Chapter 2

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Chapter 2

  1. 1. Chapter 2Determining theInformation You Need
  2. 2. Chapter Topics • The Research Process • Primary and Secondary Information Sources • Library Information Sources • Information Retrieval SystemsCopyright 2012 Wadsworth © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 3|2
  3. 3. The Big Picture Now that you have a foundational knowledge of information literacy, including an understanding of its importance, the next step is to explore the actions that lead to efficient use of information. This chapter focuses on methods for defining and obtaining the information you need.Copyright 2012 Wadsworth © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 3|3
  4. 4. Learning Objectives • Explain the need for a main research question and relevant, focused research questions. • Develop effective main research questions and focused research questions. • Differentiate between primary and secondary information sources.Copyright 2012 Wadsworth © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 3|4
  5. 5. Learning Objectives (cont’d) • Explain various ways information to present information. • Explain various ways to access information. • Identify and describe 21st-century information sources.Copyright 2012 Wadsworth © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 3|5
  6. 6. Case In Point Questions • How well do you think you could determine the kind and extent of the information you need to accomplish your information goal? • How effective do you think you would be at creating a research question and focused questions to guide your research? • What specific types of resources could you use to find the information you need?Copyright 2012 Wadsworth © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 3|6
  7. 7. The Research ProcessCopyright 2012 Wadsworth © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 3|7
  8. 8. Step 1: Define the need.Copyright 2012 Wadsworth © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 3|8
  9. 9. Main Research Question Effective Research Questions • What effect does divorce have on academic achievement in elementary school children? • How did the Electoral College affect the outcome of the 2000 presidential election? • What are the differences between the various processors available for computers? Why are these effective research questions?Copyright 2012 Wadsworth © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 3|9
  10. 10. Main Research Question Ineffective Research Questions • Who was Benjamin Franklin? • Should older people be allowed to drive? • Does the United States have a good foreign policy? Why are these ineffective research questions?Copyright 2012 Wadsworth © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 3 | 10
  11. 11. Focused Research Questions Main Research Question • Does exercise level positively or negatively impact food consumption in obese individuals? Effective Focused Questions • What is the definition of an obese individual? • What is the definition of exercise? • How is exercise measured? • Do obese individuals who increase their level of exercise increase or decrease their food intake measured in calories? • What level of exercise shows a change in food intake?Copyright 2012 Wadsworth © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 3 | 11
  12. 12. Primary and Secondary Information Sources • Primary information sources: Those sources closest to the actual event, time period, or individual in question. • Secondary information sources: Those sources removed from the primary source that examine, interpret, or reflect on the primary source information to restate or reuse the information.Copyright 2012 Wadsworth © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 3 | 12
  13. 13. Primary and Secondary Information Sources Primary Secondary • Memoirs • Books and textbooks • • Review articles Diaries • Scientific reports • Autobiographies • Technical reports • Interviews • Conference papers and proceedings • Public records • Handbooks • Transcripts • Databases • Correspondences • Catalogues • Discussions • News analyses • Minutes • Dictionaries and encyclopedias • Newspaper reports • Magazine articles • Surveys • Video and audio tapes, CD-ROMS, and DVDS that • Government documents have been edited • Artifacts • Literature • Photographs and artCopyright 2012 Wadsworth © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 3 | 13
  14. 14. Library Information SourcesCopyright 2012 Wadsworth © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 3 | 14
  15. 15. Books: Fiction and NonfictionCopyright 2012 Wadsworth © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 3 | 15
  16. 16. Reference Resources • Reference desk • Reference librarian • Reference sourceCopyright 2012 Wadsworth © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 3 | 16
  17. 17. Encyclopedias • Encyclopedia: A collection of detailed articles on a wide range of subjects. What general and subject-specific encyclopedias are useful in your specific field of study?Copyright 2012 Wadsworth © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 3 | 17
  18. 18. Dictionary • Dictionary: An alphabetical listing of words used for quick search of word or topic to find meaning, spelling, and pronunciation. What general and subject-specific dictionaries are useful in your specific field of study?Copyright 2012 Wadsworth © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 3 | 18
  19. 19. Directories • Directory: A collection of data that is organized to easily access information. What directories are useful in your specific field of study?Copyright 2012 Wadsworth © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 3 | 19
  20. 20. Almanacs • Almanac: A publication that provides statistics, lists, figures, tables, and facts for a specific area. What almanacs are useful in your specific field of study?Copyright 2012 Wadsworth © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 3 | 20
  21. 21. Atlases • Atlas: A collection of geographical, historical, and other descriptive information. What atlases are useful in your specific field of study?Copyright 2012 Wadsworth © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 3 | 21
