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  1. 1. GENERAL KNOWLEDGELATEST STUDY MATERIALS WITH KEY POINTSSOLAR SYSTEM – STATISTICSThe solar system consists of the Sun and 9 planetsRevolving around it in different orbits. The statistics ofThe sun and the planets are given below:SUNAge: About 5 Billion yearsDistance: 149.8 Million KmsDiameter: 1, 38,400 Kms.Photosphere temperature: 5,770 KCore temperature: 150,000,000 KAbsolute visual magnitude: 4.75Rotation (as seen from theEarth at the equator): 25.38 daysRotation (near the poles): 33 daysThe sun consists of 71% of Hydrogen, 26.5% Helium and2.5% of other elements.The rays of the Sun take about 8 minutes to reach theEarth.PLANETS(1) MERCURY: It is the planet nearest toThe earth.Average distanceTo the Sun: 57.6 Million Kms.Diameter: 4,849.6 Kms.Period of revolution: 88 daysPeriod of rotation: 58 days 15 hrs 30 mts. 34sec.(2) VENUS: It is also known as theMorning Star or theEvening Star. It is thebrightest of all theplanets.Diameter : 12,032 Kms.Period of revolution : 225 daysPeriod of rotation : 243 days 14mts.(3) EARTHEquatorial diameter : 12,756 Kms.Polar diameter : 12,714 Kms.Distance from the Sun : 149,597,900 Kms.Period of revolution : 365 days 5 hrs, 48 mts,45.51 sec. Period of rotation : 23 hrs 56 mts. 4.09 sec.
  2. 2. (4) MARSDiameter : 6,755.2 Kms.Distance from the Sun : 225.6 Million Kms.Period of revolution : 687 daysPeriod of rotation : 24 hrs 37 mts. 22.663 sec.(5) JUPITER : This is the largest planetin the solar system.Diameter : 141,968 Kms.Distance from the Sun : 772.8 Million Kms.Period of revolution : 11.9 yearsPeriod of rotation : 9 hrs 50 mts. 30 sec.(6) SATURN : It was discovered byGalileo.Diameter : 119,296 Kms.Distance from the Sun : 1,417.6 Million Kms.Period of revolution : 29.5 yearsPeriod of rotation : 10 hrs 14 mts.(7) URANUSDiameter : 52,096 Kms.Distance from the Sun : 2,852.8 Million Kms.Period of revolution : 84 yearsPeriod of rotation : 16 hrs 10 mts.(8) NEPTUNEDiameter : 49,000 Kms.Distance from the Sun : 4,497 Million Kms.Period of revolution : 165 yearsPeriod of rotation : 18 hrs 26 mts.(9) PLUTO : This is the coldest andsmallest of all planets. Itis also the most distant one.Diameter : 3,040 KmsDistance from the Sun : 5,865.6 Million Kms.Period of revolution : 248 yearsPeriod of rotation : 6 days 9 hrs and 18 mts.MOON : Moon is earths satellite.Its period of rotation andPeriod of Revolution areThe same. I.e.29 1/9days.THE EARTH DATASurface Area : 510,100,500 Sq.Kms.Land Surface : 148,950,800 Sq.Kms.(29.08%)Water Surface : 361,149,700 Sq.Kms.(70.92%)Equatorial circumference : 40,075 Kms.Polar circumference : 40,008 KmsEquatorial radius : 6,377 Kms.
  3. 3. Equatorial Diameter : 1,22,756 Kms.Polar radius : 6,357 Kms.Polar Diameter : 12,714 Kms.Mean distance from theSun : 14,95,97,900 Kms.Period of revolution : 365 days 5 hours 48 mts.45.51 Sec.Period of rotation : 23 hrs. 56 mts. 4.091 Sec.Escape Velocity fromthe earth : 11 Km per Sec. (minimum)THE WORLDThe seasons are due to the change of the Earth‘sposition in the course of its revolution about the Sun,and to the inclination of its axis. The Equator is animaginary line drawn round the Earth midway betweenthe Poles. There are two other lines, namely, Tropic ofCancer (23½O N) and the Tropic of Capricon (23½O S).The word tropic means, ‗turning place‘. The inclinationof the Earth‘s axis together with its revolution round theSun is the cause of the varying length of day and night indifferent parts of the world. On March 21 (Vernal Equinox)and September 23 (Autumnal Equinox) the Sun is overheadat the Equator. On these dates, except at the Poles,(a) days and nights are equal all over the world; and (b)the Sun rises exactly due east and set exactly due west atall places on the Earth‘s surface. At the Equator itselfdays and nights are equal throughout the year. BetweenMarch 21 and September 23, when the North Pole is tiltedtowards the Sun, the days are longer than the nightsthroughout the Northern Hemisphere and there iscontinuous daylight at the North Pole. Similar conditionsare experienced in the Southern Hemisphere and theSouth Pole between September 25 and March 21.Latitude and Longitude:Latitude is distance, measured in degrees, north orsouth of the Equator. Longitude is distance, measured indegrees, east or west of any fixed meridian. The meridianpassing through Greenwich is numbered 0O. On a globethe meridians are numbered from 0O to 180O E (East) or W(West). At the equator the degrees are 69 to 70 milesapart (25000÷360). Since earth completes one rotation onits axis in 24 hours, 360 meridians pass under the Sun inthat time. Therefore, 1 degree passes under the Sun every4 minutes.International Date Line:If we travelled westward to a place X on longitude180o W, the time there would be 12 hours behindGreenwich time (180 x 4 minutes = 720 minutes = 12 hours).If we journeyed eastward to a place Y on longitude 180oE, the time there would be 12 hours ahead of Greenwichtime. Thus X and Y both on 180o have the same time but
  4. 4. The Earth and the Solar System :The Earth is a member of the Solar System. It is oneof nine major planets revolving round the Sun. Of these,Mercury and Venus are nearer, and Mars, Jupiter, Saturn,Uranus, Neptune and Pluto are farther away from theSun than the Earth.The planets radiate no light of their own, but shinewith that reflected from the Sun. The Sun has a diameterof 864,000 miles (1,390,000 Kms) and it is 93,000,000 miles(150,000,000 Kms) from the Earth. The Sun is a star. Thestars, unlike the planets, are self-luminous bodies. Theother stars appear small because they are so far away;the nearest star, Proxima Centauri, is 200,000 times moredistant from us than the Sun.The Moon is a dead planet. It is about 240,000 miles(386,000 Kms) from the Earth. The Moon revolves roundthe Earth taking approximately 29 days to complete oneround. The phases of the Moon are the result of itsposition in relation to the Earth and the Sun.The Moon‘s orbit is ecliptical and inclined at anangle of 5o to the plane of the Earth‘s orbit. This explainswhy we do not have a total eclipse of the Sun every timethere is a new moon.The Earth:The Earth is a sphere but it is not a perfect sphere.It is slightly flattened at the poles and bulges at theequator. The circumference of the earth is approximately25,000 miles (40,000 Kms).It rotates on its axis once in every 24 hours, spinningfrom west to east. Besides spinning on its axis, it alsomoves round the Sun, called the revolution.Its orbit round the Sun is oval or ecliptical. Thetime taken to complete one revolution is approximately365¼ days or one year. For convenience, one year istaken as 365 days and the shortfall of ¼ day eachyear is made good in the Leap Year which consists of366 days. The Earth‘s axis inclined to the plane of itsorbit at an angle of 66½O.differ in date by a day (12 hours + 12 hours = 24 hours).To overcome the confusion that would otherwise arise,the International Date Line has been established. It runsalong 180o E or W. Westward-bound vessels crossingthe Date Line drop a day from the calendar, while thosegoing eastward add a day by giving the same date to twoconsecutive days. Instead of changing the time exactlyaccording to change in degrees at the rate of 4 minutesper degree, certain time zones have been established. Allplaces in the same area or time zone or time belt, usewhat is called Standard Time. Thus we have theGreenwich Mean Time (G.M.T) and the Indian StandardTime (I.S.T). There are five time-belts in Canada and fourin United States.The Lithosphere:The mass of the Earth is generally divided into three
