free to diffuse from the water or be transported by it. If the interstitial space is dry (i.e. filled only with soil gas) and not wide enough to stop the recoiling radon, it will enter a neighboring grain.
    • 143.  
    • 144.  
    • 145.  
    • 146.  
    • 147.  
    • 148.  
    • 149.  
    • 150.  
    • 151. 222 Rn: a Naturally Occurring Tracers for investigation of transport phenomena in the Litosphere: Emanation and Exhalation
    • 152.  
    • 153.  
    • 154.  
    • 155.  
    • 156.  
    • 157. Radon Entry Into a Home 1. Cracks in Solid Floors 2. Construction Joints 3. Cracks in Walls 4. Gaps in Floors 5. Gaps around Pipes 6. Cavities in Walls 7. Water Supply (wells only) 3. 4. 1. 2. 7. 6. 5.
    • 158. Main sources of Radon in a confined space building materials 2-5% water < 1% soil: 85-90% + diffusion 1-4%
    • 159.  
    • 160.  
    • 161.  
    • 162.  
    • 163.  
    • 164.  
    • 165.  
    • 166.  
    • 167. UNIVERSITA’ DEGLI STUDI DI SALERNO Facoltà di Ingegneria Corso di Laurea in Ingegneria Civile per l’Ambiente ed il Territorio Indagine nazionale sulla radioattività naturale nelle abitazioni (ANPA, ISS;1989 - 1993) Lithological Map 97 Bq/m 3 Campania Annual mean concentrations of Indoor Radon Italia: 70 Bq/m 3 Europa: 59 Bq/m 3 World: 40 Bq/m 3
    • 168. Indagine nazionale radon (1989-1997) <ul><li>N. di edifici 5361 </li></ul><ul><li>N. di città 232 </li></ul><ul><li>Max (Bq/m 3 ) 1036 </li></ul><ul><li>Media aritm. (Bq/m 3 ) 70 </li></ul><ul><li>Std Error (Bq/m 3) 1 </li></ul> Frazione di edifici (totale 20.000.000) > 200 Bq/m 3 4,1 % ≈ 800.000 > 400 Bq/m 3 0,9 % ≈ 200.000 Bq/m 3 20 - 40 40 - 60 60 - 80 80 - 100 100 - 120 M. Guida, Università di Salerno, Italia Universidad Nacional del Altiplano, Puno, Perù, 7 Febbraio 2006
    • 169. Journal of Technical & Environmental Geology, XVI, 2 (April/June), 38-62, 2008). General Functional Scheme of the Interdepartment Research Programme RAD_CAMPANIA in collaboration with C.U.G.RI., and the Regional Agency for the Environmental Protection ,ARPA Campania
    • 170. CAMPANIA ITALIA WHERE WE A RE
    • 171. Multiscalar hierarchical levels for the assessment of the Areas with the highest potential concentrations of exhalated soil-gas Radon (Radon-prone Areas) Journal of Technical & Environmental Geology, XVI, 2 (April/June), 38-62, 2008). Region Level: scale <1:250,000 Province level: scale <1:100,000 District Level : scale <1:25,000 Zone Level : scale <1:5,000-2,000 Site Level : scale 1: 2,000
    • 172. Lithological Systems Map of Campania Region (modified from BLASI C. et al., 2007)
    • 173. Preliminary assessment from the lithological map and literature (Cuomo A., Tesi di Laurea in Ing. Civile A&T, 2007; Journal of Technical & Environmental Geology, XVI, 2 (April/June), 38-62, 2008).
    • 174. Preliminary map of the Radon-prone Areas after the application of the multiscalar hierarchical adaptive approach (Cuomo A., Tesi di Laurea in Ing. Civile A&T, 2007; Journal of Technical & Environmental Geology, XVI, 2 (April/June), 38-62, 2008). PRIGNANO
    • 175. Flow-chart diagram showing the applied methodology for the production of the Radon-prone Areas . Journal of Technical & Environmental Geology, XVI, 2 (April/June), 38-62, 2008).
