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12 In Text Citation

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  • 1. I n - t ext Citation Also known as parenthetical citation
  • 2. When do I give a citation in my paper?
    • ALWAYS!!!
    • DIRECT QUOTATIONS
    • STATISTICS
    • PARAPHRASED INFORMATION
    • The only time you won’t cite a source is if it is your own opinion or general knowledge.
  • 3.
    • If you have the author’s name , … give the author’s name!
    • Always!
    • There are two ways to do this …
  • 4. Either: In the text itself ( this is called a ‘ signal phrase ’ ) .
    • When the author's name is used in the signal phrase then put the page number(s) in parentheses:
    • In his book Go to Work on an Egg , John Easter explains that the kind of feed given to hens in the USA on LCFs (low cholesterol farms), is often low in calcium and may cause poor bone development. This, coupled with lack of exercise, in some cases leads to chickens that are unable to walk (59).
    • Do this the first time you mention a source.
  • 5.
    • Use phrases like:
    • In his article, … John Bull explains…
    • According to …, there are…
    • The article … mentions …
    • This is supported by …
    • Etc, etc.
  • 6. OR: In parentheses.
    • When the author's name is not used in the sentence introducing the source material, then include the author's last name in the parenthetical citation before the page number(s). Note that no comma appears between the author's name and the page number(s).
    In some severe cases it may lead to hens “which are so crippled that they cannot raise their heads to reach the feeding bowls” and consequently starve to death. (Chuckie 73).
  • 7. When you have two or more authors …
    • place all of the authors' last names in the text using ‘ a signal phrase ’.
    • According to Rooster and Leghorn this is the optimum level for chickens and should guarantee them a long life (29).
    • or in the parenthetical citation: Apparently this is the optimum level for chickens and should guarantee them a long life (Rooster and Leghorn 29).
  • 8. When a source has four or more authors, give the first author's last name followed by et al . (Latin for “ and others ” ), either in the text or in the parenthetical citation. You can also name all of the authors: Either : If farm buildings which house hens have extra amenities such as pipe d music and temperature control then the hens show both an increased egg-laying capacity and greater longevity (Pullet et al. 40). OR Pullet et al. found that if farm buildings which house hens have extra amenities such as pipe d music and temperature control then the hens show both an increased egg-laying capacity and greater longevity (40).
  • 9. When there are two entries with the same author (or no author) and title If you have two entries with the same author (or no author) and title, find a publication fact that distinguishes the works and add it to their parenthetical references. -- For a nonperiodical print source, use the date of publication if possible. -- For an article in a periodical, use the title of the periodical. -- For a Web page, use the title of the overall Web site ) Experts believe that the chicken came before the egg ( Smith, 2006). Experts believe that the chicken came before the egg ("Egg," Student Resource Center ).
  • 10. When a source has a corporate author (an organisation, government body, etc.) include the author's name and the page(s ). If the corporate author's name is long, it should be included in the signal phrase rather than the parentheses: This is supported by The Association of British Poultry Breeders who recommend sight culling of such hens to remove underdeveloped, weak, crippled, or distressed birds which have very little chance of survival (3).
  • 11. What if there is no author?
    • Give the title instead!
  • 12. When a source does not include an author's name… give the title instead! or an abbreviated title (first few words) in the text or parenthetical citation. ( Underline the title if the source is a book; if the source is an article, use quotation marks) However , this particular survey was also mentioned in “Poultry Penthouses” . Interestingly, here the apparent good health of the animals was also linked to recent renovations made in farm buildings rather than just the diet (2). Interestingly in this particular survey the apparent good health of the animals was also linked to recent renovations made in farm buildings rather than just the diet (“Poultry Penthouses” 2).
  • 13. When someone is quoted within the text of another author (a secondary source)
    • Show this by putting the phrase;
    • ‘ qtd.in ’ + author of source + page number(s)
    • “ These are forward looking farmers who
    • know how to treat their stock…” says Dr
    • Pellet ( qtd. in Greenaway 72).
  • 14. When the source has an editor ( because it is a collection of chapters or sections by different authors or contrbutors ) …
    • Do the same as you would do for a source with an author:
    • Introduce the name of the editor in the signal phrase
    • Or put the editor’s last name in parentheses at the end of the quotation or paraphrase with the page numbers (just like you do for an author
    • Either:
    • Contrary to this, in Chicken Chatting , edited by James Peck, Brian Bull
    • claims that “…any diet which ends up giving us good food just has to be
    • good for them [chickens] too” (4).
    • Or:
    • Contrary to this, Brian Bull claims that “. . .any diet which ends up giving
    • us good food just has to be good for them [chickens] too” (Peck 4)
    • (In the second example the source of the quote will be clear from your
    • citation in the Works Cited.)
  • 15. When you are citing a web page. . .
    • Follow the style of printed sources .
    • Personal or corporate author and page numbers should be given if they exist on the website.
    • Moult also agrees that this level of blood pressure is a direct result of being reared on LCFs (9).
  • 16. When there is no pagination within an electronic document, … count the paragraphs within the document . Here is an example from www.poop.cn/chicken rearing/egg production which has no author or page number. Moreover, these claims are backed up by the People’s Organisation for the Ownership of Poultry, a Chinese farmers group, who are concerned that low cholesterol feed may mean that egg laying hens become thinner and weaker and so unable to expel the eggs. These would build up inside the hen causing terrible discomfort and eventual death ( par. 39 ).
  • 17. Still not sure? Here is the logic behind it…
    • Your in-text citation should match the beginning of its entry in your Works Cited… (this means that the reader can easily find more information about the source in your Works Cited)
  • 18. If you have a problem citation:
    • Look at noodletools – next to each entry you prepare it will show you how to cite it in parentheses … click on Parenthetical Reference
  • 19. Example from noodletools.com
    • Reference Source
    • “ Kangaroo .&quot; World Book Online Reference Center . World Book. 6 Mar. 2006      <http://www.worldbookonline.com/>.
    •   Web Site
    • Obama, Barack. &quot;A Day with Obama.&quot; Interview with Sili Kut. Online
    • Interview
    • Ed. James Dean. 15 Oct. 2008. 10 Nov. 2008 <http://onlineinterviews.net/      home>.  MagazineToupin, Laurie. &quot;Zoos Unite to Keep Animals in the Wild.&quot; CHRISTIAN SCIENCE       MONITOR 2 Mar. 2004. Sirs Researcher. Naomi Foster Library and Media      Center. 6 Mar. 2006.
    •   New Edit     Copy     Delete Parenthetical Reference Have a Question?   
    •   New Edit     Copy     Delete Parenthetical Reference Have a Question?   
    • New Edit     Copy     Delete Parenthetical Reference Have a Question?
  • 20.
    • Remember…if in doubt cite it!
    • THE END