  5. 5. layers, namely, Crust, Mantle and Core. The Lithosphereis the name given to the outer Crust which is not morethan 10 miles thick. It is made up of a great variety ofrocks, soils, etc.Rocks:1. Sedimentary Rocks:These rocks are made up ofdeposits laid down on the floor of river beds, lakesand seas.Examples:Sand and sandstone, clay, lime stone,chalk and carbonaceous rocks, such as lignite, coaland anthracite.2. Igneous Rocks:These are primary rocks which areformed by cooling and solidification of molten lava.When such rocks are poured out on the surfacethey are known as Volcanic rocks, e.g. basalt. Whenthe molten material solidifies at considerable depth,plutonic rocks are formed, e.g. granite.3. Metamorphic Rocks:These rocks are formed as aresult of alteration by extreme heat and or pressureof igneous or sedimentary rocks. Example, slate,gneiss, schist etc.Soil:The upper layers of rocks weather to form the soil.There are three distinct layers of soil. The uppermostlayer forms the top soil. The second layer is called thesubsoil. The third layer is made up of decomposing andmuch-broken rock, known as mantle- rock. The type ofsoil depends on a number of factors, namely, climaticconditions, the nature of the parent rock, relief, vegetationand the period over which it has been worked by man.Soils may by broadly classified as (a) Forest, (b) Grasslandand (c) Desert types.Mountains:In past geological ages disturbances in the Earth‘sinterior have caused crumpling and cracking of the crust.This has resulted in great upholds forming Fold-Mountains which are mainly made up of folded strata ofsedimentary rocks, e.g. the Alps, the Rockies, the Andes,and the Himalayas. The mountain structures worn downby prolonged denudation are known as ResidualMountains, e.g. Highlands of Scotland and Scandinavia.Denudation:The process known as denudation or the wearingaway of the land is continually going on. The chief causesof such erosion are (a) changes in temperature; (b) frost;(c) winds; (d) water, including rivers; (e) ice; and (f) theaction of the sea. Steps to combat soil erosion include (i)terracing; (ii) contour ploughing; (iii) strip cropping (iv)
  6. 6. planting shelter belts of trees; and (v) plugging the gulliesby building small dams etc.The Atmosphere:The air is composed mainly of nitrogen (78%) andoxygen (21%) with small proportions of carbon dioxide,water vapour and rarer gases like argon and neon.Atmosphere is 200 miles thick, but nine-tenths of the aircomposing it is found within 12 miles, and half within 3½miles of the earth‘s surface. We are concerned mainlywith the lower layer of troposphere. The upper layers inthe ascending order are Stratosphere, Mesosphere andIonosphere. Troposphere extends to a distance of aboutten kilometres. Stratosphere is a region extending froman altitude of about 11 Km to 50 Km above the earth. Theupper part of stratosphere has plenty of ozone whichprotects us from the fatal effects of Sun‘s ultravioletradiation. Mesosphere is the next layer extending from 50to 80 Kms above the earth. It is a very cold region.Ionosphere extends from about 60 Kms upwards. Itincludes Thermosphere and Exosphere which marks theouter limits of the earth‘s atmosphere.Wind is air in motion:The chief cause of wind is difference in atmospherepressure. One of the main reasons for differences inpressure is unequal heating of the air. From the highpressure belts the air flows outwards to the regions oflow pressure. Owing to the rotation of the earth, the windsdo not blow due north and south, but are deflected. Inthis deflection they obey Ferrel‟s Law which states, ―Anymoving body on the earth surface including a current ofair, tends to be deflected, the deflection being to the rightin the northern hemisphere and to the left in southernhemisphere.‖ Land and seabreezed are local winds causedby the unequal heating of land and water. During the daythe land becomes very much hotter than the sea, with theresult that there is marked low pressure over the land.Thus the air over the sea flows rapidly loses heat, but thesea remains warm for a longer time. Thus at night, heavycool air blows from the land to take the place of warm airrising over the sea. The monsoon or seasonal winds maybe regarded as land and sea breezes on a large scale, inwhich the time-frame is a year instead of a day. Thisphenomenon is to be found in south-east Asia, but isespecially marked in the subcontinent of India. A cycloneis a portion of the atmosphere in which the pressure islowest in the centre. The winds blow inwards in anticlockwisedirection in the Northern Hemisphere. In theSouthern Hemisphere cyclonic winds blow in a clockwisedirection in accordance with Ferrel‘s Law. An anticycloneis a portion of the atmosphere in which the pressure ishighest in the centre. The winds blow outwards in aclockwise direction in the Northern Hemisphere and inan anti-clockwise direction in the Southern Hemisphere.
  7. 7. The Oceans:It is estimated that 72% of the surface of the globeis covered with water. The Pacific, which is the greatestof all oceans, covers a third of the earth‘s surface, itstotal area being greater than that of all the dry land.Atlantic is slightly less than half the size of the Pacific,yet so many great rivers flow into it that it receives halfthe drainage of the world. The other oceans are Indian,Mediterranean, Antarctic and Arctic. The average depthof the ocean is 12,500 feet, compared with the averageheight of the land which is about 2,500 feet. The greatestknown depth is that of the Marianas Trench in the Pacific,where a depth of 35,800 feet has been recorded.Tides:Tides are caused by the gravitational attraction -the ‗pull‘ of the moon on the earth, sometimes assistedby and sometimes hindered by the Sun.At new and fullmoon, when the Sun, Moon and Earth are practically in astraight line the attractive force of the Sun increases thatof the Moon. Such high tides are called spring tides.Weather and Climates:Weather may be defined as the condition of theatmosphere at any place at a particular time. The averageweather conditions determine the climate. Humidity,temperature, elevation, distance from the sea, oceancurrents, atmosphere pressure and prevailing windscombine to affect the climate of a region.Humidity:Humidity, the term used to express the dampnessof the atmosphere, is due to the pressure of water vapour.Evaporation is the mean by which water is drawn off asinvisible water vapour from oceans, lakes, rivers, etc.,when the air