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Eco City Development towards Developing Low Carbon Society


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This presentation focuses on eco-city development initiatives in developing countries towards developing low carbon society. Rapid urbanization in developing countries may be the most significant …

This presentation focuses on eco-city development initiatives in developing countries towards developing low carbon society. Rapid urbanization in developing countries may be the most significant demographic transformation in our century as it restructures national economies and reshapes the lives of billions of people. At the same time, urbanization has also contributed to environmental and socioeconomic challenges, including climate change, pollution, congestion, and the rapid growth of slums. But as a major style of residential environment, city, has been endowed new contents by new ideas ever emerged in the history and eco-city development has emerged as a way to address climate change issues in the context of developing sustainable cities in developing countries. Eco-cities have the potential to address many of the problems like climate change and socio-economic aspects associated with urban development, as does the concept of sustainable development in an urban setting. Drawing on lessons learned from the planning and development process of several low-carbon eco-cities, this paper explores the potential of an integrated urbanism approach for developing countries. The objective is not only to mitigate factors contributing to climate change, but to manage risk, maximize resilience, and promote the successful economic and social growth of the urban eco community in developing countries. An integrated urbanism approach to planning may give us the tools to leapfrog the environmental and public health costs of economic progress and create a new model for cities across the developing world.

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  • 1. WELCOME
    Eco-CityDevelopment in Developing Countries :
    An initiative towards low carbon society*
    Presented by: Group 5
    Md. Saidur Rahman, Bangladesh (Group Leader)
    Brando CabigasRazon, Philippines
    Syahyadi, Indonesia
    L Changhe, China
    Hinohara Hiroyuki, Japan
    MengMeng, China
    BRM, ADB
    8 September 2011
    * Presented in the 3rd Summer Course 2011 of Hiroshima University, Japan at Beijing Normal University, Beijing, China during 4-14 Aug 2011
  • 2. Background
    The 3rd Summer Course 2011 “DEVELOPMENT WITHIN A LOW CARBON WORLD: Preparing Professionals for Policy and Planning Instruments for Green Innovation” jointly with Beijing Normal University, Beijing, China (4-14 Aug 2011)
    • The 1st Summer Course 2011 “DEVELOPMENT WITHIN A LOW CARBON WORLD: Preparing Professionals for Post-Kyoto Climate Negotiations and Sustainable Growth Policies” jointly with LBJ School, The University of Texas Austin during August 5-21, 2009 at Hiroshima University, Japan (40 participants).
    • 3. The 2nd Summer Course 2010 jointly with Bogor Agricultural University at Bogor, Indonesia
    • 4. A Global Environmental Leaders Education Program in Hiroshima University by the Ministry of Education, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan for designing a low carbon society
    47 participants from 16 different countries
    • 10 alumni+ 37 master and PhD course students from HU, China’s 3 universities and University of Texas at Austin, USA
    The course highlights policy and planning instruments which facilitate environmental sound technological changes: green invention, innovation and deployment.
    • provides an opportunity several technical visits
    • 5. reviews of technological options for key sectors - energy supply, transportation and energy devices
    Paper will be published as ‘ Research Note’ in the Journal of International Development and Cooperation, Hiroshima University, Japan in March 2012 Issue
  • 6. Technical Visits
    China produced 48% of the world's solar panels in 2010 – eqvt. to13 gigawatts electricity [China Daily] 
    Solar power can deliver all the energy the world requires. Even in northern latitudes such as Cambridge, UK, enough radiation hits the city in 20 minutes to produce its entire power requirements for that day.
    Yingli Solar , Baoding, China
  • 7. Presentation outlines
    Part 1
    • Urbanization Process & Climate Change Issues
    • 8. Historical Development of City & Eco-City Concept
    Part 2
    • Case Study & Lessons Learned
    • 9. Conclusions & Recommendations
  • Urban Interaction and Global Concerns
    More than half the world’s population(over 3.3 billion) resides in urban areas - 5 billion by 2030
    120 Megacities were in 2000, the number is projected to rise to more than 160 by 2015
    75% of global economic production takes place in cities
    • about 90% of global urban growth now takes place in developing countries
    • 10. urban share of GDP already surpasses 60% in developing countries
    400,000 km2 of new urban built-up area will be constructed within next20 years equivalent that of total world’s area in 2000
    • entire built-up urban area in developing countries is projected to triple
    Urbanization has greatly contributed to environmental and socioeconomic challenges
    • climate change, pollution, congestion, and the rapid growth of slums
    • 11. By 2050 there will be an energy shortfall of 14 terawatts across the planet
    CO2 and methane levels in the atmosphere are higher than at any time in the last 650,000 years
    • lead to continuous increase of global temperature
    The increase in global emissions has been largely driven by increased emission from large developing countries
    • China, India, Brazil and the other growing economies of the world.
