Advanced energy technology for sustainable development. Part 3
International Symposium on Global SustainabilityInstitute of Sustainable ScienceAdvanced energy technology for sustainable development - Analysis of energy for sustainability- Satoshi Konishi Institute for Sustainability Science, Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University Aug.12-13, 2011 Summer School AACIMP-2011 Kyiv Polytechnic Institute, Ukraine
Fusion Electricity Institute of Sustainable Science International Symposium on Global SustainabilityEnergy converted to heat and fuel lithium Energy generated by fusion reaction deuterium neutron neutron tritium Fusion reactor tritium Fusion fuel Electricity Power train breeding Fuel cycle Coolant
Why fuels?International Symposium on Global Sustainability Institute of Sustainable Science Market 3 times larger than electricity・Carbon-free fuels required Automobile － Exhausting fossil resources － Global warming and CO2 emission・Future fuel use Aircraft － Fuel cells , automobile 25 － aircrafts, ships Energy demand(GTOE) Electricity 20 Solid Fuel・Dispersed electricity system Liquid Fuel Gaseous Fuel － Cogeneration 15 － Fuel cell, － micro gas turbine 10 5(could be other synthetic fuels) 0 2000 2020 2040 2060 2080 2100 Year Substitute fewer than electricity source Example of Outlook of Global Energy Consumption by IPCC92a
Future Energy System International Symposium on Global Sustainability Institute of Sustainable Science ・Electricity and Synthetic fuels mutually converted － Resources required for raw material and energy － Substitution and competition RenewablesRaw material Energy Conversion grid Electrolysis Utility gas Water H2 Electricity Shift CH 4 Fossil Reaction transport resources MeOH Heat Reforming Syn. Fuel cell Indepenent Biomass fuels power Cogene- Nuclear ration CO2 chemical sequestration
Fuel Production from biomass Institute of Sustainable Science International Symposium on Global Sustainability 16MJ External Heat，900℃ 8.2MJBiomass (1kg) + H2O H2,CO endothermic cellulose：（C6H10O5）n/6+ n/6H2O → nH2 + nCO – 136n [kJ] lignin: (CH1.4O0.3)n + 0.7nH2O → 1.4nH2 + nCO –136n[kJ] 24.2MJ Shift Reaction CO + H2O ⇔ H2 + CO2 + 32 [kJ] Waste heatFischer-Tropsch reaction hydrogen Carbon Neutral 2H2 + CO → -CH2- + H2O + 160 [kJ] Waste /usable 8.1MJCarbon free OIL alcane Heat for(0.5 litter) 15.6MJ generation
Biomass conversion to fuel Institute of Sustainable Science International Symposium on Global SustainabilityBiomass 1kg external heat Gas product H2：0.138kg,69mol H2O 8.2MJ CO:0.38ｋｇ,14mol Cellulose, lignin CO2：0.74kg,17mol CH4：0.009kg,0.56mol21MJ (CH1-2O0-1)n Chemical reactor １ｋｇ 1.0MJ Waste 0.40kg 24.2MJ 53mol loss 4MJ H2O：0.76kg,42mol CO２:0.13ｋｇ、3mol 8.1MJ FT synthesis 0.4MJ CH4:0.009kg,0.56mol Heat loss or generation diesel(hydrocarbon) Fusion energy used for -CH2-：0.39kg,28mol conversion15.6MJ Energy comes from Carbon free oil 0.5 liter waste biomass
Gasification of CelluloseInstitute of Sustainable Science International Symposium on Global Sustainability >95% carbon was converted to fuel gases (H2, CO and CH4) with Ni catalyst. Thermochemical equilibrium 100 CH4 80 Co CO2 Conversion[%] Ni CO 60 No Cat. experiments 40 CH4 20 CO2 CO 0 600 700 800 900 1000 Temperature[℃] This conversion efficiency is practical level.
Gasification of Cellulose Institute of Sustainable Science International Symposium on Global SustainabilityCellulose as a representative of waste biomass(garbage, paper, wood, straw…) Simple experiment can prove this reaction.
Concept of the biomass reactor International Symposium on Global Sustainability Institute of Sustainable Science cellulose rignin Reaction 0.29 0.41Assumed biamass:6Mton/year heat(kJ) (cellulose 70%,lignin 30%) 60 60 Reaction time(s) biomass steamFusion 10mreactorLiquid metal 900℃ Liquid metal path Diameter:~3.5mReactor tube：29500 Gas product Biomass/product path path Concept of the reactor
High temperature reactor>900゜C Institute of Sustainable Science International Symposium on Global Sustainability Loop operated >900 ゜ C Only in the test vessel SiC module ヒーティングコイル アルミナ管 IHX heat transfer from LiPb to HeInstalled in 900 ゜ C vessel
Use of Fusion EnergyInstitute of Sustainable Science International Symposium on Global SustainabilityNeutron SynFUEL HEAT Fusion Plant Industries Heat generation heat Efficient generation desalination Domestic use
Biomass and Fusion International Symposium on Global Sustainability Institute of Sustainable Science Biomass converted to fuels by endothermic reaction. （C6H10O5）n+ nH2O → 6nH2 + 6nCO – 816n [kJ] Biomass (waste, urban and agricultural) （18Mton/year⇔ 2120 t/h Current Japanese burnable Garbage 60Mton/year） Fusion Plant Hydrogen 280 t/h1GW electricity equivalent Reactor heat Fuel Cell Vehicle 1.1M/day* feeds 17M/year1700** Free from Carnot’s Efficiency limit. steam(640 t/h)* 6kg/day.vehicle ** 460g/year.vehicle Fusion energy can be converted to hydrogen, and fuels.
