Introduction to Sap (FICO) or Globe Sap


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Sap introduction,advantages,Org structure,fiscal year variant,posting period variant,open close posting period,chart of accounts,accounts group,creation of general ledger master accounts,VMD reconsilation,one time vendor creation,creation of vendor,manual check creations,check register creation creation,check encashment date updation,creation of check lots,bank determaantion & question with answers n more

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Introduction to Sap (FICO) or Globe Sap

  1. 1. SAP is the worlds number one ERP application.SAP which is pronounced as S.A.P stands for SystemsApplications and Products in Data Processing.In 1970, 5 IBM engineers developed this software for BusinessEnterprises.SAP was released in 1972 – Its head quarters is in Germany
  2. 2. Platform is independent SAP.International ApplicabilityFunctionalityIntegrationUser FriendlinessRealitme, i.e. you can go to the lowest piece of information.SAP is available for almost all businesses.90% of fortune 500 companies have implemented SAP.
  3. 3. SAP------------------------------------------------- | | Group Company | | Company Company code | | Units Businesses Area
  4. 4. Nestle---------------------------------------------------------------------------------- | | | NUSA NPPC NWNA | | | | | | HYD BGL HYD BGL HYD BGL
  5. 5. The company code is the organizational unit that allows you tostructure your enterprise from a financial accounting perspective.Any specific rules that control business processes such as paymenttransactions or correspondence.A company code should be depicted from a tax law, commercial orother financial accounting standpoint. It usually corresponds to alegally independent company.A company code possesses specific information that isimportant for accounting purposes.
  6. 6. The fiscal year variant contains the number of posting periods inthe fiscal year and the number of special periods.
  7. 7. In day to day life, we are following the year starting from January to December.This is called calendar year. But while maintaining financial records, some businessorganizations, maintain records from April to March, some January to December orsome in other way.The period from which the financial records are maintained is called Fiscal year.Hence we need to define Fiscal year as per the need of our business organization.A Fiscal year is divided into posting periods.Each posting period is defined by a start and a finish date.Before you can post documents, you must define posting periods, which in turn definefiscal year.In addition to the posting period, you can also define special periods for year-endclosing.In General Ledger Accounting , a fiscal year can have maximum of 12 posting periodsand 4 special periods.Defining fiscal year is obligatory.One fiscal year can be used by several company codes.
  8. 8. When defining your fiscal year, you have the following options:- 1) Your fiscal year is the calendar yearIn this case, you must only select the Calendar year field. 2) Your fiscal year is not the same as the calendar year and is not year- dependentIn this case, you first enter the number of your posting periods in the Numberposting per. field. To define your posting periods, select your fiscal year variant andselect Periods on the navigation screen. On this screen, enter the month and the dayof the period end and the period in each case. 3) Your fiscal year is not the same as the calendar year and is year- dependentEnter the number of your posting periods in the field Number posting periods andselect the field Year-dependent. To define your posting periods, select your fiscalyear variant and select Periods on the navigation screen. The system asks for whichcalendar year your year-dependent fiscal year variant is valid. You then enter themonth and day of the period end for each of your periods, and the periodsthemselves.It is also possible to determine names for the periods of a non-year-specific fiscalyear variant. To do so, select your fiscal year variant and choose Period texts on thenavigation screen. You can specify a three-character abbreviation (Jan, Feb, Mar...)and a 20-character long text (January, February, March).
  9. 9. A period within a fiscal year for which transaction figures areupdated.Every transaction that is posted is assigned to a particular postingperiod. The transaction figures are then updated for this period.
  10. 10. In this activity you specify for each variant which posting periodsare open for posting.Two intervals are available for doing this (period 1 and period 2).For every interval, enter a lower period limit, an upper period limitand the fiscal year.You close periods by selecting the period specifications so that theperiods to be closed are no longer contained.
  11. 11. a) Var (Col) : (Posting Period Variant. This describes the specifications for a posting period (for example, beginning and end). Eachcompany code refers to exactly one variant. Therefore, as many company codes as you require can use the same variant.b) A (Col) : (Account Type or Mask ) + (for all Accounts)A AssetsD DebtorsK CreditorsM MaterialsS GLc) From Acct (col): (This field, together with the specified year, produces the beginning of the allowed posting period interval.)d) To Account (col):e) From Per.1 (col) :f) Year (col) :g) To Period (col) : (The value in this field and the specified year result in the end of the permitted posting period.)-k) AuGr : (Authorisation groupA posting period can be made available to only a limited set of users using the authorization group.A posting period can be successively restricted. If, e.g. 10 users have the posting period authorization with authorization group0001, and 3 of these 10 users also with authorization group 0002.If the period is only to be accessible to the 10 selected users the authorization group 0001 is entered in the posting period variant.Access can later be restricted to the remaining 3 users by entering 0002.)
