DISCUSSION TOPIC: How Can Active Learning Become
More Widespread in Engineering Education?
• What are the obstacles for fa...
ACTIVE AND COLLABORATIVE LEARNING
EXERCIES FOR A FIRST COURSE IN FLUID
MECHANICS
AC 2008-207
Stephen R. Turns, Laura L. Pa...
WELCOME TO ME 320!
FLUID DYNAMICS
ABOUT ACTIVE AND COOPERATIVE LEARNING
Richard Felder says:
“In the traditional
approach to college
teaching, most class ti...
ACTIVE AND COOPERATIVE LEARNING - Continued
Such teacher-centered instructional
methods have repeatedly been found
inferio...
Research by Prince & others
shows that active learning is
superior to the traditional
approach in the following
measures:
...
Improved educational
outcomes associated with
collaborative learning over
individual or competitive
learning include the
f...
Example of a 30-Second In-Class Exercise:
Educational Objectives:
1. To facilitate long-term retention of the fact that th...
Given by instructor:
The mass flow rate through a pipe having a circular cross
section is
Students are requested to:
• Ske...
Wrap-Up:
Comments:
• This concept is used (and revisited) many times throughout
the course.
• Nearly all students in a cla...
Example of a 20-30 Minute In-Class Exercise:
Educational Objectives:
1. To help students understand & internalize the prin...
From the instructor:
Students are given a handout with this information:
v1 = [0.95gh1(t)]1/2
v2 = [0.95gh2(t)]1/2
Students are requested to:
• Work in groups of 3 persons
• Develop an expression for h1(t)
• Develop an expression for h2(...
What follows:
• Students think, sketch, write,
discuss, ask questions, are
engaged, are animated.
• Students achieve vario...
Table 1. Class Time Required for the Exercises
Table 2. Specific Nature of the Exercises
Table 3. Specific Topics Treated by the Exercises
Table 3. Continued
Table 4. Student Collaboration
These exercises can readily used and/or adapted
by other instructors – LLP experience:
Concerns
How do I add active learni...
Assessment
Rate the effectiveness of the in-class, active-learning
exercises to the overall learning experience in this
cl...
Assessment - Continued
Comparison of Final Examination Scores
with and without Active Learning
Treatment Average Score Std...
We found that the active-learning exercises
• Can be readily used as is or easily adapted by
other instructors.
• Were rat...
Photo Credits
Slide 2: (a) NASA, (b) NOAA, (c) General Electric
Slides 4 & 5: PSU-LV Learning Center (c) 2005
Theo Anderson
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Active Learning

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DISCUSSION TOPIC: How Can Active Learning Become More Widespread in Engineering Education?

The following slides relate to (1) a set of active-learning exercises used in a course in fluid mechanics and (2) how active-learning techniques developed by one faculty member were able to be used by another. Slides from a presentation associated with ASEE Paper AC-2008-207.