contains as much water vapour as it canhold is said to be saturated. When saturated air is cooled,condensation takes place and some of the water whichform the clouds grow larger, they precipitate i.e., fall tothe earth as rain. The proportion of water vapour in theair, compared with the maximum it can hold at the sametemperature, is known as Relative Humidity. Dew iscaused by the condensation of water vapour on the coldground during the night. The temperature at which suchcondensation takes place is called the Dew Point. Whencondensation takes place near the surface (and not onthe ground) the result is usually mist or fog. Whencondensation takes place at some distance from theground, clouds are formed. When water vapour iscondensed at a temperature below freezing point it formssnow. There are various kinds of clouds. The layer likeclouds often seen on the horizon at sunrise and sunsetare called stratus clouds. The light wispy clouds formedhigh in the sky are called cirrus clouds. The heaped upclouds, looking rather like masses of cotton wool are called
  8. 8. cumulus clouds. The black rain clouds are known asnimbus.Temperature:Of all climatic factors, temperature is the mostimportant. It affects man‘s food, crops, dress and thetype of dwelling he builds. Temperature decreases 1oFfor every 300 feet above the sea-level. This decreaseis largely due to the fact that the rarified air, foundin elevated regions, absorbs less heat than the denserair at lower levels.SEVEN NATURAL WONDERSOF THE WORLD1. Mount Everest, on the border of Tibet and Nepal.2. The Nile River, Egypt.3. Rio de Janeiro Harbour.4. Iguassu Falls, Argentina.5. Yosemite Valley and the Giant Sequioas of California.6. The Grand Canyon, Colorado River, Arizona.7. The Northern Lights, especially from NorthernCanada and Alaska.SEVEN WONDERS OF TODAY1. The Taj Mahal of Agra, India.2. The Great Pyramid of Egypt and the adjacent GreatSphinx of Gizeh.3. Hagia Sophia, 6th Century, in present day Istanbul.4. Leaning Tower of Pisa, Italy.5. The Eiffel Tower, Paris.6. The Washington Monument, Washington.7. The Empire State Building, New York City.SEVEN WONDERSOF THE ANCIENT WORLD1. The Pyramids of Khufu2. The Hanging Gardens of Babylon3. The Temple of Artem is at Ephesus4. The Statue of Zeus at Olympia5. The Mausolus at Halicarnassus6. The Colossus of Rhodes7. The Pharos (Lighthouse) at AlexandriaSEVEN WONDERSOF THE MEDIEVAL WORLD1. The Colosseum of Rome2. The Great Wall of China3. The Porcelain Tower of Nanking, Cahina4. The Mosque at St.Sophia (Constantinople)5. The Stonehenge of England6. The Catacombs of Alexandria7. The Leaning Tower of PisaGEOGRAPHICAL EPITHETS-WORLD
  9. 9. America‟s Motor City DetroitBritain of the South New ZealandChina‟s Sorrow River Hwang HoCity of Dreaming Spires Oxford (England)City of Eternal Springs Quito (S.America)City of Flowers Cape Town (S.Africa)City of Golden Gate San Francisco (USA)City of Magnificient Buildings Washington (USA)City of Quiet thoroughfares VeniceCity of Seven Hills Rome (Italy)City of Skyscrapers New York (USA)Cockpit of Europe BelgiumDark Continent AfricaEmerald Isle IrelandEmpire City New YorkEternal City of Hopes Rome, ItalyForbidden City Lhasa (Tibet)Garden City ChicagoGarden in the desert EthiopiaGarden of England Kent (England)Gate of tears Strait of bab-el-MandebGolden City JohannesburgGibraltar of Indian Ocean AdenGift of Nile EgyptGranite City AberdeenHanging Valleys Valley of SwitzerlandHermit Kingdom KoreaHerring Pond Atlantic OceanHoly Land PalestineHuman Equator of the Earth HimalayasIsland Continent AustraliaIsland of Cloves ZanzibarIsland of Pearls Bahrain (Persian Gulf)Islands of Sunshine West IndiesKashmir of Europe SwitzerlandKey to Mediterranean GibraltarLand of Five Seas South West AsiaLand of Lakes ScotlandLand of Golden Pagoda MyanmarLand of Kangaroo AustraliaLand of Golden Fleece AustraliaLand of Lilies CanadaLand of Maple CanadaLand of Midnight Sun NorwayLand of Morning Calm KoreaLand of Rising Sun JapanLand of Setting Sun United KingdomLand of Thousand Elephants LaosLand of Thousand Lakes FinlandLand of Thunderbolt BhutanLand of White Elephant ThailandLoneliest Island Tristan De Gumha(Mid. Atlantic)Manchester of Japan Osaka (Japan)
  10. 10. Pillars of Hercules Straits of GibraltarPlay Ground of Europe SwitzerlandQuaker City PhiladelphiaQueen of the Adriatic VeniceRoof of the World The pamirs (Tibet)River in the Sea Gulf StreamSickman of Europe TurkeySugar Bowl of the world CubaVenice of the East BangkokVenice of the North StockholmWhite City BelgradeWindy City ChicagoWorkshop of Europe BelgiumWorld‟s Loneliest Island Tristan Da CunhaYellow River River Hwang Ho(China)Durand Line Pakistan and AfghanistanHindenburg Line Germany and Poland.Mac Mohan Line India and ChinaMaginot Line France and Germany.Oder Neisse Line East Germany and Poland.Radcliffe Line India and PakistanSiegfried Line Germany and France.17th Parallel North and South Vietnam24th Parallel India and Pakistan38th Parallel North and South Korea49th Parallel U.S.A. and CanadaWORLD - MINERALSGEOGRAPHICAL DISOVERIESAmerica Chiristopher ColumbusSea-route to India Vasco-da-GamaNorth Pole Robert PearySouth Pole AmundsenSuez Canal Designed by Ferdinand deLessepsAluminium USA, France & IndiaAsbestos Canada, ZimbabweBauxite Australia, GuineaChromium Zimbabwe, IndiaCoal U.S.A., England, Russia andGermanyCopper Ore CIS, U.S.A.Crude Oil CIS, Saudi ArabiaDiamonds CIS, ZaireGold South Africa, South America,AustraliaGraphite Ore CIS, BrazilFAMOUS LINES, FRONTIERSIlmenite IndiaIron Ore U.S.A., RussiaLignite East Germany, CISManganese Ore CIS, South Africa
  11. 11. Mercury Italy, SpainMica, Monazite IndiaNatural Gas U.S.A., CISNickel Ore Canada, CISPetroleum U.S.A., Russia & Middle EastCountriesPhosphate U.S.A., CISSilver Mexico, U.S.A., and IndiaSteel U.S.A., Russia, U.K. & GermanyTin Malaysia, IndonesiaUranium U.S.A., CanadaZinc Ore Canada, CISWORLD - INDUSTRIESBaku (Russia) PetroleumBangkok (Thailand) ShippingBelfast (Ireland) Ship buildings, LinengoodsBuenos Aires (Argentina) Dairy ProductsCadiz (Spain) CorkChicago (U.S.A.) GramophoneDetroit (U.S.A.) AutomobilesDresden Optical andP h o t o g r a p h i capparatusGlasgow (Scotland) Machinery, TextilesHavana (Cuba) CigarHollywood (U.S.A.) FilmsJohannesburg (South Africa) Gold MinesKimberley (South Africa) Diamond MiningLeeds (England) Woollen GoodsLos Angeles (U.S.A.) Film, OilLyons (France) SilkMorocco (North America) LeatherMunich (Germany) LensesNew Orleans (U.S.A.) CottonPitsburg (U.S.A.) Iron and SteelPlymouth (England) Ship buildingSheffield CutleryVenice (Italy) GlassVienna (Austria) GlassWellington (New Zealand) Dairy ProductsCOUNTRIES AND ALTERNATIVE NAMESBechuanaland BotswanaBurma MyanmarCeylon Sri LankaDutch Guiana SurinamFormosa TaiwanIndia BharatJapan NipponNorth Borneo SabahKampuchea CambodiaRhodesia ZimbabweSiam Thailand
