Menu Page• What is Behaviorism – Classical vs. Operant Conditioning• Behaviorism theorist’s – B.F. Skinner and John B. Watson• Behaviorism in the classroom – Teachers and Students• Behaviorism and my educational philosophy• Final thoughts: Pros and Cons to Behaviorism
What is Behaviorism?• Idea that behavior is acquired through conditioning.• Measures behavior by a learner’s response to stimuli.• A learner’s response to stimuli can be reinforced using positive or negative feedback.• There are 2 types of conditioning…
Classical ConditioningClassical conditioning involves pairing a naturally occurring stimulus with aresponse. Then a previous neutral stimulus is paired with the naturallyoccurring stimulus. The neutral stimulus begins to evoke the same responsewithout the natural occurring stimulus.
Operant Conditioning• Method that occurs using negative and positive reinforcement (or rewards and punishments).
B.F. Skinner• Invented the “Skinner Box”- associated with operant conditioning• “Education is what survives when what has been learned has been forgotten”• “The consequences of an act affect the probability of it happening again” March 1904 - August 1990
John B. Watson• “Give me a dozen healthy infants, well- formed, and my own specified world to bring them up in and I guarantee to take any one at random and train him to become any type of specialist I might select- doctor, lawyer, artist, merchant- chief and, yes, even beggar-man and thief, regardless of his talents, penchants, tendencies, abilities, vocations, and race of his ancestors.”• Known for publishing an article titled“Psychology as the Behaviorist Views It” Jan. 1878- Sept. 1958also called “The Behaviorist Manifesto”.
Behaviorism and Teachers• Behaviorism is seen when teachers use the following methods: – Testing specific skills – More individual work than group learning – Using positive and negative reinforcement• One specific way teachers could incorporatebehaviorism is using a point or sticker systemto reward students good behavior or goodacademic performance.
Behaviorism and Students• According to behaviorism, students learn through experiences and practices.• Learning is also modified with positive and negative reinforcements• Students begin to give predicted responses to a stimulus
Behaviorism and My Classroom• Ways in which I could use behaviorism theory in my classroom: – Have objectives and expectations clearly stated – Give weekly quizzes/tests – Use positive/negative reinforcement to encourage and reward my students for good behavior and to punish bad behavior.
Final Thoughts• Pros: – Behaviorism is based on observable behaviors, making it easier to conduct and collect data and research. – Can be applicable/helpful for therapy of children with behavioral disorders• Cons: – Does not account for other ways of learning that do no involve positive/negative reinforcement – People can change their behavior when presented with new information, even if they have previously established a different behavior through reinforcement