    • 176. UNIVERSITA’ DEGLI STUDI DI SALERNO Facoltà di Ingegneria Corso di Laurea in Ingegneria Civile per l’Ambiente ed il Territorio Procedura adottata per le misure eseguite con RAD7 (Pelosi A., Tesi di Laurea in Ingegneria, 2007)
    • 177. UNIVERSITA’ DEGLI STUDI DI SALERNO Facoltà di Ingegneria Co rso di laurea in Ingegneria civile Misura nel suolo con strumentazione attiva: Rad7 <ul><li>Lo strumento è stato assemblato; </li></ul><ul><li>Si è verificata la percentuale di umidità presente nello strumento e poichè questa superava il 7% allora si è passati all’operazione di purge. </li></ul><ul><li>si è infissa la sonda nel punto di misura e costipata la porzione di terreno che la circonda; </li></ul><ul><li>è posizionato all’ estremità del tubo un manometro e si è collegata la sonda allo strumento; </li></ul><ul><li>si è avviata la misura selezionando dal menu dello strumento la funzione start; </li></ul>(L. Serrapica, Tesi di Laurea in Ingegneria, 2007)
    • 178. UNIVERSITA’ DEGLI STUDI DI SALERNO Facoltà di Ingegneria Corso di Laurea in Ingegneria Civile per l’Ambiente ed il Territorio Set di dati a cui sono stati applicati dei criteri di selezione Interpolazione mediante kriging dei dati di concentrazione (Pelosi A., Tesi di Laurea in Ingegneria, 2007) ID_MIS COD_S_RN COD_MIS DATA RN_CONC 1 _01 _01 12/10/2007 913 [Bqm -3 ] 2 _02 _01 12/10/2007 70.500 [Bqm -3 ] 3 _03 _01 13/10/2007 10.200 [Bqm -3 ] 4 _04 _01 13/10/2007 51.000 [Bqm -3 ] 5 _05 _01 13/10/2007 7.870 [Bqm -3 ] 6 _06 _01 13/10/2007 57.800 [Bqm -3 ] 7 _07 _01 15/10/2007 55.000 [Bqm -3 ] 8 _08 _01 15/10/2007 4.120 [Bqm -3 ] 9 _09 _01 16/10/2007 43.100 [Bqm -3 ] 10 _10 _01 19/10/2007 56.000 [Bqm -3 ] 11 _11 _01 20/10/2007 25.800 [Bqm -3 ] 12 _12 _01 20/10/2007 2.950 [Bqm -3 ] 13 _13 _01 20/10/2007 9.030 [Bqm -3 ] 14 _14 _01 20/10/2007 121.000 [Bqm -3 ] 15 _15 _01 27/10/2007 8.370 [Bqm -3 ] 16 _16 _01 27/10/2007 7.000 [Bqm -3 ] 17 _17 _01 02/11/2007 4.310 [Bqm -3 ]
    • 179. Radon as Aqueous Tracer <ul><li>Radon is continuously produced via α -decay of its parent nuclide radium, which is commonly found in soil and aquifer material </li></ul><ul><li>Radon is a ubiquitously occurring natural component of groundwater, occurring as dissolved gas </li></ul><ul><li>The chemical and physical properties of radon and its behavior in groundwater allow for its use as naturally occurring aqueous tracer </li></ul><ul><li>It is a natural constituent of groundwater and therefore has not to be injected into the aquifer for the sake of a tracer experiment </li></ul><ul><li>Radon can be detected very precisely also at low concentrations, due to its radioactive nature </li></ul><ul><li>Because of the chemical inertness of Radon, its transport in groundwater systems is controlled only by molecular diffusion and by the flow of groundwater itself </li></ul><ul><li>The only other process that has any significant effect on radon, once it is in solution in groundwater, is outgassing </li></ul>
    • 180. Work in progress <ul><li>Involvement in the </li></ul><ul><li>EUROPEAN RADON GEOGENIC MAP PROJECT </li></ul><ul><li>(ERGM) </li></ul>
    • 181. RADON -222 : A Naturally Occurring Radioactive Tracer in Hydrosphere UNIVERSITA’ DEGLI STUDI DI SALERNO Facoltà di Ingegneria Assessment of the Submarine Groundwater Discharge (SGD) Evaluation of the contamination of aquifers Assessment of the Groundwater Discharges in Lakes
    • 182. How to measure RADON-IN-WATER: RAD7: Radon Monitor RAD7 has an internal sample cell of a 0.7L hemisphere, with a solid state detector at the center. The inside of the hemisphere is coated with an electrical conductor which is charged to a potential of 2-4 kV relative to the detector. Positive charged progeny decayed from 222Rn and 220Rn are driven by the electric field towards the detector. When a progeny atom reaches the detector and subsequently decays and emits an alpha particle , the alpha particle has a 50% probability of being detected by the detector. As a result an electrical signal is generated with the strength being proportional to the alpha energy. RAD7 will then amplify and sort the signals according to their energies. The RAD7 spectrum is a scale of alpha energies from 0 to 10 MeV, which is divided into 200 channels each of 0.05 MeV width.
    • 183. RAD7 Alpha Energy Spectrum The alpha energies associated with 222 Rn and 220 Rn are in the range of 6-9 MeV. The channels related to them are grouped in 4 energy windows (labeled as A-D) 6.00 MeV Alpha from 218 Po (t 1/2 = 3 min) 6.78 MeV Alpha from 216 Po (t 1/2 = 0.15 s) 7.69 MeV Alpha from 214 Po 8.78 MeV Alpha from 212 Po
    • 184. RADH2O System <ul><li>The RADH2O is an accessory of the RAD7 that allows to measure radon-in-water </li></ul><ul><li>The lower limit of detection is less than 0.3 Bq/L </li></ul><ul><li>It gives results in 30 minutes </li></ul><ul><li>The RADH2O method employs a closed loop aeration scheme in which the air volume and the water volume are constant </li></ul>
    • 185. RADH2O System <ul><li>A sample bottle is connected to the RAD7 in a closed loop mode </li></ul>A dessiccant tube is placed before the air inlet of the counter. Its purpose is to adsorb moisture The sample bottle has a special screw-on cap with two ports.