  12. 12. South-West Africa NamibiaNATIONAL EMBLEMSNAME OF PARLIAMENTAfghanistan ShoraBritain ParliamentDenmark FolketingGermany BundestagIndia ParliamentIran MajlisIsrael KnessetJapan DietMalaysia MajlisNepal PanchayatNetherlands States GeneralNorway StortingPoland SeymRussia Supreme SovietSpain CrotesSweden RiksdagTaiwan YuanU.S.A. CongressAustralia KangarooCanada White LilyFrance LilyIndia Lioned CapitolItaly White LilyJapan ChrysanthemumPakistan CrescentSpain EagleU.K. RoseU.S.A. Golden RodSIGNS AND SYMBOLSSun Air IndiaWheel (Chakra) ProgressRed Triangle Family PlanningBlack Flag Protest (or Flag flown at half mastNational Mourning)Red Cross Hospital Medical AidRed Light Traffic Sign ―Stop‖Lotus Culture & CivilizationWhite Flag TruceOlive Branch PeaceStars and Stripes National Flag of U.S.A.Tricolour National Flag of IndiaJustice A Blind-folded woman holding abalanced scale.Union Jack National flag of U.K.Hammer & Sickle National Flag of RussiaARCHIPELAGOLargest Indonesia
  13. 13. AREASmallest State in Area (India) GoaSmallest Union Territory LakshadweepLargest State in Area (India) Madhya PradeshLargest City in Area (World) LondonANIMALTallest Animal GiraffeFastest Animal at short run CheetahFastest Animal The PeregerineFalconLargest existing Land animal ElephantMost Intelligent Animal ChimpanzeeMost Cunning Animal FoxLargest Sea Animal Blue WhaleBELLLargest Bell (World) Greatest Bell ofMoscow (Russia)BIRDLargest Bird OstrichLargest Sea-bird AlbatrossFastest Bird SwiftFlightless Bird SwiftSmallest Bird Humming BirdSinging Bird NightingaleBRIDGELongest Railway Bridge (India) Sone Bridge (Bihar)Longest Steel Arch Bridge New River GorgeBridge, 518.2 m long(West Virginia, USA)Longest combined Highway The Yangtse RiverBridgeand Railway Bridge 6,772 m rail deck and4,589 road deck(Nanking, China)Longest Railway Bridge Huey P. Long Bridge,7009 m (Metairie,Louisiana, USA)Highest Road Bridge Bailey Bridge builtby the Indian Army,30 m long at analtitude of 5600 m( K h a r d u n g i a ,Ladakh)Highest River Bridge Royal Gorge, 321 mabove sea level onthe river Arkansas,268 m long, Colorado.Highest Railway Bridge Fades Bridge on riverSioule 144 m long and132.5 m above theriver. (ClermontFerrand, France)
  14. 14. BUILDINGTallest Bank Building Bank of Montreal, 72,Storeys, 284.98 mhigh (Toronto,Canada)CANALLongest Canal (India) Saradha Canal (UttarPradesh)Longest Big Ship Canal (World) Suez Canal (Egypt)160 kmLongest Small Ship Canal Beloye (White Sea)Baltic Canal (CIS) 226km long.CAVE TEMPLELargest Cave Temple (India) Ellora (Maharashtra)CHURCHLargest Church (World) St. Peter‘s Church,Vatican City (Italy)CITYHighly Populated City (India) M u m b a i(Maharashtra)Oldest City (India) KolkataHigest City (World) Wenchuan (China)5,100 metres abovesea levelHighest Capital Lhasa (3,684 metresabove sea level)Largest City in Population (World) Shangai (China)Costliest City (World) LondonCLOCKBiggest Clock (World) Big Ben (London)CONTINENTLargest Continent AsiaSmallest Continent AustraliaCORRIDORLargest Corridor (World) Rameswaram TempleCOUNTRYLargest in Population China followed byIndiaLargest in Area RussiaLargest Electorate IndiaCREATURELargest Creature Blue Whale. It cangrow upto a weightof 150 tonnes.Highest - Biggest - Longest - Deepest - Largest- SmallestDAMLongest Dam (India) Hirakud Dam on theriver Mahanadi -OrissaHighest Dam (World) The Grande
  15. 15. (Switzerland)Highest Straight Bhakra Nangal onriver SutlejDAYLongest Day June 21 (in NorthernHemisphere)Shortest Day December 22 (inN o r t h e r nHemisphere)DELTALargest Delta (Sunderbans). TheWorlds largest deltais that created by theGanges and Brahmaputra in Bangladeshand West Bengal,India. It covers anarea of 30,000 sq.miles.DESERTLargest Desert (World) Sahara (Africa)Coldest Desert AntarcticaLargest Desert (India) Thar Desert(Rajasthan)Largest Desert in Asia Gobi (Mongolia)DOMELargest and Biggest (India) Gol GumbazLargest Dome (World) Astrodome inHousten, Texas(USA) outsidediameter 216 metresand inside 196metres.EPICLongest Epic MahabharathaFILLING STATIONHighest Filling Station Petrol pump at Leh at3658 m. It is operatedby Indian OilCorporation.FORESTLargest Forest (India) AssamGATEWAYHighest Gateway (India) Buland DarwazaGULFLargest Gulf Gulf of MexicoHARBOURLargest Natural Harbour (India) VisakhapatnamHILL STATIONHighest Hill Station (India) Gulmarg (Kashmir)HOTELBiggest Hotel (India) Oberoi-Sheraton(Mumbai)ISLANDLargest Island GreenlandLargest Group of Islands Malaya Archipelago
  16. 16. LAKELargest Salt Water Lake Caspian SeaLargest Fresh Water Lake Superior (31,200sq.miles) (India)Deepest Lake Lake Baikal (Siberia)701 mtsHighest Lake Titicaca (Bolivia)3854 metres abovesea level.Largest Lake (India) Wular LakeLIBRARYLargest Library (World) United States Libraryof Congress(Washington)The Lenin StateLibrary (Moscow-Russia)LIGHT HOUSELargest Light House (World) Bishop Rock(England)MEMORIALMost Beautiful Memorial Taj Mahal (Agra)MINESLargest Diamond Mines (World) Kimberley (SouthAfrica)Deepest Mines (India) Kolar Gold Fields(Karnataka)MOUNTAINSLongest Mountain Range (World) Mt. Andes (SouthAmerica) (8,800 km)Highest Peak (World) Everest NepalHighest Peak (India) Godwin AustenHighest Mountain Range HimalayasHighest Peak (South India) Anaimudi (2,720 m)AnaimalaiMOSQUE, CATHEDRAL, TEMPLEBiggest Mosque (India) Jama Masjid (Delhi)Largest Mosque Umayyad Mosque157 m × 97 mcovering an area of3.76 acres.Damascus, Syria.For more papers visit and© THE RAMAN’S BOOKSLargest Cathedral Diocese of New York11,240 sq.m.Largest Temple Angkor Vat. 162.6 haarea, built for LordVishnu by KhmerKing Suryavarman-IIduring 1113-50 A.D.(Cambodia)MUSEUMLargest Museum (India) Indian Museum(Kolkata)
  17. 17. Largest Museum (World) American Museumof Natural History,New York city. Itcomprises 19 interconnectedbuildingswith 23 acres of floorspace.OCEANDeepest, Largest & Biggest The Pacific OceanPALACEBiggest Palace (World) Vatican Palace, Rome(Italy)PENINSULALargest Peninsula (World) ArabiaPLACEHottest Place (India) Barmer (Rajasthan)Hottest Place (World) Azizia (Libya) 58OCColdest Place (World) Ve r k h o y a n s k(Siberia) –85ODriest Place Death Valley(California)Heaviest Rain Fall (World) M a w s y n r a m(Meghalaya)PLATEAUHighest Plateau Pamir (Tibet)Largest Park Wood BuffaloNational ParkinAlberta, Canada(17,560 Sq.miles)PLANETSLargest, Biggest & heaviest JupiterPlanetSmallest Planet MercuryBrightest Planet VenusColdest Planet PlutoPlanet Farthest (from the Sun) PlutoPlanet Nearest (to the Sun) MercuryDustiest Planet Mars (Red Planet)PLAYThe Longest Play The Mouse-Trap(Agatha Christie‘sNovel)POEMLongest Poem of the World MahabarathaPOPULATIONLargest Country in ChinaPopulation (World)Largest State in Uttar Pradesh (India)Population (India)Densiest State in Population West Bengal (India)Smallest State in Population Sikkim (India)Smallest Union Territory Lakshadweep (India)in PopulationRAILWAYSLongest Railway (World) T r a n - S i b e r i a nRailway from
