The EtruscansThe Etruscans were a group of people who were fromnorthern Italy.Italy had been ruled by 7 kings and it is thought that thelast 3 were Etruscans.The Etruscans greatly influenced the city of Rome. Theybuilt temples, shops, roads, and homes and influencedother aspects of Roman culture as well.
Etruscan Tomb Painting
The Apian Way
The Founding of RomeThe city of Rome was founded by twin brothersRomulus and Remus in 753 B.C.E.According to legend they were from a wealthy familyand were abandoned by their uncle.A She-wolf took them in and raised them.Romulus killed his brother Remus and took control asleader of Rome.
Social and Political Order P a t r ic ia n s ( I n c lu d e d ) C la im e d t o b e t h e A r is t o c r a t ic G o v e r n in g O n ly t h e y c o u ld b e d e s c e n d e n ts o f th e C la s s C o n s u ls , o t h e r M a g is t r a t e s o r ig in a l s e n a t o r s a n d S e n a to rsa p p o in t e d b y t h e K in g s
Social and Political Order P le b ia n s ( I n c lu d e d ) n o n - P a t r ic ia n le s s w e a lt h y A r t is a n s , M e r c h a n t sla r g e la n d o w n e r s la n d o w n e r s a n d s m a ll fa r m e r s
Social and Political OrderAlthough both groups were Roman citizens, theirrights were different.Both Patricians and Plebians could vote.Both had the right to make legal contracts, and marry,but intermarriage between the classes was not allowed.Patricians were the only ones allowed to hold office.
The RepublicIn the later years of the Republic the Plebians becamemore powerful.They created a new assembly (Council of Plebs) in 471.New leaders called Tribunes protected the Plebians. Anew law allowed intermarriage.In 278 B.C.E. the Council received the right to passlaws for all Romans.
The Punic WarsPunic is the Latin word for Phoencian. ThePhoencians controlled Carthage in earlier times.The Romans sent an army to Sicily in order tointervene in a local dispute. The Carthaginiansconsidered this an invasion of their territory.
The Punic Wars241 Carthage gave up all rights to Sicily due toRoman dominance in naval strength.Hanibal (a Carthaginian) began the second PunicWar when he retaliated against Roman attempts toget Spain to invade Carthage.Hanibal led an army of 30,000- 40,000 men, 6,000horses and elephants across the Alps and defeatedthe Romans.
The Punic WarsThe Carthaginians, under Hannibal were notsuccessful in maintaining control over Romancities.Rome invade Carthage and beat Hannibal and hismen. A peace treaty was signed in 201 B.C.E.Carthage lost Spain.50 years later Rome went to war again and thistime Rome destroyed Carthage in 146 B.C.E. andclaimed it as a Roman province called Africa.
From Republic to EmpireTiberius Gracchus represented interests of Rome’slower class. He served as Tribune.He wanted to limit the amount of land controlled bythe Patricians.He was assassinated in 132 B.C.E.His brother Gaius Gracchus continued his brother’sreforms.
Julius Caesar Conquers Gaul
Roman Empire 117 A.D.
Julius CaesarIn 47 B.C.E. he seized power in Rome and was madedictator. A short time later, in 44 B.C.E. he wasgiven the title dictator for life.He made land reforms and gave land to the poor.He increased the Senate to 900 members and thenpacked it with supporters of his reforms.He was assassinated by a group of senators in 44B.C.E.
Octavian a.k.a. Augustus Caesar Octavian became the first Roman Emperor in 27 B.C.E. The Senate gave him the title of Augustus which meant revered one.
Augustus (31 B.C.E.-14 C.E.) He created a standing army of 150,000 men split into legions of around 5,000 men each. Only Roman citizens could be legionaries. Subject peoples in the provinces and else where could serve under the legionaries. Augustus also created the Praetorian guard which were his own personal guards. They numbered about 9,000 men.
The Pax Romana This is a period of peace and prosperity which begins with Augustus and continues for 200 years.• Augustus begins the Julio-Claudian line which ends with Nero.• After Nero there is a civil war and Vespasian becomes emperor.
Vespasian (69-79 C.E. or A.D.)• He begins the Flavian line. He orders the construction of the Colosseum for gladiatorial games.• He puts down revolts in Gaul and Judea.• He rotates the army in the provinces which discourages mutiny. He also makes sure that troops are stationed far from their homelands.
Good Emperors• Hadrian (117-138 C.E.)- He strengthened the borders of Britain. Hadrian’s Wall. Fought a number of Jewish revolts. Much of the Jewish population forced out of Palestine.• Many Jews were sold into slavery. The Romans encouraged non-Jews to settle in Palestine.
Good Emperors• Antonius Pius (138-161 C.E.)- He introduced laws that required humane treatment of slaves. He also introduces the legal principle of innocent until proven guilty.