    • 186. RADH2O System The technique consists in bubbling air directly into water The internal air pump of the RAD7 circulates the air at a flow rate of about 1L/min through the water and continuously extracts the radon The radon from the water sample circulates through the desiccant column, then through the RAD7’s chamber, and then back to water sample until an equilibrium between radon in water and in air is reached The RADH2O system reaches this state of equilibrium within 5 minutes After the radon air-water equilibrium is obtained, the radon activity concentration in the air loop is measured by counting alpha particles emitted by radon daughters in the chamber
    • 187. <ul><li>The activity concentration of radon in water is calculated from the distribution factor of radon between water and air given by Weigel: </li></ul><ul><li>The actual activity concentration in the water sample is given by: </li></ul><ul><li>As the volumes are fixed, the RAD7 gives automatically the result of C water </li></ul><ul><li>The activity concentration at the sampling istant is given by: </li></ul><ul><li>where λ is radon’s decay constant: λ = 0.1814 d -1 </li></ul>RADH2O System
    • 188. <ul><li>Another way to make an air circuit coupled to water, in order to extract radon from it, is to separate water and air through a diffusion membrane. </li></ul><ul><li>A suitable experimental set-up consists of the Durridge RAD7 in closed loop with a Durridge water probe </li></ul><ul><li>The Durridge water probe consists of a semi-permeable membrane tube mounted on an open wire frame. </li></ul><ul><li>The probe is placed in a closed loop with the RAD7 </li></ul>Water Probe <ul><li>When the probe is lowered into water, radon passes through the membrane until the radon concentration in the air in loop is in equilibrium with the radon concentration in the water </li></ul><ul><li>The equilibrium is given by Weigel’s equation and depends on temperature </li></ul><ul><li>The probe has an advantage in that it does not need a pump for the water </li></ul><ul><li>It will, however, take more than three hours to make a spot measurement </li></ul>
    • 189. Comparison Measurements Comparison measurements (21/11/09) C water = 7.5 ± 0.9 Bq/L (RADH2O) C air = 23000 ± 600 Bq/m 3 (Water Probe) K w = 0.312 -> C water = K w · C air = 7.2 ± 0.5 Bq/L (D. Guadagnuolo, PhD Thesis in Physics, 2009)
    • 190. Localization of the Bussento river basin
    • 191. Bussento River Basin and Policastro Gulf
    • 192.  
    • 193. Bussento river basin <ul><li>The Bussento river drainage basin is one of the major and more complex drainage river systems of the southern sector of Campania region </li></ul><ul><li>This complexity is due to the highly hydro geomorphological conditioning induced by the karst landforms and processes </li></ul><ul><li>It is characterized by widely and deeply karst features, like summit karst highlands with dolines, lowlands with blind valleys, streams disappearings into sinkholes, cave systems, karst-induced groundwater aquifers </li></ul><ul><li>The main stream originates from the upland springs of Mt Cervati (1888 m), one of the highest mountain ridges in Southern Apennines </li></ul><ul><li>Downstream the river flows partly in wide alluvial valleys and partly in steep gorges and rapids, where a number of springs, delivering fresh water from the aquifers into the streambed, increases progressively the river discharge. </li></ul>
    • 194.  
    • 195. The Middle Bussento Segment, comprising the WWF Oasis reach, is located in the Morigerati gorge, a typical epigenetic valley, along which groundwater inflows from epikarst springs, conduit springs and cave springs, supply a perennial streamflow in a step-and-pool river type. The Middle-Lower Bussento Segment is located more downstream. It comprises the Sicilì Bridge Reference reach, a plane bed river slightly entrenched in alluvial terrace and bedrock.
    • 196. <ul><li>Identification of the sampling monitoring station (river, spring) </li></ul><ul><li>Collection of the sample and/or measurement in situ </li></ul><ul><li>Measurement of other parameters of interest: river discharge, chemical and physical parameters (pH, dissolved oxygen, temperature…) </li></ul><ul><li>Measurement in laboratory </li></ul><ul><li>Data analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Planning of future campaigns according to the obtained results </li></ul>Measurement Protocol
    • 197. Data Analysis <ul><li>The radon activity concentration data have been arranged in relation to the fluvial level hierarchy: at segment scale and at reach scale </li></ul><ul><li>Two main river segment have been analyzed: Middle Bussento and Middle-Lower Bussento </li></ul><ul><li>Two reference reaches have been analyzed: Sicilì Bridge and WWF Oasis </li></ul><ul><li>An analysis of radon activity concentration measured at the springs has brought to the identification of three kinds of karst springs </li></ul><ul><li>An analysis of radon transfer from water to air has been made, applying different models </li></ul>
    • 198. Middle Bussento Segment
    • 199. Middle-Lower Bussento Segment
    • 200.  
    • 201.  
    • 202.  
    • 203.  
    • 204. Comparison with the Flood
    • 205. Seasonal Variation
    • 206. WWF Oasis Reference Reach
    • 207.  
    • 208.  