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Active Learning

  1. 1. DISCUSSION TOPIC: How Can Active Learning Become More Widespread in Engineering Education? • What are the obstacles for faculty? • How can these obstacles be overcome? • Other Issues? The following slides relate to (1) a set of active-learning exercises used in a course in fluid mechanics and (2) how active-learning techniques developed by one faculty member were able to be used by another. Slides from a presentation associated with ASEE Paper AC-2008-207. Stephen R. Turns Penn State University
  2. 2. ACTIVE AND COLLABORATIVE LEARNING EXERCIES FOR A FIRST COURSE IN FLUID MECHANICS AC 2008-207 Stephen R. Turns, Laura L. Pauley, and Sarah E. Zappe PENNSTATE 2008 ASEE Annual Conference & Exposition June 22-25, 2008
  3. 3. WELCOME TO ME 320! FLUID DYNAMICS
  4. 4. ABOUT ACTIVE AND COOPERATIVE LEARNING Richard Felder says: “In the traditional approach to college teaching, most class time is spent with the professor lecturing and the students watching and listening. The students work individually on assignments, and cooperation is discouraged.
  5. 5. ACTIVE AND COOPERATIVE LEARNING - Continued Such teacher-centered instructional methods have repeatedly been found inferior to instruction that involves active learning, in which students solve problems, answer questions, formulate questions of their own, discuss, explain, debate, or brainstorm during class, and cooperative learning, in which students work in teams on problems and projects under conditions that assure both positive interdependence and individual accountability.”
  6. 6. Research by Prince & others shows that active learning is superior to the traditional approach in the following measures: • Short-term retention of subject matter • Long-term retention of subject matter • Conceptual understanding • Positive student attitudes • Motivation for further study
  7. 7. Improved educational outcomes associated with collaborative learning over individual or competitive learning include the following: • Academic achievement • Quality of interpersonal interactions • Self esteem • Student activities • Retention in academic programs
  8. 8. Example of a 30-Second In-Class Exercise: Educational Objectives: 1. To facilitate long-term retention of the fact that the appropriate differential area dA for integrating over the cross-sectional are for pipe flow is 2πrdr. 2. To help students become confident in working in cylindrical coordinate systems. Differential Area dA for Cylindrical Systems
  9. 9. Given by instructor: The mass flow rate through a pipe having a circular cross section is Students are requested to: • Sketch what might be an appropriate dA for this situation • Write an algebraic expression for this differential area involving the radial coordinate r What follows: • Students think, sketch, and write • Instructor asks for volunteers to give their answers and explain their reasoning
  10. 10. Wrap-Up: Comments: • This concept is used (and revisited) many times throughout the course. • Nearly all students in a class of 80 were able to recall and use the expression dA = 2πrdr in subsequent quizzes and exams.
  11. 11. Example of a 20-30 Minute In-Class Exercise: Educational Objectives: 1. To help students understand & internalize the principle of mass conservation. 2. To have students develop confidence in their analytic capabilities. 3. To have students discover how ordinary differential equations arise in the context of unsteady mass- conservation problems. Unsteady Flow from One Tank to Another
  12. 12. From the instructor: Students are given a handout with this information: v1 = [0.95gh1(t)]1/2 v2 = [0.95gh2(t)]1/2
  13. 13. Students are requested to: • Work in groups of 3 persons • Develop an expression for h1(t) • Develop an expression for h2(t) • Develop an expression for the time to empty both tanks
  14. 14. What follows: • Students think, sketch, write, discuss, ask questions, are engaged, are animated. • Students achieve various degrees of completion. • The class is brought together with the instructor asking students about their approach as the instructor quickly develops the solution.
  15. 15. Table 1. Class Time Required for the Exercises
  16. 16. Table 2. Specific Nature of the Exercises
  17. 17. Table 3. Specific Topics Treated by the Exercises
  18. 18. Table 3. Continued
  19. 19. Table 4. Student Collaboration
  20. 20. These exercises can readily used and/or adapted by other instructors – LLP experience: Concerns How do I add active learning? What are the mechanics? Will I lose control of the class? Will students stay on task? Outcomes Ability to gage students understanding Greatly enhanced student participation Additional preparation time minimal (maybe zero)
  21. 21. Assessment Rate the effectiveness of the in-class, active-learning exercises to the overall learning experience in this class. 1 = Lowest rating 7 = Highest rating Rating ≤2 3 4 5 6 7 Fall 2007 0% 3% 12% 19% 44% 22% (N = 73) Fall 2006 0% 13% 7% 7% 27% 47% (N = 15)
  22. 22. Assessment - Continued Comparison of Final Examination Scores with and without Active Learning Treatment Average Score Std. Dev. t-Test (p-value) Without 78.94 11.92 -2.228 (0.024, df = 109) With 83.87 10.75
  23. 23. We found that the active-learning exercises • Can be readily used as is or easily adapted by other instructors. • Were rated by a majority of students to be highly effective in their learning of fluid mechanics. • Appear to improve students performance on final examinations. • Provide stimulating learning and teaching environments for both the students and the instructor.
  24. 24. Photo Credits Slide 2: (a) NASA, (b) NOAA, (c) General Electric Slides 4 & 5: PSU-LV Learning Center (c) 2005 Theo Anderson
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