  12. 12. Chart of Accounts is a list of all G/L Accounts used by one or severalcompany codes.For G/L Account, the chart of accounts contains the account number,account name, and the information that controls how an account functionsand how a G/L account is created in a company code.There are three types of chart of accounts.1).Operating chart of accounts (obligatory) : The operating chart ofaccounts contains the G/L accounts that you use for posting in yourcompany code during daily activities. Financial Accounting andControlling both can use this chart of accounts.2).Group chart of accounts : This contains the G/L accounts, that areused by the entire corporate group.3).Country specific chart of accounts : This contains the G/L accountsneeded to meet the country’s legal requirements.
  13. 13. The following diagram shows the relationship among the client,Company code, Chart of Account, Account group and GL Account.The highest level of entity being Client followed by Company codeand chart of account, the Account group and at lowest level is theGeneral Ledger Master.
  14. 14. In order to organize and manage a large number of G/L Accounts better, they are arrangedin account group.So when creating a G/L account, you must specify an account group.The accounts of an account group normally have similar business functions. You could, forexample have an account group for cash accounts, one for Expenses accounts, one forrevenue accounts, and one for other balance sheet accounts etc.The account group determines:-The interval in which the account number must beWhich fields are required and optional entries when creating and changing master recordsWhich fields are suppressed when creating and changing master data.It enables you to control the layout of screens.Account groups for G/L accounts are based on the chart of accounts.
  15. 15. We will create a Salary Account which false under EXPENSESAccount Groups.The number range for EXPENSES Account group is 4000000000to 4999999999.As we are creating the first G/L master in this account group, itsnumber will be 4000000000.
  16. 16. This activity control the record (document) maintenance activities ofthe employees of the organization. The tolerance group defines- the maximum document amount the employee is authorizedto post- the maximum amount the employee can enter as a line item ina customer or vendor account- the maximum cash discount percentage the employee cangrant in a line item- the maximum acceptable tolerance for payment differencesfor the employee.
  17. 17. a) Amount per document : (Maximum permitted posting amountper document for this user group. The posting amount is the total ofall debit items or, similarly, the total of all credit items)b) Amount per open Item Account Item : (Maximum postingamount permitted per customer or vendor item for this usergroup. Note that the restriction does not apply to automaticallycreated line items , for example, during payment settlements.c) Cash Discount per Line Item : (Maximum cash discountpercentage rate which may be assigned by an employee of the usergroup. The percentage rate is checked during the entry, change andclearing of open items.)
  18. 18. d) Permitted payment differences : (Payment differences to our advantageare allowed up to the amount entered here. The amount always refers to thelocal currency. Payment differences up to the amount entered here areposted automatically by the system as increasing the profit. The systemcreates line items to show this. Note :- In addition to the amount, you alsoenter a percentage rate in the Percent field. The lower limit is valid. If youonly want to use absolute amounts or percentage specifications, then youmust enter the maximum value in every other field.Note that you define these limits for your customers/vendors and youremployees. The lower limit is valid.ExampleThe local currency is USD. You have entered 30 USD in the Revenue fieldand 1 in the Percent field. For incoming payments up to 3000 USD, youaccept an overpayment of a maximum of 1 percent. That means, amountsof 0 to a maximum of 30 USD are tolerated, depending on the incomingpayment amount. For incoming payments over 3000 USD, you accept anoverpayment of up to a maximum of 30 USD.
  19. 19. When you post items to a subsidiary ledger, the system automaticallyposts the same data to the general ledger (see the following illustration).Each subsidiary ledger has one or more reconciliation accounts in thegeneral ledger.These reconciliation accounts ensure that the balance of G/L accounts isalways zero.This means that you can draw up balance sheets at any time withouthaving to transfer totals from the sub ledgers to the general ledger.
  20. 20. You have to specify a reconciliation account in every vendormaster record.Settings made in a reconciliation account also affect the vendoraccounts:You can use the reconciliation account to configure the screens forposting items to vendor accounts.You can also use the reconciliation account to specify whichcurrencies you can use in posting to the corresponding vendoraccounts.
  21. 21. When you create a vendor master record, you are required to enteran account group. The account group determines:• How numbers are assigned (externally by you or internally by thesystem) and the number range from which they are assigned• Whether the vendor is a one-time vendor• Which fields appear on the screen and whether the user can ormust make an entry• Whether there are any other levels on which data can be retainedbelow the purchasing organization level (site and/or vendor sub-range), and if so, what these are• In Customizing, you define the account groups that are to beavailable.