    • 209. Stagnant Film Model <ul><li>The radon content of river water is strongly affected by volatilization to the atmosphere </li></ul><ul><li>A model used to characterize the transfer of radon to the atmosphere is the stagnant film model </li></ul><ul><li>This model assumes that the rate of exchanges of gases between the water and the atmosphere is controlled by molecular diffusion through a stagnant film, tens of microns thick, at the water-air interface. </li></ul><ul><li>Both the air above and the water below this film are assumed to constitute two well-mixed reservoirs with uniform vertical concentrations separated by the stagnant film of water </li></ul>
    • 210. <ul><li>The thickness of the film is dependent on the degree of agitation of the water surface caused by wind, waves and currents </li></ul><ul><li>The thickness of the stagnant film, z, is estimated by comparing upstream and downstream radon concentrations in a section of the stream where it can be assumed there is no groundwater contribution to the streamflow </li></ul>Stagnant Film Model <ul><li>Two reference stations have been chosen to measure C US and C DS </li></ul><ul><li>From the equation </li></ul><ul><li>Where </li></ul><ul><li>An estimation of z has been obtained </li></ul>
    • 211. Stagnant Film Model Sicilì Bridge WWF Oasis
    • 212. Gas Exchange Analysis y = K x - δ <ul><li>A very sudden and sharp decrease can be observed </li></ul><ul><li>The best fit curve has turned out to be a Power Law </li></ul><ul><li>δ is a coefficient that indicates how quickly radon outgassing happens </li></ul><ul><li>The values are mainly included in the range between 2.5 and 3.5 </li></ul>
    • 213. Gas Exchange Analysis
    • 214. Modello di Kies-Hofmann et al. per la valutazione della portata delle acque sorgive profonde <ul><li>Grandezze da misurare: </li></ul><ul><li>C US C DS C m C q Concentrazioni Upstream, Downstream, Media e di Immissione Laterale </li></ul><ul><li>Q US Q DS Q m Portate Upstream, Downstream e Media </li></ul><ul><li>L Distanza tra le 2 stazioni di misura Upstream e Downstream </li></ul><ul><li>v Velocità del flusso per ricavare il tempo t </li></ul><ul><li>q Tasso di immissione laterale per unità di lunghezza </li></ul>C US C DS L v Q US Q DS C m Q m q C q
    • 215. Karst Springs Analysis
    • 216. Karst Springs Analysis
    • 217. SGD
    • 218. SGD “Vuddu”, Villammare, Policastro, Cilento (> 5mc/s)
    • 219.  
    • 220.  
    • 221.  
    • 222.  
    • 223. Submarine Groundwater Discharge <ul><li>O’ Vuddu (boiling water), Policastro., Italy </li></ul>
    • 224. <ul><li>Courtesy of </li></ul>
    • 225. PATHWAYS FOR POLLUTION <ul><li>Sinkholes </li></ul><ul><li>Cave Entrances </li></ul><ul><li>Cracks and Crevices </li></ul><ul><li>Filtration through Soil </li></ul><ul><li>Soil Macropores </li></ul>In karst landscapes, water can enter the aquifer through large openings, thus very little or no filtration occurs. Why to be concerned about Karst Aquifers?
    • 226. PATHWAYS FOR POLLUTION <ul><li>Sinkholes </li></ul><ul><li>Cave Entrances </li></ul><ul><li>Cracks and Crevices </li></ul><ul><li>Filtration through Soil </li></ul><ul><li>Soil Macropores </li></ul>Large openings (caves and crevices) are often continuous for the entire length of the aquifer (from inputs via sinks to exits at springs or wells).
    • 227. PATHWAYS FOR POLLUTION <ul><li>Sinkholes </li></ul><ul><li>Cave Entrances </li></ul><ul><li>Cracks and Crevices </li></ul><ul><li>Filtration through Soil </li></ul><ul><li>Soil Macropores </li></ul>Once in the aquifer, water and contaminates can move quickly… to both known and unpredictable locations!
    • 228. Karst groundwater is extremely susceptible to pollution… Urban pollution of groundwater: sewage, pavement runoff containing petrochemicals, trash, domestic and industrial chemicals Rural pollution of groundwater: sewage, fertilizers, pesticides, herbicides, dead livestock, and trash
    • 229. Contaminants associated with agricultural activities, such as nitrates, bacteria from livestock waste, and pesticides, are common in karst groundwater. Also, contaminants associated with urban runoff, such as lead, chromium, oil and grease, and bacteria from pet-animal wastes may be a threat to people using karst water supplies and to aquatic cave life.
    • 230. Karst landscape: a very complex network for groundwater From: USGS (2002) Exploring Caves, Washington, D.C., pp. 61.
    • 231. Karst aquifers and contamination © 2002, Nick Crawford Center for Cave and Karst Studies
    • 232.  
    • 233. <ul><li>Flooding </li></ul><ul><li>Catastrophic collapse: </li></ul><ul><li>regolith (soil) collapse </li></ul><ul><li>bedrock (cave) collapse </li></ul><ul><li>Construction problems: </li></ul><ul><li>stabilization of land for buildings and roads </li></ul>Courtesy by J. Alan Glennon Department of Geography University of California, Santa Barbara
    • 234. <ul><li>Water-supply development </li></ul><ul><li>quantity and quality </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental Health Issues </li></ul><ul><li>radon </li></ul><ul><li>acute contaminant exposure </li></ul><ul><li>medical geology </li></ul>
    • 235. What can be done about all these problems? <ul><li>Study karst environments and apply information to solutions </li></ul><ul><li>Make Informed Choices and Plans (Gather Information) </li></ul><ul><li>Implement plans with an understanding of ongoing processes </li></ul><ul><li>Know typical behavior for karst landscapes; prepare for it – budget for it </li></ul>
    • 236. Conclusions <ul><li>The implementation of radon measurement techniques has confirmed the perspective of using these methodologies to investigate the interaction between streamflow and groundwater in a river </li></ul><ul><li>Different measurement techniques have been tested and compared </li></ul><ul><li>Experimental data have been acquired during monthly measurement campaigns </li></ul><ul><li>Data have enabled to individuate a spatial and temporal variability of radon activity concentration along the river </li></ul><ul><li>Three typologies of karst springs have been identified </li></ul><ul><li>A flood event has been investigated comparing radon activity concentration during and after the flood </li></ul><ul><li>A preliminary investigation and modeling of radon diffusion from water to air has been made </li></ul>
    • 237. SGDCILERAD “ Submarine Groundwater Discharge assessment on the interregional coastal areas of Cilento, southern Italy, with measurements of natural isotopic tracers like 222-Radon”
    • 238. Our Project is funded by: Regional Water Authority – Autorità di Bacino in Sinistra Sele National Park of Cilento and Vallo di Diano CONSAC – Consorzio Acquedotto del Cilento Provincia di Salerno – Assessorato all’Ambiente University of Salerno Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare
    • 239. <ul><li>Possibility of 2 Marie Curie EU FP7 </li></ul><ul><li>starting from summer 2013. </li></ul><ul><li>Researchers who already have a Ph.D. degree </li></ul><ul><li>Deadline: August 2012 </li></ul><ul><li>Contact: prof.Michele Guida </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul>
    • 240. <ul><li>USE OF RADON-222 AS NATURALLY </li></ul><ul><li>OCCURRING TRACER FOR RESIDUAL </li></ul><ul><li>NAPL-CONTAMINATION OF AQUIFERS </li></ul>In collaboration with C.U.G.RI., ENI and Michael Schubert, UFZ Leipzig Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research – UFZ Leipzig, Germany
    • 241.  
