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Motivation
Motivation
Motivation
Motivation
Motivation
Motivation
Motivation
Motivation
Motivation
Motivation
Motivation
Motivation
Motivation
Motivation
Motivation
Motivation
Motivation
Motivation
Motivation
Motivation
Motivation
Motivation
Motivation
Motivation
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Motivation

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  • 1. MOTIVATIONMOTIVATION “ Emotions are literally, what move us to pursue our goals; they fuel our motivations, and our motives in turn drive our perceptions and shape our actions. Great work starts with great feeling.” Daniel Goleman Factors that motivate outstanding performers are: Achievement drive Commitment Initiative Optimism Happiness
  • 2. ACHIEVEMENT DRIVEACHIEVEMENT DRIVE People with this competence :People with this competence : Are result orientedAre result oriented Have high drive to work towards and meetHave high drive to work towards and meet their objectives and standardstheir objectives and standards Set challenging and action-oriented goalsSet challenging and action-oriented goals Take calculated risks in achieving their goalsTake calculated risks in achieving their goals Elicit and collect relevant information so as toElicit and collect relevant information so as to reduce uncertainty and also to identify betterreduce uncertainty and also to identify better ways to do their tasksways to do their tasks Learn how to improve their performanceLearn how to improve their performance
  • 3. COMMITMENT People with commitment competence: Willingly make sacrifices to meet larger group / organizational goals Try to identify and find a purpose in the larger mission Use the group’s / organization’s core values as the measuring tape while taking decisions and making choices Actively seek out opportunities to fulfill the group’s/ organizational mission
  • 4. INITIATIVE People who have initiative : Are always on the look out to seize opportunities Pursue goals beyond what is required or expected of them Are flexible and willing to cut through bureaucracy and bend the rules (but do not break the law) when necessary to get a job done Motivate others through unusual and enterprising efforts.
  • 5. OPTIMISM The characteristics of an optimist are: They persist in working towards their goals in spite of obstacles and set-backs Operate from hope of success rather than from the fear of failure View set-backs as due to changeable and manageable circumstances rather than personal flaws Able to realistically assess a set-back See the positive side of situations Learn from their mistakes or failures
  • 6. THE NATURE OF MOTIVATIONTHE NATURE OF MOTIVATION The word motivation was derived from the Latin word movere ( meaning to move ).This , however, is inadequate to understand its meaning. A brief selections of representative definitions are: ..how behaviour gets started, is energized, is sustained, is directed, is stopped and what kind of subjective reaction is present in the organisms while all this is going on ( Jones, 1955 ) …a process governing choices made by persons or lower organisms among alternative forms of voluntary activity ( Vroom,1964 ) ..the self propelling force within a man which keeps prompting him to improve his performance, his behaviour. It is his will and keenness to achieve not what he is supposed to achieve but what he sets for himself to achieve ( S L Dass )
  • 7. PROCESS OF MOTIVATIONPROCESS OF MOTIVATION Need, DesireNeed, Desire Expectancy,Expectancy, AnticipationAnticipation BehaviourBehaviour ActionAction GoalGoal IncentiveIncentive BehaviourBehaviour ModificationModification
  • 8. APPROACHES TO MOTIVATIONAPPROACHES TO MOTIVATION Traditional Model. ( F W Taylor – 1911 ) Taylor saw the problem primarily with the management, not workers. It was management’s responsibility to find suitable people for a job and to train them. Management’s next responsibility was to install a wage incentive system for the trained workers. In theory, scientific management represented a joint venture of management and workers to the mutual benefit of both. Human Relation Model. Mayo & Dickson-1933-45) Attention was shifted away from the study of worker-machine relations toward a more thorough understanding of interpersonal and group relations at work.
  • 9. Management felt it has a new responsibility to make workers feel important. Many organizations attempted to open up vertical communication channels so employees would know more about the organization and have greater opportunity for their opinion to be heard. Lastly, workers were increasingly allowed to make routine decisions concerning their own jobs. Human Resources Model. Human resources model generally view humans as being motivated by a complex set of inter related factors. First, it is assumed that people want to contribute to the job.
  • 10. Second, it is assumed that work does notSecond, it is assumed that work does not necessarily have to be distasteful.necessarily have to be distasteful. Third, it is argued that employees are quiteThird, it is argued that employees are quite capable of making significant and rationalcapable of making significant and rational decisions affecting their work and that allowingdecisions affecting their work and that allowing greater latitude in employee decision making isgreater latitude in employee decision making is actually in the best interests of the organization.actually in the best interests of the organization. To summarize, it should be pointed out that theTo summarize, it should be pointed out that the human resources approach to motivation has onlyhuman resources approach to motivation has only lately begun to receive concentrated attention.lately begun to receive concentrated attention. In recent years, in fact, the notion of a multipleIn recent years, in fact, the notion of a multiple strategy – using all three approaches at one timestrategy – using all three approaches at one time or another depending upon the nature of theor another depending upon the nature of the organization, its technology, its people and itsorganization, its technology, its people and its goals and priorities – has come to be labeled agoals and priorities – has come to be labeled a “contingency approach”“contingency approach” to managementto management..
  • 11. GENERAL PATTERNS OF MANAGERIALGENERAL PATTERNS OF MANAGERIAL APPROACHES TO MOTIVATIONAPPROACHES TO MOTIVATION TRADIT IONAL Assumptions Work is inherently distasteful to most people. What they do is less important than what they earn. HUMAN RELATIONHUMAN RELATION People want to feel useful and important. People desire to belong and to be recognized as individuals. HUMAN RESOURCEHUMAN RESOURCE Work is not inherently distasteful. People want to contribute to meaningful goals which they have helped to establish. Most people can be far more creative, responsible, self- directed and self- controlled than their present jobs
  • 12. Few want and can handle work which requires creativity, self- direction or self- control. POLICIES The manager’s basic task is to closely supervise and control subordinates. He or she must break tasks down into simple, repetitive, easily learned options. These needs are more important than money in motivating people to work. The manager’s basic task is to make each feel useful & important. He or she should keep subordinates informed and listen to their objections to his or her plans. Manager’s basicManager’s basic task is to maketask is to make use of untappeduse of untapped human resources.human resources. He or she mustHe or she must create ancreate an environment inenvironment in which all memberswhich all members may contribute tomay contribute to the limits of theirthe limits of their ability.ability.
