HumanismAnd aRebirth inLearningThe RenaissanceRise ofCapitalismOld Greek and Roman Learning New Asian Ideas( Muslims, Chinese, Indians)Why Italy?In Art In LiteratureCommerceEffects of the CrusadesMiddle ClassEnd of FeudalismHumanismRise of MarketsRise of New Towns
Effects of The Crusades on the Economy:• New Markets and Towns:- Were created because of the revival of trade after the crusades• End of Feudalism:- Freed serfs left the manors and moved to the new cities and towns- A money economy replaced land ownership as the means of wealth
The Commercial Revolution• Commercial Revolution:- A “change” from a feudal economy to money (market) economy• Market Economy:- The demand for a product and the supply available → determines the price ofa product (market system)• Capitalism:- An economic system- Based on using capital → “investment money”- Prices are determined by the market• Rise of the Middle Class:- Created in the new towns- they were business people; merchants, bankers and craftsmen• Guilds: business organizations created to promote and protect a certain trade(craft) in a community or region
“International” Trade• Hanseatic League: (Northern Europe – Baltic Sea)- An organization of trading merchants from large cities located in northernEurope- It was a reaction to the success and domination of the Italians in the south• Italian City-States: (Southern Europe – Mediterranean Sea)- They dominated trade between Asia and the Europe- Venice, Genoa and Naples- Very independent
Renewed Interest in Learning (People became more creative and began to look at things from adifferent perspective)• Greek and Roman Learning: was “reborn” in Europe- Art – Philosophy – Literature - Science• Asian Learning: (Asian ideas spread to Europe through trade with the Muslims)- Navigation (sailing)- Science- Medicine• Monastic System: (Monks in monasteries)- Preserved and spread old and new learning- Began new universities
Why the Renaissance Began in Italy• Italy’s great location Led them to become great traders• trade Led to great wealth• wealth Led to many patrons• patrons Led to great universitiesworks of art
Florence, Italy:- Center of the Renaissance artistic world- Grew from the support of the Medici familyPatrons:- Wealthy people who sponsored artists and thinkers to do great workMedici Family:- Bankers from Florence- Used their wealth to control politics- Sponsored great artists in Italy
Humanism• humanism:- The intellectual and artistic movement that took place during the Renaissance- Focused more on everyday life (secular)• secular:- Not church related- Part of the everyday world
Humanism in ArtHow Art became humanistic:Themes: everyday manTechnique: used “perspective”perspective: technique used to make images look more realistic(3 dimensional)
Leonardo da Vinci: (1452-1519)“Renaissance Man” – could do many things → really wellPaintings: (Mona Lisa) and the “Last Supper”
Michelangelo Buonarroti: (1475-1564)Great sculptor and painterStatue of “David”Painted ceiling of the Sistine Chapel
Humanism in LiteratureHow literature became humanistic: wrote less about religion and more abouteveryday life- Wrote to “entertain “ people- Wrote in the vernacularVernacular: the local everyday language of the people (Italian, French, Spanish,etc.)• Dante Alighieri: Italian writer- Wrote in the vernacular (Italian – not Latin)- Divine Comedy – put a human touch on heaven and hell• Cervantes: Spanish writer- Don Quixote - poked fun at traditions such as knighthood, chivalry andnobles• Shakespeare: English writer- Everyday emotions, situations, and lifeRenaissance TechnologyThe Printing Press: - invented by Johann Gutenberg- made books available to the masses (enough of them – affordable)- dramatically increased the collective knowledge of Europe- considered by many to be the most important innovation in history
The Printing Press:- invented by Johann Gutenberg- made books available to the masses (enough of them – affordable)- dramatically increased the collective knowledge of Europe- considered by many to be the most important innovation in history
Reformation: The attempt by some Europeans to reform (change) the Roman CatholicChurchMartin Luther:− German Monk− Began the Reformation
Church Problems Luther’s ProposalsToo involved with secular (non-religious)issues – especially politicsChurch Officials should concentrate on theneeds of its membersChurch leaders claim to be the only sourceof religious faithThe Bible was the only truth; people couldread it for themselvesChurch was more interested in makingmoney than is saving soulsStop selling salvation (with indulgences)
How the Reformation began:− Luther posted his 95 thesis (arguments) against the Roman Catholic Church− Printing press help spread his ideas quicklyProtestant:− People that joined Luther’s reform movement− They “protested” against many acts of the Roman Catholic Church
John Calvin:− Another reform leader− Introduced the idea of predestination
Counter-Reformation:An attempt by the Roman Catholic Church to regain its members (money and power)Council of Trent:− Meeting of Roman Catholic Church officials− Planned how to get the church back in orderSt. Ignatius Loyola:− Founded the Jesuits (an order of monks)− They spread discipline and learning to Catholics in Europe
I. Effects of the Reformation• New Churches began in Europe• Increased warfare: Thirty Years War (Protestant North vs. Catholic South)• Power of the Catholic Church declined; less members = less money andpower• Kings became more powerful (absolute power) IRA
Essential Questions:Essential Questions:What was the relationship between the rise ofcapitalism and the decline of Feudalism?
Essential Questions:Essential Questions:What impact did capitalism have on theRenaissance?
Essential Questions:Essential Questions:How did Renaissance thinking differ from theMedieval thinking?
Essential Questions:Essential Questions:How did the Reformation change the RomanCatholic Church’s leadership role in Europe?