    • 242.  
    • 243.  
    • 244.  
    • 245.  
    • 246.  
    • 247. some literature <ul><li>8° International Symposium on the Natural Radiation Environment (NREVIII), Buzios, Rio de Janeiro, Brasile, 07 – 12 Ottobre 2007; </li></ul><ul><li>International Workshop on “Measurement and Application of Radium and Radon Isotopes in Environmental Sciences”, Venezia, 07 – 11 Aprile 2008; </li></ul><ul><li>European Geosciences Union (EGU) General Assembly, Vienna, 13 – 18 Aprile 2008; </li></ul><ul><li>Giornate di studio: “Il rischio da contaminazione radioattiva: i casi radon e uranio impoverito”, Paestum, 29 – 30 Apr. 2008. </li></ul>
    • 248. International Collaborations: <ul><li>Grup de Fisica de les Radiacions, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Spagna; </li></ul><ul><li>Department of Oceanography, Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida, USA; </li></ul><ul><li>LARAMG - Laboratory of Radioecology and Global Changes, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasile; </li></ul><ul><li>Institut de Protection et de Sŭreté Nucléaire (I.R.S.N.), IRSN - DEI - SARG - LERAR, Francia; </li></ul><ul><li>Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research – UFZ, Leipzig, Germania; </li></ul><ul><li>Laboratoire de l’environnement marin, Département des sciences et des applications nucléaires, IAEA, Monaco. </li></ul><ul><li>Alexander Makarenko, National Technical University, Kyiv, Ukraine </li></ul>
    • 249. C.U.G.RI. ____________________________________________________ C.U.G.RI. Centro Universitario per la Previsione e Prevenzione dei Grandi Rischi University Centre for the Prediction and Prevention of Large Hazards Prof. Eugenio Pugliese Carratelli Director Barcellona 2009 www.cugri.unisa.it
    • 250. C.U.G.RI. is a Consortium between the University “Federico II” of Naples and the University of Salerno. It was established in 1993 by the Italian National Law Università degli Studi di Napoli “Federico II” Università degli Studi di Salerno
    • 251. Goals and operation CUGRI acts as a front end for the two founding Universities in the fields of the prediction and prevention of large hazards, natural and industrial. It works – mostly – under contracts from public bodies and private companies, by carrying out applied research , consultancy and field monitoring activities It also operates with its own funds (Italian Ministry of Research) to perform basic research . All the staff from the two Universities can operate within CUGRI But it also operates in association with Private Companies , other Universities , and other Scientific Institutions
    • 252. SECTORS ____________________________________________________ <ul><li>Hydrogeology </li></ul><ul><li>Coastal and Marine </li></ul><ul><li>Volcanic </li></ul><ul><li>Earthquake </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical-industrial and environmental </li></ul><ul><li>Radioactivity and Radioprotection </li></ul>
    • 253. OWN PROJECTS ____________________________________________________ <ul><li>Flood Risk </li></ul><ul><li>Landslide Risk </li></ul><ul><li>Meteo-marine risk </li></ul><ul><li>Soil mechanics actions for land protection </li></ul><ul><li>Hydraulic infrastructures and risks </li></ul><ul><li>Landslide hazards within the specific geology of the Campania Region </li></ul><ul><li>Building vulnerability and structural consolidation techniques </li></ul><ul><li>Safety and the environment </li></ul><ul><li>Parallel computing in environemental engineering </li></ul><ul><li>Assessment of the impact of the Natural Radioactivity on a regional scale. </li></ul>
    • 254. <ul><li>Institute of Geological Science, Jagellonian University, Krakòw, Polonia. </li></ul><ul><li>M.I.T. (Massachusetts Institute of Technology - Cambridge, U.S.A.). </li></ul><ul><li>Hydraulics Research Ltd. Wallingford, Oxfordshire, U.K. </li></ul><ul><li>CUJAE- Technical University of Havana (Cuba) </li></ul><ul><li>:---- see previous slides </li></ul>International Cooperation … so far ____________________________________________________
    • 255. Regional Autority <ul><li>Risk Prediction: </li></ul><ul><li>Landslides hazard </li></ul><ul><li>Coastal hazards and Coastal erotion </li></ul><ul><li>Flood hazard </li></ul>Autorità di Bacino Regionale Destra Sele Autorità di Bacino Regionale Sarno Autorità di Bacino Regionale Nord-Occidentale Autorità di Bacino Regionale Sinistra Sele HYDRAULICS, SOIL MECHANICS , GEOLOGY ____________________________________________________
    • 256.   Management of the hydrogeologic emergency in the City of Naples Technical and scientific support to the analysis of the hydrogeologic hazard and to the definition of a strategy for hazard mitigation. HYDRAULICS, SOIL MECHANICS ____________________________________________________
    • 257.   Outline of the Geografic Information System for Liri-Garigliano and Volturno River Catchments, in the hydraulic and geological hazard mitigation field HYDRAULICS, GEOLOGY, SOIL MECHANICS ____________________________________________________
    • 258.   REGIONE PIEMONTE Hydrological studies for the hydro-meteorological flood risk assessment Priola 05 November 1994 Pictures from the flooding of Alta Valle Tanaro e surroundings HYDRAULICS, HYDROLOGY ____________________________________________________
    • 259. HYDRAULICS ____________________________________________________ ITALIAN NATIONAL DAM MONITORING AND REGULATING AUTHORITY Dipartimento dei Servizi Tecnici Nazionali Evaluation of the studies about artificial flood waves produced by dam gates operation or by dam break events Breached dam during the Oder flood in 1998.  View looking downstream, through the breached dam section.