  • 13. EXPECTATIONS People can tolerate work if the pay is descent and the boss is fair. If tasks are simple enough & people are closely controlled, they will produce to desired standard. Sharing information with subordinates & involving them in routine decisions will satisfy their basic needs to belong & to feel important. Satisfying these needs will improve morale & reduce resistance to formal authority- subordinates will willingly cooperate. ExpandingExpanding subordinatessubordinates influence, self-influence, self- direction, & self-direction, & self- control will lead tocontrol will lead to directdirect improvements inimprovements in operatingoperating efficiency.efficiency. Work satisfactionWork satisfaction may improve as amay improve as a by product ofby product of subordinatessubordinates making full use ofmaking full use of their resources.their resources.
  • 14. CLASSIFICATION OF THEORIESCLASSIFICATION OF THEORIES Based on the above conceptual frame work, each of the theories of motivation are discussed under the following two categories: Individual or People centered approaches, and Work centered approaches. An overview of the theories is depicted in the model as shown in the figure: Next slide
  • 15. AN INDIAN PERSPECTIVE ON WORK CULTURE AND MOTIVATION Work and WorkerWork and Worker Work & Worker are inseparable.Work & Worker are inseparable. Work is both physical and mental; knowledge andWork is both physical and mental; knowledge and skill based.skill based. It is also related to certain attitudes & values.It is also related to certain attitudes & values. Behaviour of the worker depends upon hisBehaviour of the worker depends upon his attitudes. Attitudes in turn are dependent uponattitudes. Attitudes in turn are dependent upon values. So proper values are important for avalues. So proper values are important for a healthy work environment.healthy work environment. In our country there is a deep ingrained valueIn our country there is a deep ingrained value system, but unless the individual adopts it &system, but unless the individual adopts it & internalises it, there would be no real changeinternalises it, there would be no real change..
  • 16. Work Culture and Organization In the context of an organization the entire thrust of HRM is to build, strengthen and sustain a vibrant organization. After all organization is people. Organization exists for work. The base of the organization is people. WORK PEOPLE ORGANISATION
  • 17. WORK CULTURE AND BHAGAVAD GITAWORK CULTURE AND BHAGAVAD GITA It create & develop proper work culture where both people & organization benefit & better quality work is turned out is given in our “sastras”. Bhagwad Gita deals with & elaborates on work, worker & work culture. It is unique in its stress on work ethics. The philosophy of work as propounded by Lord Krishna is both secular & spiritual. There cannot be healthy secular development & progress without spiritual foundation. Similarly spiritual progress is not possible without satisfaction of secular needs. The work culture elaborated in Gita takes an integrated view of life and living.
  • 18. THEORY OF NISHKAM KARMA Man works with various motives. The motives may vary from man to man; fame, money, power etc. This is the basis of all motivational theories in the West. But this way of work is selfish and greed driven and Indian philosophy terms it as “Sakam Karma”. On the other hand, work for work’s sake or “Nishkam Karma” (unattached involvement or desire less work ), is totally energy conserving, as the approach is devoid of qualities of loss & gain, success & failure, richness & poverty etc. The individual is inspired to work without any ambition what so over for the fruit of labour.
  • 19. The main components of “Nishkam Kam” theory can be analyzed as under: A person (whether he is owner, manager, worker) has authority to do work only. He should not have attachments for its rewards. At the same time it is not said that there is no authority for rewards. This fine distinction must be understood. What is of first importance is not the religious or non- religious character of the work done, but the inner attitude in which it is done. It is the spirit or consciousness in which the work is done that matters most. Action without desire is possible, action without attachment is possible, action without ego is possible. The joy of service and the joy of inner growth through work is the sufficient recompense of the self-less worker.
  • 20. NISHKAM KARMA Psychological energy conversation. Reaction less action. Perfection is the aim. Inner autonomy. Being in the world not of it. Relevant. Work commitment. Excellence through work as worship of the divine. Mind enrichment. SAKAM KARMASAKAM KARMA Psychological burn out. Reactionful action. Success is the aim. Dependence on externals. Being in the world & of it. Questionable. Reward commitment. Excellence through work as a worship of the ego. Job enrichment.
  • 21. HAPPINESSHAPPINESS Happiness is a state of mind andHappiness is a state of mind and comes from within a person, andcomes from within a person, and seems to relatively little to do withseems to relatively little to do with wealth or material possessions.wealth or material possessions. Perception and ability to set realisticPerception and ability to set realistic goals and achieving them also leadsgoals and achieving them also leads to happinessto happiness..
  • 22. INDIVIDUAL CENTERED APPROACH WORK CENTERED APPROACH Maslow’s Hierarchy Of Needs Pareek’s Modification Alderfer’s ERG Theory McLelland’s Needs Theory Herzberg’s Two Factors Theory Adam’s Equity Theory Theory X / Y Expectancy Theory Wynn’s Socio Action Model
  • 23. Physiological Needs Self Actualization Needs Esteem Needs Social Needs Safety Needs Existence Needs Growth Needs Relatedness Needs NEEDS THEORIES – A COMPARISON Marslow’s Need Hierarchy Theory Alderfer’s ERG Theory

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