  • Urbanization and Climate Change
    Cities are now on the front line of the management of change and are playing a leading role in the global development agenda
    Globally, cities account for about 70% of energy related GHGs emissions, which leads to climate change -global warming
    City-level actions needs to be a central part in GHG emissions reduction strategies
  • 12. Way Forward-------------
  • 13. Emerging Eco-City Concept
    One Point Linear Perspective:“The Ideal City“ in 1470 by Piero della Francesca
    "Moving into eco-cities does not mean people will sacrifice modern conveniences and go back to a primitive relationship with nature. It is a lifestyle that does little harm to the environment while meeting the human race's increasing demand for a better life." - Professor Wang Rusong, DG, Ecological Society of China. 
    Howards’s Garden City (1898) inspired by the Utopian novel ‘Looking Backward’
  • 14. Eco-City: Planning Issues & New-Urbanism
    Elements of Eco-City Planning
    • Sense of place of individual neighborhoods
    • 15. Emphasis on public spaces and greenery
    • 16. Comprehensive land use planning
    • 17. Compact and geometrically integrated
    • 18. Integrated with publictransport
    • 19. zoning - setting of various facilities, community development etc
    • 20. Usage of renewable energy
    • 21. Application of new ICT management
    • 22. Ensure public participation
    • 23. Innovation of local technologies
    • 24. Dynamic confluence of aesthetic, technological and sociological perspectives
  • Eco-City: Planning Issues & New-Urbanism
  • 25. Eco-City: Planning Issues & New-Urbanism
    Feet First
    Pedal Next
    PT Third
    Car May Be
  • 26. Case Study 1: Curitiba, Brazil
    Key Features
    Innovative land use planning integrated with transportation planning
    • Linearly urban growth along strategic axes
    • 27. high density commercial and residential development
    • 28. land use zoningintegrated with master plan (1966)
    Incremental development strategy
    • city procured the basic rights of way for critical transport infrastructure, and developed infrastructure and service routes only when demand justified supply
    Green area enhancement & flood control
    • enhanced the green areas and recreational facilities within the city, including parks and bicycle paths
    Solid waste management
    • Citizen participation
  • Case Study 1: Curitiba, Brazil
    Evolution of the Integrated Bus Network in Curitiba, 1974–95 and 2009, Source: IPPUC (2009)
    The Trinary Road System in Curitiba, Source: World Bank (2010).
  • 29. Case Study 2: Sino-Singapore Tianjin, China
    City Profile
    Area: 34.2 km2
    Population: 11.76 million (3rd largest)
    Location: 40km from Tianjin City and 150 km from Beijing
    An emerging eco-city in China
    A JV initiatives between the Government of Singapore and the Tianjin municipal government
    Features of the SSTEC Master Plan
    Integrated mixed-use zones in an “eco-cell” layout, a modular 400m by 400m grid
    Relatively high-density city enabling TOD
    3-tiers integrated public transport
    ‘leading-edge’ green technology to public transit
    Energy consumption is at least 20% lower than the national average
    Solar energy be 30.7% of total renewable energy
    Efficient water use and solid waste management
  • 30. Case Study 2: Sino-Singapore Tianjin, China
    Hope for Future….
    • Tianjin was originally an industrial base for chemical manufacturing in northern China and has long been suffering from chemical pollution.
    • 31. Deserted saltpans, saline-alkaline non-arable land and polluted bodies of water made up a third of the area.