    • 260. Provincia Salerno HYDRAULICS, GEOLOGY, SOIL MECHANICS ____________________________________________________ Scientific support in the development of the Risk Prevention Plan
    • 261. European Project HYDRAULICS ____________________________________________________
    • 262. A special thought to a very special friend and colleague Sandro Pietrofaccia that recently left us and whose human and professional virtues will be forever a very important example and reference
    • 263. Having fun with scientific research Working very hard on the field
    • 264. Thanks to all the guys from the RAD_Campania group <ul><li>Albina Cuomo (Environmental Engineer) </li></ul><ul><li>Mariella De Piano (Environmental Engineer) </li></ul><ul><li>Davide Guadagnuolo (Experimental Physicist) </li></ul><ul><li>Domenico Guida (Geomorphologist) </li></ul><ul><li>Michela Iamarino (Pedologist) </li></ul><ul><li>Simona Mancini (Civil Engineer) </li></ul><ul><li>Anna Pelosi (Environmental Engineer) </li></ul><ul><li>Lucia Pergamo (Civil Engineer) </li></ul><ul><li>Nicoletta Pisacreta (Civil Engineer) </li></ul><ul><li>Enrico Sicignano (Architect, Building Engineer) </li></ul><ul><li>Vincenzo Siervo (Geologist, GIS expert) </li></ul>A very special one to the CUGRI staff: E. Pugliese Carratelli (Scientific Director), G. Benevento (Technical Director), P. Meloro (Administration Responsible) Last but not least: nothing would have been possible without the warm and friendly encouragement of Aldo De Marco, Pasquale Persico, Fabio Rossi
    • 265. Macroscopic World Tens of meters/meters Tens of cm / centimeters (10 -2 m) millimeters (10 -3 m) Objects from everyday’s life Measuring tools:
    • 266. Microscopic World 10 micrometers (1  m = 10 -6 m) 100 nanometers (1 nm = 10 -9 m) cromosomes microelectronical circuits Cells Measuring tools:
    • 267. Angstrom (1 Å = 10 -10 m) 1  10 Fermis (1 F = 10 -15 m) < 10 -18 m Atomic and Subatomic World Atom Nucleus Proton (1.7 x 10 -27 kg) Neutron Quark “ up” Quark “ down” Electrons (m= 9 x 10 -31 kg, q = - 1.6 x 10 -19 C) measuring tools: 1 F
    • 268. Earth Sun (eclipse) spiral galaxy Cluster of galaxies “ Bubbles” of galaxies 10 7 m 10 9 m the Milky Way Our Galaxy 10 20 m 1 light-year = 10 16 m = 10000 billions of km 10 23 m 10 25 m Macrocosm measuring tools
    • 269. <ul><li>1908-1910 - Esperiments by GEIGER, MARSDEN and RUTHERFORD: </li></ul><ul><li>bombing of thin metallic plates with  ; on the average 1  over 20000 was scattered at an angle larger than 90°. </li></ul><ul><li>1900 – THOMSON’s Atomic Model: </li></ul><ul><li>The atom is a homogeneous (electrically neutral) system, containing electrons uniformly distributed in it, whose charge is balanced by some point-like positive charges (“plumcake” model). </li></ul>Rutherford’s Atomic Model: atom is a sort of a small solar system . <ul><li>1919 – Rutherford assumed that inside the nucleus there were positively charged particles: protons . </li></ul>Thomson’s Atom
    • 270. Why High Energies are needed? <ul><li>how can we “see” the </li></ul><ul><li>objects in the microcosm? </li></ul><ul><li>We use high energy particles </li></ul><ul><li>as projectiles to illumininate </li></ul><ul><li>the target and use particle detectors e </li></ul><ul><li>as “our eyes”. </li></ul><ul><li>how can we see the ordinary objects? </li></ul><ul><li>We use visible light as a source of projectiles (photons) to illuminate objects and our eyes as detectors to see them. </li></ul>  Heisenberg uncertainty relation  p  x = h
    • 271. Particle Accelerators <ul><li>1933 – Ernest LAWRENCE realized the first cyclotron in the USA. In 1939 he made </li></ul><ul><li>another one with a diameter of 1.5 m . </li></ul><ul><li>1960 – Bruno TOUSCHEK conceived the first </li></ul><ul><li>circular collider: AdA (Anello di Annichilazione = Accumulation Ring) at the italian INFN laboratories (INFN = Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, National Institute of Nuclear Physics) </li></ul><ul><li>in Frascati, in the neighborhood of Rome, Italy. </li></ul>e+ e-
    • 272. The approach 1) Produce beams of accelerated particles p article accelerators
    • 273. The approach <ul><li>2) Make the particles from the two oppisite beams colliding one against each other. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Production of “events” with creation of new” particles </li></ul></ul>
    • 274. The approach <ul><li>3) “measure” the particles produced and store all the experimental informations </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>particle detectors </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    • 275. The approach 4) Analyze all the informations collected
    • 276. Why do we need particle accelerators so large?