  22. 22. You can create special one-time master records for vendors from whichyou only order goods once or very rarely.When you create a one-time vendor master record, you have to enter aone-time account group. The vendor-specific fields are then switched off.Information that the system usually provides as default data when youcreate documents does not appear and has to be entered manually.Unlike other master records, one-time master records are used for anumber of different vendors so that you do not have to create anunnecessarily large number of master records. This is why no vendor-specific data is stored in the master record. When you create a purchasingdocument using a one-time vendor, the system automatically branches to amaster data screen for you to enter vendor-specific data such asname, address, or bank details. This information is then stored in the
  23. 23. Enter FK01 into the SAP transaction code box
  24. 24. In the next SAP screen, leave the Vendor field blank. The systemwill assign a number when the data is saved.Enter the Company CodeEnter the Account groupOptional – In the Reference section:In the Vendor field, you can enter a reference Vendor if the detailsare similar to the new Vendor.In the Company Code field, you can enter the referenceVendor’s company codewe will create a vendor without a reference.
  25. 25. There are six steps in this configuration:• Configuration for company code.• Configuration for paying company code.• Configuration for payment method in country.• Configuration for payment method in company code.• Configuration for bank determination.• Configuration for House bank.
  26. 26. While analyzing accounts, the user found that certaindocument numbers are not appearing or are missing.For example, number range 17 is assigned to documenttype KA, which has the range 1700000000–1799999999valid up to 9999.The current status shows that the next available number is1790000000. During analysis, the user found thatdocuments 1780000000–1780000010 are missing.The user wants to know why document numbers aremissing.
  27. 27. ??
  28. 28. There are several reasons for missing document numbers. Here are twoscenariosfor this issue: 1. One possible reason could be that these documents were initiallyparked andlater deleted. In this case, those document numbers cannot be reused. 2. The documents probably don’t exist. SAP solutions will set asidenumbersfor use when the system detects multiple document creation. If someone iscreating documents, the system will make available, for example, the next10 numbers, “reserving them,” in essence. If the user only creates eightdocuments, two document numbers will be missing. You may use the following programs/reports to find out the reason for themissing documents:n Program RFVBER00 provides a list of transactions that failedwhile updating the database.n Program RFBNUM00 shows gaps in the FI number range.
  29. 29. The client printed 50 checks, of which 10 checks are spoiled or torn.Now theclient wants to reprint the checks using the same APP. Is thispossible? Or doyou have to void those checks that are spoiled or torn? There may be times when the payment run has successfully postedpayment documents and generated checks, but for some reason orother, thechecks are not valid. In this situation, you have to void all of theprinted checksand reprint them. To void and reprint…
  30. 30. Follow these steps: 1. Execute transaction code FCH7 . You may navigate to FCH7 through thepayment run. 2. Execute transaction code F110 , enter the payment run ID and run date,thenfollow the menu path: Environment→ Check information → Change→Reprint Check (t-codeFCH7). 3. Enter the following details:n Paying company oden House bankn Account IDn Number of the check to be voidedn Void reason coden New check number 4. Choose the path: Check → Reprint from the menu. You must follow this process in a situation where you have issued checks,but the checks are lost in post.
  31. 31. The user has executed transaction code F110 to pay 50 vendors, buthe only has 20 checks left. Hence, when he ran the program, itprinted the checks with random numbers. Now the problem is he isunable to cancel the payments, as there is no check number. Howcan he reprint or cancel the checks? The check printing program generated more checks than there areavailable check numbers.
  32. 32. To handle this issue, follow these steps: 1. Before proceeding, ensure that you have maintained a newcheck lot throughtransaction code FCHI. Be sure to correct your check lot before youdoanything. 2. In transaction code F110, enter the payment run ID andpayment run date.
  33. 33. To handle this issue, follow these steps: 1. Before proceeding, ensure that you have maintained a new check lot throughtransaction code FCHI. Be sure to correct your check lot before you doanything. 2. In transaction code F110, enter the payment run ID and payment run date. 3. Go to the Printout/data medium tab and place the mouse curser on variantfield against print program. 4. From the system menu, choose Environment→Maintain Variants asshown in Figure 3.7. FIGURE 3.7 Using transaction code F110 5. SAP R/3 will show the Maintain variant: XXXX screen, at the bottom of whichyou will see the section shown in Figure 3.8. FIGURE 3.8 Using transaction code F110 6. Select Void and reprint checks from payment run already printed .This procedure will void all of the checks generated through this particularpayment program. If you want to void and regenerate a particular set of checks, enter the checknumbers you want to void along with a void reason code. 7. Save the variant and come back to the payment run screen. Click on to generate the desired checks.
  34. 34. Thank You