  18. 18. Moscow toNakhodka, 9438 km.Longest Railway (Asia) IndiaFastest Train (World) French T.G.V.Longest Railway Station (India) Kharagpur (W.B.)Longest Railway Platform Sonepur (Bihar)(India)Longest Railway Route Himsagar ExpressRIVERLongest River The Nile (Egypt)Largest River in Volume Amazon (Brazil,South America)Largest River (India) The Ganges (6,679km)ROADSLargest Road (India) Grand Trunk RoadHighest Road (World) Le Narba Road -LadhakLongest Road P a n - A m e r i c a nHighway 27387 km(North West Alaskato Southern mostChile)SCHOOLLargest School South Point HighSchool, Kolkata,India.SEALargest Sea South China SeaSTATESmallest Independent Vatican (Italy)State (World)Biggest State (India) Madhya PradeshSmallest State (India) GoaSTADIUMLargest Stadium Strahov Stadium. Itcan accommodatearound 240,000people in Prague,CzechFor more papers visit and© THE RAMAN’S BOOKSSTATUETallest Statue (World) Statue of Liberty,New YorkTallest Statue (India) Statue of―Panduranga Vittala‖(Karnataka State)STARBiggest and Brightest ‗Sirius‘ also calledDog StarSTREETBroadest Street (World) Broadway St. (USA)SHIPGreatest Ship (World) Queen Elizabeth
  19. 19. 2,83,000 tonsTOWERHighest Tower (World) 1. Tokyo TelevisionTower (Japan)2. Eiffel Tower(Paris, France)Highest Leaning Tower (World) Leaning Tower, Pisa(Italy)Highest Tower (India) Qutub Minar (Delhi)88.4 mTUNNELLargest Tunnel (India) Jawahar Tunnel(Jammu & Kashmir)Longest Rail Tunnel Bombay-Pune routeLongest Highway Tunnel Norway 24.5 km(Laerdal Tunnel) (Oslo-Bergen)UNIVERSITYOldest University University ofKarueein founded inAD 859, MoroccoLargest University Building University ofRiyadh., SaudiArabia.Largest Open University Indira GandhiNational OpenUniversity, NewDelhi.VOLCANOESHighest Volcano (World) Cotopoxi (Andes,Eucador)Largest Volcano (World) Mauna Lea (Hawai)WALLLongest Wall (World) Great Wall of China2400 kmWATERFALLSHighest Waterfall (World) Angel Waterfalls inVenezuela, SouthAmericaHighest Water fall (India) Gersoppa Waterfall(Karnataka)ZOOLargest Zoo (India) Zoological Gardens,Alipur, CalcuttaCOUNTRIES AND CAPITALSAfghanistan KabulAlbania TiranaAlgeria AlgiersAngola LuandaAndorra Andorre-la-VieilleAntigua & Barbuda St.John‘sArgentina Buenos AiresArmenia YerevanAustralia CanberraAustria ViennaAzerbaijan Baku
  20. 20. Bahamas NassauBahrain ManamaBangladesh DhakaBarbados BridgetownBelgium BrusselsBelize BelmopanBenin Porto NovoBermuda HamiltonBhutan ThimphuBolivia La PazBosniaherzegovina SarajevoBotswana GaboroneBrazil BrasilliaBrunei Bander Seri begawanBulgaria SofiaBurkina faso OuagadougouBurundi BujumburaByelorussia MinskCambodia Phnom-PenhCameroon YaoundeCanada OttawaCape Verde PraiaCentral African Republic BanguiChad N‘ DjamenaChile SantiagoChina BeijingColombia BogotaComoros MoroniCongo (Formerly French) BrazzavilleKorea (North) PyongyangKorea (South) SeoulKuwait Kuwait CityLao s.P.D.R. VientianeLatria RigaLebanon BeirutLesotho MaseruLiberia MonroviaLibya TripoliLithuania VilniusLuxembourg LuxembourgMacao MacaoMacedonia SkopjeMadagascar AntananarivoMalawi LilongweMalaysia Kuala LumpurMaldives MaleMali BamakoMalta VallettaMauritania NouakchottMauritius Port LouisMexico Mexico CityMonaco MonacoMongolia Ulam BatorMontserrat PlymouthMorocco RabatMozambique Maputo
  21. 21. Myanmar (Burma) YangonNamibia WindhoekNauru Yaren NauruNepal KathmanduNetherlands AmsterdamNew Zealand WellingtonNicaragua ManaguaNiger NiameyNigeria AbujaNorthern Ireland BelfastNorway OsloOman MuscatPakistan IslamabadPanama Panama CityPapua New Guinea Port MoresbyParaguay AsuncionPeru LimaPhilippines Manila (Quezon City)Poland WarsawPortugal LisbonPuerto Rico San JuanQatar DohaRourkina Fasso (Upper Volta) QuagadougonRomania BucharestRussia MascowCosta Rica San JoseCoted‟ ivoira AbidjanCroatia ZagrabCuba HavanaCyprus NicosiaCzechoslovakia Prague (Praha)Denmark CopenhagenDjibouti DjiboutiDominica RoseauDominican Republic Santo DomingoEcuador QuitoEgypt CairoEl Salvador San SalvadorEquatorial Guinea MalaboEritrea AsmaraEstonia TallinnEthiopia (or Abyssinia) Addis AbabaFalkland Islands StanleyFiji SuvaFinland HelsinkiFrance ParisGabon LibrevilleGambia BanjulGermany (United) BerlinGeorgia TbilisiGhana AccraGreece AthensGrenada St.George‘sGuatemala Guatemala CityGuinea ConakryGuinea-Bissau Bissau
  22. 22. Guyana GeorgetownHaiti Port-au-PrinceHonduras TegucigalpaHong Kong VictoriaHungary BudapestIceland ReykjavikIndia New DelhiIndonesia JakartaIran TeheranIraq BaghdadIreland (or Eire) DublinIsrael JerusalemItaly RomeIvory Coast AbidjanJamaica KingstonJapan TokyoJordan AmmanKazakhstan Alma-ataKenya NairobiKirghizia FrunzeKiribati TarawaRwanda KigaliSan Marino San MarinoSao Tome and Principle Sao TomeSaudi Arabia RiyadhSenegal DakarSeychelles VictoriaSierra Leone FreetownSingapore Singapore CitySolomon Islands HoniaraSomalia MagadishuSouth Africa PretoriaSpain MadridSri Lanka ColomboSt.Kitts-Nevis BasseterreSt.Lucia CastriesSt.Vincent & The Grenadines KingstownSudan KhartoumSuriname ParamariboSwaziland MbabaneSweden StockholmSwitzerland BerneSyria DamascusTadzhikistan DushanbeTaiwan TaipeiTanzania Do domaThailand BangkokTimor DiliTogo LomeTonga Nuku‘alofaTrinidad and Tobago Port-of-SpainTunisia TunisTurkey AnkaraTurkmenistan AshkhabadTuvalu FunafutiUganda Kampala
  23. 23. Ukraine KievUnited Arab Emirates Abu DhabiUnited Kingdom LondonU.S.A. Washington D.C.Uruguay MontivideoUzbekistan TashkentVanuatu VilaVatican City State Vatican CityVenezuela CaracasVietnam HanoiWestern Samoa ApiaYemen (North) SaniaYugoslavia BelgradeZaire KinshasaZambia LusakaZimbabwe HarareCOUNTRIES AND CURRENCIESAfganistan AfghaniAlbania LekAlgeria DinarAndorra French Franc,Spanish PesetaAngola New KwanzaAntigua & Eastern CaribbeanBarbuda DollarArgentina PesoArmenia RubieAustralia Australian DollarAustria SchillingBahamas Bahamian DollarBahrain Bahrain DinarBangladesh TakaBarbados DollarBelgium FrancBrazil New CruzadoBritain PoundBritish DollarHondurasBulgaria LevCanada DollarCentral African France CFARepublicChile PesoChina (Peoples) YuanColumbia PesoCongo France CFACosta Rica ColoneCuba PesoCyprus Cyprus PoundCzechoslovakia KorunaDenmark KroneEcuador SucreEgypt PoundEl Salvador Colon
  24. 24. Ethiopia BirrFiji DollarFinland MarkFrance FrancGambia DalasiGermany Deutsche Mark(United)Ghana CediGreece DrachmaGuatemala QuetzalGuinea-Bissau PesoGuyana Guyana DollarHaiti GourdeHolland FlorinHonduras LempiraHong Kong Hong Kong DollarHungary ForintIceland KronaIreland Irish PoundIndia RupeeIndonesia RupiahIran RialIraq DinarIsrael New ShekelItaly LiraIvory Coast Franc CFAJamaica Jamaican PoundJapan YenJordan Jordan DinarKenya Kenyan ShillingKorea WonKuwait Kuwait DinarAbu, Mt. : (Rajasthan) hill station on the Aravalli Range;sacred centre of Jain worshippers, Dilwara temples.Abu Simbal : (Egypt) famous ancient temple cut-out ofrock by Rameses II.Adam‟s Bridge : Very nearly joined to India betweenMannar Pennsula and Danushkodi by a line of sand banksand rocks called ‗Adam‘s Bridge‘.Aga Khan Palace : In Pune where Mahatma Gandhi waskept interned with his wife Kasturba Gandhi. Kasturbadied in this palace.Ajantha Caves : Located near Aurangabad, famous forwonderful Buddhist cave temples richly ornamented withsculpture and carved with paintings.Ajmer: (Rajasthan) Pilgrim centre for Muslims; tomb ofKhwaja Muin-ud-din chisti.Alexandria : City and sea-port of Egypt founded byAlexander the Great.