    • 277. LHC ALICE LHC: circular ring long 27 km <ul><li>Circular accelerators: to make every particle in a beam passing more times through the accelerating elements. </li></ul><ul><li>But at high energies sychrotron radiation occurs. </li></ul><ul><li>A charged particle moving along a cirdular trajectory looses energy by emitting photons. </li></ul>emitted energy constant particle energy orbit radius <ul><li>Increasing the radius of the accelerator the loss of energy, by radiation, diminishes. </li></ul>
    • 278. Why do we need High Energies?
    • 279. To produce “new” particles <ul><li>To be able to produce and investigate in the terrestrial labs particles with bigger and bigger masses </li></ul>
    • 280. Per sondarne la struttura <ul><li>To investigate the structure of matter at scales smaller and smaller. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To each particle is associated a wave, with a wavelength (which is small if the energy is is high) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>with the increasing of the energy (diminishing of the wavelength) smaller details can be resolved and be “seen”. </li></ul></ul>low energy high energy sonda target
    • 281. New forms of matter produced in high energy collisions E = Mc 2 (c = velocity of light in the vacuum = 300.000 km/s) A spoon filled with water contains a quantity of matter equivalent to the amount of energy needed to power an apartment for 5 kyears.
    • 282. The Standard Model <ul><li>1967 – S. WEINBERG, A. SALAM, S. GLASHOW: </li></ul><ul><li>Unified theory of the electromagnetic and the nuclear weak interactions into the ELECTROWEAK INTERACTION. </li></ul>3 families of Fundamental Particles, grouped in doublets u d c s t b e    e     electric charge +2/3 -1/3 0 -1 quarks (q) leptons increasing mass I II III
    • 283. - 1 0 5.1 x 10 -4 < 2 x 10 -8 Electron Neutrino e Electron  e LEPTONS Name Mass (GeV/c 2 ) Charge - 1 0 0.106 < 3 x 10 -4 Muon Neutrino  Muon   - 1 0 1.784 4 x 10 -2 Tau Neutrino  Tau   QUARKS Name Mass (GeV/c 2 ) Charge + 2/3 - 1/3 4 x 10 -3 7 x 10 -3 Up Down u d + 2/3 - 1/3 1.5 0.15 Strange c Charm s + 2/3 - 1/3 175 4 .7 Bottom t Top b F A M I L Y I II III
    • 284. Relative strength 20 1 10 -38 10 -7 Strong interaction responsible for the build-up of the nucleus EM inteaction responsible for the stability of the atom Weak interaction responsible of radioactive decays Gravitational interaction responsible of the stability of the solar system The 4 fundamental interactions
    • 285. Particle Interaction mediated by the exchange of other particles? A pictorial view ... The exchange of the ball « generates » a repulsive force
    • 286. W+, W-, Z° g ??? Gravity Weak EM Strong Interactions Messengers (interaction quanta) INTERMEDIATING BOSONS Name Mass (GeV/c 2 ) Charge 0 0 0 91.19 Z  Photon Z + 1 80.6 W + 0 0 Gluon g - 1 80.6 W - W + W -
    • 287. <ul><li>1983 – At CERN (European Center for Particle Physics) di Ginevra , Carlo RUBBIA and the international collaboration (UA1) discover the messengers W+, W- and Z° of the electroweak interaction </li></ul>Carlo Rubbia and Simon van der Meer p p X Z° e + e _ p p electron positron
    • 288. fixed target Energy+0 Center of mass energy =  2m•Energy p p
    • 289. Energy+Energy c.m. Energy = 2•Energy Collider p p
    • 290. DESY e - p (  300 Gev)
    • 291. LEP : Large Electron Positron collider (1989-2000) LHC: Large Hadron Collider (2007-2020) 27 km CERN European Center for Particle Physics LEP/ LHC SPS CERN GINEVRA LEP/ LHC SPS CERN GENEVA
    • 292. CERN LEP e + -e - (  200 Gev) LHC- 2007 pp (  16000 Gev) 27 Km
    • 293. Large Hadron Collider (LHC) <ul><li>27 km long </li></ul><ul><li>Around 100 m below the ground </li></ul><ul><li>protons accelerated up to 99.9999991 % of the light speed </li></ul><ul><li>> 10 000 orbits/s </li></ul><ul><li>Coolest locations in the solar system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Superconducting magnets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-270.45 o C </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(absolute zero: -273.15 o C) </li></ul></ul>
    • 294. Bubble Chamber
    • 295. + + + + + + Enable to determine particle trajectory and if used with a magnetic field measurement of its momentum is enabled too. Wire Chambers gas + -
    • 296. Wire Chambers NB: the particle is not destroyed !!! Space resolution  0,05  0,1 mm gas In campo magnetico
    • 297. Calorimeter NB: the particle is destroyed !! Energy transformed into fluorescence light Fe/Pb ... Fotomultiplier (PM) scintillator
    • 298. The typical structure of a detector on colliders Fascio Tracciatore Muoni Calorimetro Tracciatore
    • 299.  
