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Input ESOL


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  • 1. Features of Input of Second Language Acquisition Article by Xiaoru Wang Project by Sarah Ruff
  • 2. What is Input?
    • A variety of student and teacher characteristics
      • Intelligence
      • Sex
      • Personality
      • Learning style
      • Teaching style
      • Previous experience
      • Motivation
      • Attitudes
  • 3. Features of Input
    • Simplified, input is “general learning or teaching style”
    • Students in other countries learning English:
      • Depend almost entirely on classroom to improve English skills
      • Only hear “Teacher talk”
          • Short, simple, grammatically correct sentences
          • General, high frequency vocabulary
          • Unreal, irrelevant questions
          • Teachers do most of the talking
          • Uninteresting topics
  • 4. Optimal Input
    • Stephen Krashen
    • Said “optimal input” in the classroom should:
      • Be comprehensible
      • Be interesting
      • Be in sufficient quantity
      • Be authentic
    • If learner is exposed to these, language acquisition more likely to occur
  • 5. “ Be Comprehensible”
    • Material should be reasonably paced
    • Material should not be too demanding
      • If a student cannot keep up with the rate of exposure, he will fail to comprehend and thus fail to acquire
  • 6. “ Be Interesting”
    • Most textbooks available to Chinese ELLs are designed to cater solely to the needs of exams
    • To prepare for these tests, students have little time to read more interesting materials
  • 7. “ Be In Sufficient Quantity”
    • Main concern of optimal input hypothesis
    • Difference between learning English in native vs. target language environment
    • Students may only have textbook to rely on
      • Important to provide material from which they can derive meaning rather than just grammatical concepts
  • 8. “ Be Authentic”
    • ELLs in native country are not exposed to authentic speech patterns
    • Must learn more than “textbook English”, which:
      • Simplifies material lexically and syntactically
      • Loss of cultural meaning
  • 9. Application in the Classroom
    • Relevant/interesting topics within the classroom
      • Student life
        • Clothing
        • Family
        • Likes/dislikes
      • Immediate environment
        • Classroom
  • 10. Application continued.
    • Language activities establishing relationships between forms and meanings
      • Hands-on activities
      • Using spoken/written forms to achieve a goal
    • Teaching both formal AND informal English
      • Present a conversation in formal English
      • With another English speaker, “perform” the same dialogue informally
      • Lead a discussion with the students pointing out the differences
  • 11. For example……
    • Given this “formal” dialogue:
    • Perform “informally”:
    Click image to play
  • 12. In Conclusion
    • English language teachers ought to provide students with optimal input
    • Encourage students to explore optimal input outside of classroom
    • If teachers could employ this strategy, they should find their teaching more effective
  • 13. Source
    • Wang, Xiaoru (2010). Features of Input of Second Language Acquisition. Journal
    • Of Language Teaching And Research, 1(3). Retrieved July 5, 2010, from