  25. 25. Allahabad : (Prayag) is a city in Uttar Pradesh situated atthe confulence of the Ganga and the Jamuna. KumbhaMela (religious fair of the Hindus) is held here once inevery 12 years.Amarnath : Situated at a height of about 4054 metres inKashmir. It is a place of pilgrimage for the Hindus.Amber Palace : Deserted capital near Jaipur (Rajasthan)containing the finest specimens of Rajput architecture.Amritsar : (Punjab) on the north-west border or India;Golden Temple; Jallianwala Bagh tragedy on April 13, 1919.Angkor Vat : A ruined city in Cambodia where beautifulspecimens of ancient Indian art and culture are found.Athens : The International Olympic Committee (IOC) onSeptember 5, 1997, awarded the 2004 Summer Olympicsto Athens, the Greek capital which was the birth place ofthe Games. Athens hosted the first modern Olympics in1896 but lost out to Atlanta in 1996 Centennial Games.Aurangabad : One of the important towns of MaharashtraState; tomb of Emperor Aurangzeb and of his wife. Elloraand Ajanta Caves are reached from here.Auroville : It is an international township constructed inPondicherry with the help of UNESCO.Avadi : Near Chennai in Tamil Nadu. Government ownedHeavy vehicles factory. ‗Vijayanta‘ and ‗Ajit‘ tanks aremanufactured here.Badrinath : Himalayas; Place of pilgrimage for the Hindusnear Gangortri Glacier.Baroda : Capital of the former Baroda State is known forLaxmi Vilas Palace which is one of the most beautifulpalaces in India.Laos KipLebanon PoundLiberia Liberian DollarLibya Libya DinarLuxembourg Luxembourg FrancMadagascar Malagasy FrancMalaysia Malaysian DollarMaldives Maldivian Rupee(Rufiyaa)Malta Lira MaltijaMauritius RupeeMexico PesoMonaco French FrancMongolia TugrikMorocco DirhamMozambique Metical
  26. 26. Myanmar Kyat(Burma)Nepal Nepalese RupeeNetherlands GuilderNew Zealand New ZealandDollarNicaragua New CordobaNigeria NairaNorway KronerLANDMARKSARCHITECTURES, MONUMENTS, BUILDINGS, TOWNS AND PLACESOman Omani RialPakistan RupeePanama BalboaPapua KinaNew GuineaParaguay GuaraniPeru Inti SolPhilippines PesoPoland ZlotyPortugal EscudoQatar Qatari RiyalRomania LeuRussia RoubleSalvador ColonSan Marino Italian LiraSaudi Arabia RiyalSingapore Singapore DollarSomalia Somali ShillingSouth Africa RandSpain PesetaSri Lanka RupeeSudan Sudanese PoundSweden KronaSwitzerland Swiss FrancSyria Syrian Pound DinarTanzania ShillingThailand BahtTogo France CFATonga Pa‘ AngaTrinidad Trinidad DollarTobago Tobago DollarTunisia DinarTurkey Turkish LiraUnited Arab Pound DirhamEmirates RepublicUganda Ugandan ShillingU.K. Pound (Sterling)Uruguay Nuero PesoU.S.A. DollarVatican City LiraStateVenezuela BolivarVietnam Dong
  27. 27. Yemen RialYemen Arab DinarRepublic DinarYugoslaviaZaire ZaireZambia KwachaZimbabwe Zimbabwean DollarBelur Math : It is monastery near Calcutta in West Bengalfounded by Swami Vivekananda. A beautiful templededicated to Sri Ramakrishna Paramahamsa.Bethlehem : Palestine; about 9 km South of Jeruselam;birth-place of Jesus and Kind David; Church of Nativity.Buckingham Palace : In London; residence of the Royalfamily of England.Buddha-Gaya : It is situated 10 km south of Gaya in BiharState on the river bank of Lilajan and famous as the placewhere Buddha got enlightenment. There are modernmonasteries, rest houses and museum.Calcutta : West Bengal Government re-christenedCalcutta as Kolkata with effect from January 1, 2001.Siliguri has been renamed as Shilliguri.Cape Comorin : also called Kanya Kumari in Tamil Nadu,where Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal meet the IndianOcean. It gives a beautiful view of sun-set and sun-rise.Chennai : Capital of Tamil Nadu is the third largest city inIndia. Known for Fort St.George, Light House, St.ThomasMount, Integral Coach Factory, Adyar (the headquartersof the Theosophical Society).Chidambaram : Famous for its great Hindu Siva temple,dedicated to Nataraja or Siva in his aspect of ‗Cosmicdance‘. Annamalai University is located here.Chittorgarh : Ancient capital and fortress of Udaipur;known for Tower of Victory and Mira Bai‘s Temple.Dakshineswar : 8 Kns from Calcutta where Vivekanandawas initiated into religious life by Sri RamakrishnaParamahamsa.Dandi : famous for Salt Satyagraha (Dandi March) byMahatma Gandhi in 1930.Digboi : (Assam) is known for rich oil-fields.Dilwara Temples : near Mount Abu (Rajasthan) are fiveHindu Temples constructed here between 11th and 13thcentury A.D.