    • 300. ZEUS- Hamburg Particle Jet Electron after collision Electron (30 GeV) Proton (820 GeV) Calorimeter Tracker
    • 301. neutrino
    • 302. LHC Experiments ATLAS CMS Designed for high p T physics in p-p collisions ALICE Dedicated LHC Heavy Ion experiment Diameter ~ 9 km CERN LHC
    • 303. ALICE Collaboration ~ 1000 Members (63% from CERN MS) ~30 Countries ~100 Institutes ~ 150 MCHF capital cost (+ ‘free’ magnet)
    • 304. Heavy Ion Collision t = - 3 fm/c t = 0 hard collisions t = 1 fm/c pre-equilibrium t = 5 fm/c QGP t = 10 fm/c hadron gas t = 40 fm/c freeze-out
    • 305. ALICE Set-up HMPID Muon Arm TRD PHOS PMD ITS TOF TPC Size : ~ 16 x 26 m 2 Weight : ~ 10,000 tons
    • 306. ALICE@LHC A L arge I on C ollider E xperiment <ul><li>ALICE Experiment </li></ul><ul><li>Pb-Pb Results </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spectra & Particle Ratios </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flow & Correlations & Fluctuations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>R AA of inclusive particles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heavy open Flavour </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>J/  </li></ul></ul>QM2011 J. Schukraft
    • 307. Detector layout 1 TOF sectors is divided in 5 modules: 2 external (19 strips), 2 intermediate (19 strips), 1 central (15 strips) 91 strips/SuperModule 157248 pads total sensitive area: ~150 m 2 2 crates /side
    • 308. MOUNTING MODULES ON THE ASSEMBLY BENCH
    • 309. SMs installed in the pit waiting for next installation window 0 17 1 7 8
    • 310.  
    • 311. SMs installed in the pit
    • 312. TOF SM: services, readout crates and cover as in real life Services TOF SM cover Readout crates
    • 313. TOF SM: cooling support 8 ‘ traversi ’ (Al) 2 ‘ longheroni ’ (Al) real simulation
    • 314. TOF digits: Pb-Pb event
    • 315. TOF raw data: Pb-Pb event
    • 316. TOF clusters: Pb-Pb event
    • 317. TOF raw data: cosmic ray run 14493_236 (1)
    • 318. TOF raw data: cosmic ray run 14493_236 (2)
    • 319. TOF raw data: cosmic ray run 14493_236 (3)
    • 320.  
    • 321.  
    • 322. April 2011J. Schukraft
    • 323. CDS – NA 4 Luglio 2011 Gruppo Collegato di Salerno ALICE Status ALICE Detector Status Complete since 2008 : ITS, TPC TOF, HMPID, FMD, T0, ZDC, PMD, ACORDE, MuonArm, DAQ Installation 2010 : 4/10 EMCAL 7/18 TRD 3/5 PHOS ~60% HLT Installation 2011 : 10/10 EMCAL 10/18 TRD (to be completed end 2011) HMPID EMCAL PHOS ITS TPC TRD TOF L3 Magnet
    • 324. Open problems in Particle Physics <ul><li>Basic questions </li></ul><ul><li>Mass origin (does it exist the Higgs particle? What is her mass and which are her properties? Do we have different kinds of her? etc.); </li></ul><ul><li>Structure and hierarchy of the elementary constituents ( are quarks and leptons the basic “bricks” of Matter? Are they elementary or complex or made of other more elementary elements ? strings , superstrings ? ); </li></ul><ul><li>Electrical Charge Quantization (origin of quantization, problem of non-integer electrical charges (why they are not observable?), etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Space-time quantization ? </li></ul>
    • 325. BABAR CMS KLOE AUGER VIRGO OPERA ICARUS WARP ARGO T2K-RD ERNA ATLAS LUNA GAMMA PRISMA ISOSPIN NUCL-EX EDEN-FIESTA EXOTIC SUBNUCLEAR ASTROPARTICLE NUCLEAR PHYSICS JYFL RIKEN GSI LNS GANIL ANL LNGS DTL BENE, HARP CERN JPARK <ul><li>RICERCHE INTERDISCIPLINARI </li></ul><ul><li>Acceleratori, Rivelatori, Analisi di immagini per applicazioni medicali </li></ul><ul><li>Tecniche nucleari per i beni culturali </li></ul><ul><li>GRID Computing </li></ul>Observ. Sud Malargue YANGBAJING SLAC LISA LNL Cascina Tn LNF WIZARD PAMELA Polar Orbit Satellite Raggi cosmici di alta energia Lampi di raggi gamma Materia oscura Antimateria Decadimento del protone Fisica del neutrino Onde gravitazionali Ricerca di Higgs Supersimmetria Processi di QCD Matrice CKM Oltre il Modello Standard Violazione di CP nei decadimenti di B, K INFN Sezione di Napoli Reazioni di Fusione – Fissione - Astrofisica nucleare Nuclei esotici – Eccitazioni di risonanze – Reazioni di rottura - Nuclei ricchi di neutroni – Reazioni nucleari indotte da ioni pesanti - Multiframmentazione – Transizioni di fase nella materia nucleare – Ruolo dell ’isospin nelle reazioni nucleari
    • 326. Having fun with scientific research … and working very hard on the field!!!! Thank you so much for your patience and good luck for your life!!

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