Information processing


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Information processing

  1. 1. Module 11<br />Information Processing<br />Group 2: Allie Hymas, Anna Goode, Heather Durney, Kiyo Olive & Sammie Martin<br />
  2. 2. Information Processing Theory<br />These theories focus on internal mental process that occur as opposed to external behaviors.  <br />The mind takes in information, performs operations to change its form, stores it, and retrieves it when needed.  <br />The three major categories of these functions are:<br />Sensory Memory<br />Working (or Short Term) Memory<br />Long-Term Memory<br />
  3. 3. Sensory Memory<br />Sensory Memory takes in information exactly how we sense it, but doesn't leave much time for processing and creating knowledge from it.  <br />Humans usually respond to 6 different stimuli with particular attention:<br />1.  Size:  large things2.  Intensity:  Bright and Loud stimuli3.  Novelty:  new and unusual things4.  Incongruity:  things that don't make sense within a given context5.  Emotion:  stimuli with strong emotional attachments6.  Personal significance:  stimuli personally important to us<br />
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  5. 5. Working memory<br />Once we pay attention to a stimulus, we transfer this information to our working memory, where the information is put to use.<br />Central executive- acts as a supervisor, deems what is important and what strategies to use to process information<br />Working memory holds five to nine chunks of data at time.<br />Working memory can include processes that are outside its conscious awareness, some information is more readily available than others, and our capacity for storing information in working memory varies. <br />
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  7. 7. Working memory<br />Information in working memory is typically lost within 5 to 20 seconds, but it stays longer if we are constantly using it. <br />Automatic and effortful processing<br />Mnemonic devices<br />Chunking: Grouping individual bits of information in meaningful way<br />Girl, cat, pants, apple, pizza, swimming pool, ball, computer, moon, cow, jungle<br />Couch, apple, chair, mom, dad, table, orange, lamp, sister, grapes, brother, rug<br />
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  9. 9. Long term memory<br />Types of Knowledge<br />Explicit: information we are consciously aware of such as facts learned at school<br />Implicit: information we are not aware of such as routines and procedures<br />How to drink out of a big kid cup?<br />
  10. 10. Long term memory<br />How memories are stored <br />Network Theory: Information is stored in propositions; you can find multiple propositions within a single thought<br />Schema Theory: Information is stored in preexisting frameworks<br />Why do we sometimes have a harder time remembering things that are important than we do remembering things that are not as important?<br />
  11. 11. Long term memory<br />Forget it? <br />Encoding Failure: the information never made it to the long-term memory<br />Storage Decay: we lose information very quickly at first but the curve levels off<br />Retrieval Failure: we know we learned the information, but can’t remember exactly what it was<br />
  12. 12. Do you see the three faces?<br />
  13. 13. Individual Differences in Information Processing<br />Sensory information processing:<br />Younger children process information more slowly than older children<br />Selective attention increases with age, the older the better we are at focusing <br />Girls may have advantage over boys at remembering items on list<br />Working information processing:<br />Young children have less working memory capacity than older children, developmental differences<br />Older individuals process information faster and therefore can retrieve before it decays<br />Young children may be learning information for the first time<br />The more types of knowledge you gain the better you can understand, organize, retain new information<br />
  14. 14. Differences in strategy use<br />Automaticity: The ability to respond quickly and efficiently while mentally processing or physically performing a task. <br />Examples: flashcards and practice, practice, practice!<br />
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  16. 16. Application to teaching<br />1. Plan for attention (level)<br />2. Use attention signals<br />3. Keep student’s attention engaged<br />4. Respect attentional limits<br />
  17. 17. Application to teaching<br />Helping students store and retrieve information effectively:<br />Organization<br />Conceptual Understanding<br />Task analysis<br />Relevance<br />Automaticity<br />Acquisition of Procedural knowledge<br />