    • 32. But now this land is full of greenery and offers a comfortable environment to work and live
    KEY Indicators
    KPI 5: Carbon emissions per unit of GDP: ≤150 tonsper one million US$ GDP
    KPI 7: Proportion of Green Buildings: 100%
    KPI 11: Per capita domestic waste generation: ≤ 0.8 kg per day (by 2013)
    KPI 12: Proportion of Green Trips: 90%
    KPI 13: Solid waste recycling rate: 60%
    KPI 19: Renewable energy usage: 20%
    KPI 20: Water supply from non-conventional sources: at least 50%
    A solar photovoltaic power station in Golmud, Qinghai province.
  • 33. Case Study 3: Dongtan, China
    Located on an estuary tidal flat at the east end of Chongming Island at the mouth of the Yangtze River, about an hour’s ferry ride from Shanghai
    Have the potential to tap renewable energy sources such as solar and wind
    The start-up area of 6.5 km2, housing 80,000 people.
    Targeted for completion in 2020, to have covered 30 km2 with a population of 500,000 by 2050.
    1st eco-city in China (2003) proclaimed world’s first purpose-built carbon neutral city (ADB, 2010)
    1st phase was scheduled to complete in 2010 before Shanghai World Expo
    However, it largely failed to materialize
    Problems and pitfalls
    Ill-designed in rural areas
    Questinable economic sustainability
    displaced farmers were not likely to be able to afford housing at the eco-city site, even with 20% of dwelling units designated as affordable housing
    Management problems
    confusion between design firm and state-owned developer
    Unplanned funding
    Political will and lack of citizen participation
  • 34. Japan’s Eco-Model City Innitiatives
  • 35. Japan’s Eco-Model City Innitiatives
  • 36. Stockholm, Sweden
    Hammarby Model (1995)
  • 37. Stockholm, Sweden
    Key Features
    City council aimed to be two times more sustainable than Swedish best practices (as of 1995) on a range of indicators:
    most notably, energy efficiency per square meter
    also water conservation, waste reduction and reuse, emissions reductions, reduced hazardous materials in construction, use of renewable energy sources, and integrated transportation solutions
    A project team was formed to integrate these efforts into a single directionled by a project manager and an environmental officer with key representatives from different city departments
    This model streamlines various systems of infrastructure and urban service delivery, and provides the foundation and blueprint for achieving many of the sustainability targets
    Initial Outcomes (World Bank 2010)
    30% reduction in non-renewable energy use
    41% reduction in water use
    29% reduction in global warming potential
    41% reduction in photochemical ozone creation production
    36% reduction in acidification potential
    33% reduction in radioactive waste
  • 38. Lessons Learned for Developing Countries
    Many solutions are affordable even if budgets are limited
    many creative, practical, & cost-effective solutions simultaneously achieve greater benefits
    Success is achievable through existing proven technologies and new innovations
    depends less on new technologies and more on appropriate technologies
    Think globally, act locally approach
    city authorities should first look at the innovation taking place within own city boundaries
    Many solutions benefit the poor indirectly and directly
    fiscal gains in city expenditures & utility payments can free up money for social investment
    Leadership and continuity
    Strong leadership with technical backgrounds and political will
    Citizen ownership and eco-consciousness
    people’s active participation in city programs
    Local characteristics
    local situation, including its budget, capacity, social conditions in devising urban strategies
    Opportunities to Capitalize
    many opportunities created by rapid change and successful innovation
  • 39. Achieving the Harmonies of Eco-City in Developing Countries
  • 40. Achieving the Harmonies of Eco-City in Developing Countries
  • 41. Conclusion and Recommendations
    Eco-city frameworkmay be a reference for developing sustainable cities in developing countries towards developing low carbon society
    Eco-cities have the potential to address many of the problems world facing today
    • Global warming, congestion, rapid urbanization, energy and water
    Current design and planning practices among cities may be a challenge
    • rooted in patterns established in the 19th century
    Design of an eco-city or sustainable city will depend on an operating set of values
    • Effective and well-coordinated urban planning and land use policies
    • 42. Appropriate spatial layouts to provide strong and sustained long term development and compound the economic, social, and environmental returns
    Communities, NGOs and local public agencies need to operate synergistically and with the government and other stakeholders
    • Goals and priorities need to be defined and agreed upon at an early stage so that expectations can be met and to diminish a fuzzy, uncertain planning environment.
    Appropriate technologies and local innovations should be prioritized
  • 43. Thank You
    Kind Attention