Good Emperors• Marcus Aurelius ( 161-180 C.E.)- He is the philosopher Emperor. He wages war in Germania and successfully brings barbarian groups under Roman control.• He also re-introduces the idea of a co-emperor. Aurelius names his brother as co-emperor. After his brother’s death, he names his 17 year old son Commodus as co-emperor.
Family Life in the Roman Empire• The family included all household members who lived together.• Father of the family ruled the household• Women had considerable power in their own families and many ran businesses and managed estates.• Ancestor worship was extremely important to the family.
Roman Family Life
Slavery• Slaves made up 1/3 of the Roman population.• Working conditions for slaves in the cities were somewhat better.• Laborers would often be chained together while working in the fields.• Spartacus’ uprising in 73 B.C.E. was the largest slave revolt, but not the only one.
Pompeii • Etruscan town that was conquered by Rome. • At the time of its destruction it had a population of 20,000 • A favorite resort of wealthy Romans and Emperors.
The Pantheon 128 A.D. • Commissioned by Emperor Hadrin • Started in 118 A.D. • It is a clock of sorts. It tells the time by rays of light hitting the sculptures inside.
The Roman EmpireOther Important Roman Emperors:Diocletian - split the empire into two haves (East and West)Western Capital - RomeEastern Capital - Turkey
The Roman EmpireOther Important Roman Emperors:Constantine - reunited the empire and moved the capital toConstantinople. Adopted Christianity (Holy Roman Empire)
The Roman EmpireOther Important Roman Emperors:Justinian - his code of laws quickly spread throughout all ofEurope
The Fall of the Roman EmpireThe Eastern half of the empire lasted until 1453 AD when theTurks conquered Constantinople. Rome was conquered byGerman barbarians in 476 AD.
The Fall of the Roman EmpireReasons:Political:1. Lack of democracy led to a loss of patriotism2. The Empire was geographically to big3. Lack of orderly succession led to civil wars and generals coming to powerEconomic:1. Growing gap between the rich and the poor2. Farmers lost land because of growing debt (Slaves)3. Increased use of slaves led to a loss of trade and high unemployment
The Fall of the Roman EmpireReasons:Social:1. Wars, hunger and plague2. Cultural decline (Sense of drift)Military:1. Armies were masters of the state and could make and unmake emperors2. Lack of trust in the Military (Mercenaries)
Roman ContributionsLaw - The Twelve Tables (450 BC) gradually developed into Justinian’s Code of the 6th century AD. It divided law into civil and criminal law. Roman law was just and humane. In principle, all people were equal. The accused were considered to be innocent until proven guilty. Torture was outlawed.
Roman ContributionsRoads - To unite the empire of over 100 million Greeks, Egyptians, Gauls, Germans, Britains, and others, Rome built roads for trade and protection. Latin language and culture spread to the outlying provinces.
Roman ContributionsLanguage - “Romance” languages of Italian, French, Spanish, Portuguese and Romanian are based on Latin. Latin became the language of the government, church, and schools throughout Europe. Modern law and medicine still contain many Latin terms.
Roman ContributionsBuilders - Roads, bridges, aqueducts, sewers, public baths, coliseums, and basilicas (churches) were built by Roman engineers. Romans developed concrete and used arches and domes in their construction.
Roman ContributionsLiterature - Virgil’s Aeneid is an epic poem modeled after Homer’s Illiad. Ceasar’s Commentaries, on his battles in Gaul are considered great literature.
The Roman “Empire” It’s development: 1) started as a monarchy (king), 2) a republic was formed as more people were assimilated into the empire (vote for representatives to make decisions), 3) Empire (rulers called Caesar), Caesars make all the decisions for the people It’s location: began in Italy (Rome) – the empire surrounds the Mediterranean Sea and was large enough to unite Europe with the Middle East (trade, common language [Latin], common government) The “Republic”: Type of government where citizens elect representatives who decide on important issues (laws, taxes, etc.) – government in Rome before it became an empire Pax Romana: “Roman Peace” - Began with Augustus Caesar - 200 years of peace and prosperity (the Golden Age of Rome)
Contributions to our Society Literature: Continued the Greek tradition drama, poetry, novels Engineering: the science of making things Architecture: copied Greek “Classical” architecture, added round shapes (arch and dome) Roads: built the first great roadways, ability to move army quickly and facilitate trade between cities and proveniences Arch: Replaced columns for support – stronger than columns, could build larger structures with more open space Aqueducts: Carry fresh water from the mountains to the cities Laws: - Applied to all people within the empire - the basis for our legal system today - the Twelve Tables were the written laws of Rome Latin language: - allowed everyone in the empire to communicate with each other - common language of Europe for many centuries