  22. 22. Indexes • Index: An alphabetical list that can be used to find information within a source. What kinds of indexes are useful in your specific field of study?Copyright 2012 Wadsworth © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 3 | 22
  23. 23. Ready References • Ready reference: Resource typically kept at the reference desk in a library because of its frequent use. What ready references might you use at the library?Copyright 2012 Wadsworth © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 3 | 23
  24. 24. Concordance • Concordance: An alphabetical list of the most pertinent words in a given text and a notation of where they are found within that text. When might you use a concordance?Copyright 2012 Wadsworth © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 3 | 24
  25. 25. Handbooks • Handbook: Provides concise data in table or chart form on a specialized subject area. What handbooks are used in your field of study?Copyright 2012 Wadsworth © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 3 | 25
  26. 26. Thesaurus • Thesaurus: A collection of synonyms, near- synonyms, antonyms, phrases, and slang terms for words. When might you use a thesaurus in your field of study?Copyright 2012 Wadsworth © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 3 | 26
  27. 27. Manual • Manual: Provides detailed and “how to” information on very specific topics. What manuals might you use in your field of study?Copyright 2012 Wadsworth © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 3 | 27
  28. 28. Style Manual • Style manual: A writing guide that provides guidelines for writing mechanics and documentation format. What style manual is commonly used in your field of study?Copyright 2012 Wadsworth © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 3 | 28
  29. 29. Periodicals • Periodical: A resource published on a regular or recurring basis. What are three periodicals you read regularly?Copyright 2012 Wadsworth © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 3 | 29
  30. 30. Scholarly Journals • Scholarly journals: A periodical published by an educational institution or professional association containing peer-reviewed articles and other information. What scholarly journals apply to your field of study?Copyright 2012 Wadsworth © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 3 | 30
  31. 31. Popular Magazines • Popular magazines: A periodical published commercial entity providing information on topics of interest to the general public. What popular magazines apply to your field of study?Copyright 2012 Wadsworth © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 3 | 31
  32. 32. Trade Publications • Trade publications: A periodical published for a specific industry or business. What trade publications are written for your field of study?Copyright 2012 Wadsworth © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 3 | 32
  33. 33. Newspapers • Newspapers: A periodical published for a local, regional, national, or international venue to cover events and news. What newspapers would be good to read to help you succeed in your career? Why?Copyright 2012 Wadsworth © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 3 | 33
  34. 34. Multimedia • Multimedia: A form other than print for library resources. What kinds of multimedia might you use from the library in your field of study?Copyright 2012 Wadsworth © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 3 | 34
  35. 35. Information Retrieval Systems • Online Public Access Catalog (OPAC) • Databases • The InternetCopyright 2012 Wadsworth © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 3 | 35
  36. 36. Internet Terms • WWW (World Wide Web) • Web site Common Plugins • Web page Flash • URL Quicktime • Plug-in Acrobat Reader • Home page RealMedia ieSpell • Navigation bar AdShieldCopyright 2012 Wadsworth © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 3 | 36
  37. 37. Internet Terms • Web browser Common Browsers • Search engines • Metasearch engines Netscape Navigator Internet Explorer Mozilla Mozilla Firefox What is your favorite search engine? Why? OperaCopyright 2012 Wadsworth © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 3 | 37
  38. 38. Internet Subject Directories • Subject directory: A collection of links to a large number of Internet resources, typically highly organized. What Internet subject directories are useful in your field of study?Copyright 2012 Wadsworth © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 3 | 38
  39. 39. Online Reference Resources • Refdesk • Questia • Merriam-Webster Online • Gove Dictionary of Art • Encyclopedia.com • Occupational Outlook Handbook What online reference resources are useful in your field of study?Copyright 2012 Wadsworth © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 3 | 39
  40. 40. Online Periodicals • Online periodicals: Full-text (or abstract only) presentations of periodicals accessible online free or for a fee. What online periodicals are available for your field of study?Copyright 2012 Wadsworth © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 3 | 40
  41. 41. Web Portal or Gateway • Web portal: A site on the Internet that provides links to many different kinds of information. What Web portals are available and useful for your field of study?Copyright 2012 Wadsworth © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 3 | 41
  42. 42. Professional or Trade Organizations • Professional or Trade Organizations: Groups of professionals with similar interests or positions. What professional or trade organizations focus on your field of study? Which ones should you belong to?Copyright 2012 Wadsworth © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 3 | 42
  43. 43. Chapter Summary • The Research Process • Primary and Secondary Information Sources • Library Information Sources • Information Retrieval SystemsCopyright 2012 Wadsworth © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 3 | 43
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