Energy Conversion efficiencyInternational Symposium on Global Sustainability Institute of Sustainable Science water Electricity ~30% Nuclear heat generation hydrogen Thermal cycle Electrolysis Loss (40~70%~30C) Loss water ~50% Nuclear heat IS process hydrogen Biomass Chemical cycle water Loss(50%~120C) (with enthalpy) Biomass ~270% Nuclear heat gasification Hydrogen+CO Electricity Chemical cycle~20% Loss(30%~300C) FT oil ~200% generation
Biomass conversion power plant Institute of Sustainable Science International Symposium on Global Sustainability H2 CO + H2O ⇔ H2 + CO2 Hydrogen 9.0kg/s Liquid fuel Gas separator CO2：90kg/s CH4：1.5kg/s Shift reactor 300℃ water 25kg/s biomass Heat exchange 63kg/s reactor Preheat No thermal cycle used. water No waste heat 28kg/s Discarded. gas Fusion reactor：500MW H2 5.3kg/s residue CO 39kg/sCarbon free heat source 10kg/s CO2 29kg/s CH4 1.5kg/s
Biomass-Fusion Hybrid plant Institute of Sustainable Science International Symposium on Global Sustainability 5700ton/day Kyoto×4 Biomass Electricity supply Thermal energy to reactor Landfill cost 300[MW/sec] Reactor cost Fusion Product fuel First generation price FUSION plant can Diesel fuel Supply fuel to the market with 1620kl/dayThermal energy flow competitive price. HER: Heat exchanger reactorElectrical energy flow SEG: Steam-electric generator Fuel is used for material flow FTR: Fischer-Tropsche reactor generators in microgrids. money flow FST: Fuel Storage Tank
Why waste biomass? International Symposium on Global SustainabilityInstitute of Sustainable ScienceLarge amount of biomass is discarded - burnable garbage - agricultural byproduct - woods - (plastics) Combustion LandfillExternal CO2Energy Conversion to useSource Fuel emission (regarded Reduction of fossil as neutral) consumption replacing fossil reduces CO2 emission
Case Study Summary International Symposium on Global Sustainability Institute of Sustainable Science Garbage Woody Agriculture Forestry BiomassCost(JPY/L) -51.6 -42.66 44.16 50.1Biomass production(t/year) 7,746,000 267,000 1,195,000 446,000Diesel Product(kL/year) 2,045,000 114,000 487,000 191,000SRequired energy（MW) 941 61 263 101Fusion energy efficiency 2.90 2.51 2.47 2.51Total energy efficiency 0.70 0.64 0.65 0.63・fusion energy efficiency＝product diesel chemical energy/fusion heat・total energy efficiency＝ product diesel chemical energy/consumed energy
National Total International Symposium on Global Sustainability Institute of Sustainable Science garbage agriculture forestry Woody wasteWaste total(t/year) 38,067,000 14,650, 000 2,068, 000 1,497, 000Diesel production 8,992, 000 4,819, 000 714, 000 517, 000(kL/year) Diesel total：15,000,000kL/year aircrafts kerosene diesel Oil demand 5,324,600 （24,382,000） 36,323,000 (kL/year) Transport demand：42,000,000kL/year ・36％ demand can be supplied Replace fossil with carbon free fuel to recuce CO2 emission
Cost of running vehicles International Symposium on Global Sustainability Institute of Sustainable Science Electricity price(8.2¥/kWh) Based on 35 EV Running cost[¥/km] Kyoto area 25 15 diesel Dielsel milage 15km/L 5 Biomass diesel -5 0 10 20 30 40 Electric vehicle Cost of electricity[¥/kWh] Running distance[km] 200 Battery capacity[kWh] 24 Biomass diesel cost starting Battery cost[104¥/kWh] 10 from-1.8[¥/km] Battery livce[104km] 10 ・battery cost 32¥/kWh・to run vehicles, using electricity to convert biomass to diesel could be cheaper than Evs.
Summary of biomass fuel Institute of Sustainable Science International Symposium on Global Sustainability• Fuel production from biomass has larger market than electricity.• Substituting Oil contributes CO2 reduction• As renewable, fuel production is more important than electricity.• Biomass-Fusion Hybrid will give a good chance for Hybrid Device smaller than ITER and easier.• Advanced fission or renewable electricity can be used for biofuel production.• Utilizing waste biomass promote material recycle and improve green industry. Biomass can respond to global environment and resource problem in the near future!
Future world with fusion hydrogen WASTE RECYCLE FUEL Independent Electricity HEAT Grid electricity HYDROGEN TRANSPORT FUEL VEHICLE Fusion Plant Desalination AIRCRAFT Of seawater
Future world with fusion hydrogen Fusion Plant Heatfactory Farming electricity Desalination Plant HYDROGEN houses Transport
Edo era.Poor but sustainable with controlled energy supply