Features of Input of Second Language Acquisition Article by Xiaoru Wang Project by Sarah Ruff
What is Input? <ul><li>A variety of student and teacher characteristics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intelligence </li></ul></ul>...
Features of Input <ul><li>Simplified, input is “general learning or teaching style” </li></ul><ul><li>Students in other co...
Optimal Input <ul><li>Stephen Krashen </li></ul><ul><li>Said “optimal input” in the classroom should: </li></ul><ul><ul><l...
“ Be Comprehensible” <ul><li>Material should be reasonably paced </li></ul><ul><li>Material should not be too demanding </...
“ Be Interesting” <ul><li>Most textbooks available to Chinese ELLs are designed to cater solely to the needs of exams </li...
“ Be In Sufficient Quantity” <ul><li>Main concern of optimal input hypothesis </li></ul><ul><li>Difference between learnin...
“ Be Authentic” <ul><li>ELLs in native country are not exposed to authentic speech patterns </li></ul><ul><li>Must learn m...
Application in the Classroom <ul><li>Relevant/interesting topics within the classroom </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Student life <...
Application continued. <ul><li>Language activities establishing relationships between forms and meanings </li></ul><ul><ul...
For example…… <ul><li>Given this “formal” dialogue: </li></ul><ul><li>Perform “informally”: </li></ul>Click image to play
In Conclusion <ul><li>English language teachers ought to provide students with optimal input </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage s...
Source <ul><li>Wang, Xiaoru (2010). Features of Input of Second Language Acquisition.  Journal  </li></ul><ul><li>Of Langu...
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Input ESOL

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Input ESOL

  1. 1. Features of Input of Second Language Acquisition Article by Xiaoru Wang Project by Sarah Ruff
  2. 2. What is Input? <ul><li>A variety of student and teacher characteristics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intelligence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sex </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning style </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teaching style </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Previous experience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Motivation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attitudes </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Features of Input <ul><li>Simplified, input is “general learning or teaching style” </li></ul><ul><li>Students in other countries learning English: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Depend almost entirely on classroom to improve English skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Only hear “Teacher talk” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Short, simple, grammatically correct sentences </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>General, high frequency vocabulary </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unreal, irrelevant questions </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Teachers do most of the talking </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Uninteresting topics </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Optimal Input <ul><li>Stephen Krashen </li></ul><ul><li>Said “optimal input” in the classroom should: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Be comprehensible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be interesting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be in sufficient quantity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be authentic </li></ul></ul><ul><li>If learner is exposed to these, language acquisition more likely to occur </li></ul>
  5. 5. “ Be Comprehensible” <ul><li>Material should be reasonably paced </li></ul><ul><li>Material should not be too demanding </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If a student cannot keep up with the rate of exposure, he will fail to comprehend and thus fail to acquire </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. “ Be Interesting” <ul><li>Most textbooks available to Chinese ELLs are designed to cater solely to the needs of exams </li></ul><ul><li>To prepare for these tests, students have little time to read more interesting materials </li></ul>
  7. 7. “ Be In Sufficient Quantity” <ul><li>Main concern of optimal input hypothesis </li></ul><ul><li>Difference between learning English in native vs. target language environment </li></ul><ul><li>Students may only have textbook to rely on </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Important to provide material from which they can derive meaning rather than just grammatical concepts </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. “ Be Authentic” <ul><li>ELLs in native country are not exposed to authentic speech patterns </li></ul><ul><li>Must learn more than “textbook English”, which: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Simplifies material lexically and syntactically </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Loss of cultural meaning </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Application in the Classroom <ul><li>Relevant/interesting topics within the classroom </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Student life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Clothing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Family </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Likes/dislikes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Immediate environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Classroom </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Application continued. <ul><li>Language activities establishing relationships between forms and meanings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hands-on activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Using spoken/written forms to achieve a goal </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Teaching both formal AND informal English </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Present a conversation in formal English </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>With another English speaker, “perform” the same dialogue informally </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lead a discussion with the students pointing out the differences </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. For example…… <ul><li>Given this “formal” dialogue: </li></ul><ul><li>Perform “informally”: </li></ul>Click image to play
  12. 12. In Conclusion <ul><li>English language teachers ought to provide students with optimal input </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage students to explore optimal input outside of classroom </li></ul><ul><li>If teachers could employ this strategy, they should find their teaching more effective </li></ul>
  13. 13. Source <ul><li>Wang, Xiaoru (2010). Features of Input of Second Language Acquisition. Journal </li></ul><ul><li>Of Language Teaching And Research, 1(3). Retrieved July 5, 2010, from </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.academypublisher.com/ojs/index.php/jltr/article/view/0103282284/1813 </li></ul>

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