  28. 28. Downing Street : No.10 Downing Street is the officialresidence of the Prime Minister of England in London.Durand Line : the line demarcating the limits of neutralterritory between Pakistan and Afghanistan.Eagle‟s Nest : Name given to the historic fort at Raigarhin Kolaba district of Maharashtra where 300 years ago,Chatrapati Shivaji, the great warrior-statesman, wascrowned.Eiffel Tower : In Paris (France) 300 m high and built at acost of 200,000 pounds. It is now being used as aMeteorological Wireless Station.Elephanta : an Island in Mumbai harbour - famous forrock-cut temples.Ellor and Ajantha : famous for wonderful Buddhist cavetemples richly ornamented with sulpture and carved withpaintings.Empire State Building : (U.S.A.) is one of the loftiestbuildings in the world; height about 365 metres; it has102 storeys.Ernakulam : in Kerala State is famous for its backwaters.Fatehpur Sikri : 32 km from Agra; city built by EmperorAkbar in 1569, now deserted.Fleet Street : A street in London running from Templefar east wards to Ludgate Circus. The area (with adjoiningstreets) houses the offices, and printing establishmentsof many of the leading British newspapers and pressagencies.Gateway of India : in Mumbai harbour erected in 1911 onGeorge V‘s visit to India.Gaya : (Bihar) the place where Lord Buddha gotenlightenment; famous for pilgrimage.Gibraltar : British fortress and naval base on west endof the Mediterranean (extreme south of Spain) key to theMediterranean.Golden Temple : in Amritsar (Punjab), sacred to the Sikhs.Gol Gumbaz : largest Dome in Bijapur (Karnataka).Gomateswara : (Karnataka) famous for the 2000 year oldstatue of Jain Sage carved out of a single stone.Great Wall of China : 2400 km long wall; its constructionwas started by Chinese King Emperor Shih Hwang.Gwalior : in Madhhya Pradesh famous for its Fort,Tansen‘s Tomb, Rani Laxmi Bai‘s Chhatri.
  29. 29. Hague, The : (The Netherlands) Seat of InternationalCourt of Justice; Art galleries.Hampi : site ruins of Vijayanagar - ancient capital ofVijayanagar empire. It is in Karnataka.Hanging Gardens of Babylon : one of the Seven Wondersof the World; planted near the Euphrates in 603 B.C.Hiroshima : in Central Honshu (Japan) close to the‗Island of Light‘ with the famous Shinto temples; firstcity destroyed by atom bomb in the Second World War.Howrah Bridge : a cantilever span bridge constructedover the river Hooghly connecting Howrah RailwayStation with Kolkata.Hyderabad-Secunderabad : Twin city-capital of AndhraPradesh.It stands on the river Musi, known for Charminar,Osmania University, Salarjung Museum - one of therichest and most varied collections in Asia.India Gate : A memorial in New Delhi facing theRashtrapati Bhavan.Jaipur : capital of Rajasthan is famous for pottery,brassware, sculpture, ivory and sandalwood work andjewellery. Famous for Maharaja‘s palace; Jai Singh‘sobservatory. Amber (ancient capital) Hawa Mahal.Jallianwala Bagh : a garden in Amritsar; scene ofmassacre of innocent Indians by the British on 13thApril 1919.Jama Masjid : (Delhi) built by Shah Jehan, India‘s biggestmosque.Jamshedpur : (Bihar) centre of iron and steeel industry;Tata Iron and Steel Factory is located here.Jantar Mantar : in Delhi, is an Observatory constructedin 1724 during the days of Maharaja Jai Singh II of Amber.Jerusalem : ancient city and capital of Palestine knownas ‗Holy City‘. Christ was crucified here.Jog Falls : also called Gersoppa Falls in Karnataka areone of the highest warerfalls in the world. These falls areformed by the river Sharasvati which takes a big leapdown a steep rock from a height of 253 metres.Juma Masjid, Mandu : is in Madhya Pradesh; it depicts asynthesis of Hindu and Muslim styles in architecture.Kailasha Temple : rock-cut temple in Ellora caves.Kalpakkam : near Chennai in Tamil Nadu is known forChennai Atomic Power Project (MAPP).
  30. 30. Kanchi or Kancheepuram : Near Chennai was the ancientcapital of ancient Pallavas; famous for ancient temples.Kandahar : This is a town in Afghanistan where Pakistanbacked 5 terrorists and forced the hijacked Indian Airlinesplane IC 814 with 155 passengers and crew aboard toland at Kandahar Airport on December 25, 1999, keepingthem hostage for seven days.Kanya Kumari : in Tamil Nadu, famous temple (the VirginGoddess) situated at Cape Comorin on the extremesouthern tip of India where the Bay of Bengal, ArabianSea, and the Indian Ocean meet; a picturesque spot.Vivekananda Rock Memorial Buddha.Kapilavastu : small kingdomin the north of India;associated with Mahatma Buddha.Kaziranga : is a Game Sanctuary in Assam. It is the centreof the great Indian one-horned rhinos.Khajuraho : in Madhya Pradesh famous for the group ofhighly ornate medieval Hindu temples.Kodaikanal : is a town in Tamil Nadu famous for itsObservatory for the study of Solar Physics.Konarak : small town 16 km north of Puri (Orissa) famousfor its Black Pagods; Sun Temple.Kovalam : is a sea-beach about 16 km from Trivandrum inKerala. Developed as a Tourist Resort by India TourismCorporation.Kremlin : Large fortified citadel in Moscow, now theheadquarters of Russia. The Kremlin, originally built in1156 by Yuri, (George) Dolgoruki, price of Suzdal becamethe centre around which Moscow has grown.Qutub Minar : in Delhi (88.4 m high) is one of the master- pieces of Indian architecture and art. It is the biggestminaret in the world. Completed by Altamash in 1232 A.D.Leaning Tower : (Pisa, Italy) 55 metres high.Lumbini : birth place of Buddha. It is in Nepal. TheNepalese Government have plans to develop the placewith the U.N. assistance as an Internatinal Tourist Resort.Madurai : in Tamil Nadu, famous for Meenakshi Temple,dedicated to Lord Siva.Mahabalipuram : in Tamil Nadu on the Eastern Ghats,famous for temples and monumental architectures. Anatomic power station is being set up near here atKalpakkam.Mathura : a holy city in Uttar Pradesh; Birth-place of
  31. 31. Lord Krishna, Hindu temples; oil refinery.Mecca : the holiest cityof the Mohammedan world inArabia, where the Prophet was born. It stands in thedesert. It is a place of pilgrimage and Muslims from allparts of the world visit the place it for Haj in every year.Mount Blanc : highest mountain peak in Europe. It is inthe Alps on the confines of Italy and France, longestroad tunnel in the world.Munich : (West Germany) scene of Munich pact; artgalleries; The 20th Olympic Games (1972) were held here.Nilgiris : mountain range in Tamil Nadu, teaplantations.Panna : in M.P. Panna district is known for diamond mines.Panna town has several buildings of historical interestincluding Shri Baldeoji temple.Pearl Harbour : in Hawaii Island (USA) Naval Base;scene of Japanese attack in World War II.Pentagon : in Washington. It houses many Governmentoffices of the War Department of the USA.Petronas Twin Towers : Located in Kuala Lumpur with88 storeys high, these are the tallest buildings in theWorld.Philadelphia : (USA) place where Americans framedtheir Constitution and declared their Independenceson 4th July, 1776.Plassey : a village on the Ganges (West Bengal) Battleof Plassey was fought here in 1757 in which Clivedefeated Siraj-ud-Daulah and laid the foundation ofBritish Rule in India.Pokhran : The Nuclear test site in Rajasthan, 600 kmsfrom Jaipur. The first nuclear test was conduted on May18, 1974 and five more on May 11 and 13 1998.Pondicherry : formerly a French possession, sincetaken by the India Govenement and now specified asa Union Territory. Aurobindo Ashram is establishedhere. ‗Auroville‘, an international township inmemoryof Sri Aurobindo has been built here.Pyramids of Egypt : are vast stone or brick-builtstructures on west bank of the Nile. They date back toabout 300 B.C. The largest is called the Great Pyramidwhich is 146 metres high and is one of the SevenWonders of the World. Three lakh men were employedfor 20 years to build it. These Pyramids have innerchambers and subterranean entrances built bypharaohs as oval tombs.Raj Ghat : On the bank of Jamuna in Delhi, Samadhi ofMahatma Gandhi.
  32. 32. Rashtrapati Bhavan : official residence of the Presidentof India in New Delhi; known as Viceragal Lodge duringBritish reign.Red Fort : Red-stone Fort built by Shah Jehan in Delhinear the Jamuna.Red Square : It is a famous open space in Moscowlinked with the Kremlin by three gates used forpolitical demonstrations and processions. Lenin‘smausoleum is in the Red SquareRome : capital of Italy; on the River Tiber; one of themost famous cities of the world also known asEternal City.Sabarmati : in Gujarat State near Ahmedabad; HarijanAshram founded by Mahatma Gandhi.Sarnath : situated 8 km outside Varanasi. Saranath is thefamous place of Buddhist pilgrimage in India. In the ‗DeerPark‘ of Sarnath, Gautama Buddha preached his FirstSemon. Also located here is the famous Ashoka Pillar ofpolished sand-stone whose lion capital was adopted bythe new Republic of India as the State Emblem.Scotland Yard : the Metropoliton Police Headquarters inLondon from which the force is administered CIDheadquarters.Seringapatnam : Seringapatnam was the capital ofKarnataka during the rule of Tipu Sultan. The fourth andthe last Mysore war was fought here. Tipu Sultan diedhere fighting bravely against the British forces.Sriharikota : in the Nellore district on the Andhra coastis India‘s Satellite Launching Centre. The SriharikotaRange (SHAR) comprises the Sriharikota LaunchComplex, Rocket Shed Facility, Static Test and EvaluationComplex, Solid Propellant Space Booster Plant andSriharikota Common Facilities.Suez Canal : Ship canal (Egypt) it connects theMediterranean (Port Said) with the Red Sea (Suez).Sunderbands : is a tract of forests and swamps - 264 kmlong and 129 km wide fringing the delta of the Ganges.Taj Mahal : the white marble mausoleum built at Agra byShah Jehan in memory of his beloved wife Mumtaz Mahal.Tanjore : (Tamil Nadu) famous for museum, temples andlibrary. Brihadeeswara temple.Taxila : in West Pakistan; site of excavation, old seat ofBuddhist culture and famous for ancient Taxila University.Tel Aviv : magnificent city in Palestine built by the Jews;capital of Israel.Thumba : near Trivandrum in Kerala State is known asrocket launching station.Tirupati : in Andhra State about 160 km to the northwestof Chennai is one of the holiest places in SouthIndia. This hill temple of Sri Venkateshwara is an exampleof early Dravidian architecture and is one of the finest inthe south.
  33. 33. Trafalgar : Cape Trafalgar is famous for the navalbattle fought between the British led by AdmiralNelson and an allied naval force of France and Spain in1805. Admiral Nelson won the battle though he washimself killed in action.Triveni : in Allahabad (UP) Confluence of the Ganges,the Jamuna and the mythical Saraswati; a place ofpilgrimage for the Hindus.Varanasi : or Banares is a town in UP very sacred to theHindus. It is known as the religious capital of Hindu India.Famous for Banares Hindu University, VishwanathTemple, Manmandir with Jaisingh‘s Observatory,Ramnagar Fort etc.,Vatican : the Papal State of Italy; an independentterritory; the palace of Pope in Rome. It includes theChurch of St. Peter.Victoria Falls : on the River Zambesi, Zambia-CentralAfrica. These Falls, the greatest in the world are 1700metres wide.Victoria Memorial : a magnificent building inCalcutta having an art gallery and a well-laid out gardenattached to it.Vijay Ghat : On the banks of the Yamuna in Delhi isSamadhi of Shri Lal Bahadur Shastri, former PrimeMinister of India.Visakhapatnam : big harbour on the eastern coast ofIndia; ship building yard.Viswa Shanti Stupa : (World Peace Pagoda) 45 m highstupa raised a top, the picturesque Ratnagiri hill, it is thefirst stupa of its kind in India.Vivekananda Rock : is situated near Kanyakumari at thesouthern tip of India‘s coastline. It has been so named inmemory of Swami Vivekananda.Wagah Border : This is a border between India andPakistan. Indian Prime Minister Mr. Atal BehariVajpayee crossed the border to enter Pakistan by busas part of his peace initiative with Indias neighbour onFebruary 20, 1999.Wall Street : a street in New York, centre of US Bankingand Finance.Wardha : (Maharashtra State) Mahatma Gandhi lived herefor several years; centre of cotton trade.Waterloo : Belgium; famous for the battle of Waterloowhich marked the end of Napoleon‘s power.Wellington : in the Nilgiris hills (Tamil Nadu) is knownfor Defence Services Staff College.White Hall : London, Government Offices.White House : is the Official Residence of the Presidentof the USA. It is located at 600. Pennsylvania Avenuein Washington D.C.Wimbledon : in London, famous for Lawn Tennis Court.Yellow Sea : Sea between northern China and Korea.Zambesi : River in South East Africa. It flows east toMozambique Channel, Indian Ocean.Zojila : a pass in the way from Srinagar (Kashmir) to Lehand then to Yerkand in Tibet.
  34. 34. For more papers visit and© THE RAMAN’S BOOKSINDIA - AT A GLANCEIndia lies at the north of the equator between8° 4 and 37° 6 north latitude and 68° 7 and 97°25 east longitude.It is bounded on the South West by the ArabianSea & on the South East by the Bay of Bengal.On the North, North East & North West lie theHimalayan ranges. The southern tip, Kanyakumariis washed by the Indian Ocean.India measures 3214 km from North to South &2933 km from east to west with a total land area of3,287,263 It has a land frontier of 15,200 km& a coastline of 7516.5 km. Andaman & NicobarIslands in the Bay of Bengal & Lakshadweep inthe Arabian Sea are parts of India.India shares its political borders with Pakistanand Afghanistan on the West and Bangladeshand Burma on the East. The Northern boundaryis made up of the Sinkiang province of China,Tibet, Nepal and Bhutan.India has Seven major PhysiographicRegions1. Northern Mountains including the Himalayasand mountain ranges in the North-East.2. The Indo-Gangetic plain3. Central Highlands4. Peninsular plateau5. East Coast6. West Coast7. Bordering seas and islands.India has Seven principal MountainRanges1. the Himalayas2. the Patkai and other ranges bordering Indiain the North & North East3. the Vindhyas, which separate the Indo-Gangetic plain from the Deccan Plateau4. the Satpura5. the Aravalli6. the Sahayadri, which covers the Easternfringe of the West Coast plains and7. the Eastern Ghats, irregularly scattered onthe East Coast and, forming the boundaryof the East Coast plains.Himalayas, the highest mountain - system in theworld, is also one of the worlds youngest mountainranges.
  35. 35. National EMBLEMThe State Emblem of India is an adaptation fromthe Sarnath Lion Capital of Asoka as preserved in theSarnath Museum. The Government adopted the emblemon 26th January, 1950, the day when India became aRepublic.In the State Emblem adopted by the Government,only three lions are visible, the fourth being hiddenfrom view. The wheel appears in relief in the centre ofthe abacus with a bull on the right and a horse on theleft and the outlines of the other wheels on the extremeright and left.The bell-shaped lotus has been omitted. TheWords, Saytameva Jayate from the Mundaka Upanishadmeaning ‗Truth alone triumphs‘ are inscribed below theabacus in Devanagari script.National FLAGThe National Flag is a horizontal tri-colour ofdeep saffron (Kesari) at the top, white in the middleand dark green at the bottom in equal proportion. Theratio of the width of the flag to its length is two tothree. In the centre of white band is a wheel, in navyblue, which represents the Charkha (Khadi SpinningWheel). Its design is that of the wheel (Chakra) whichappears on the abacus of the Sarnath Lion Capital ofAsoka. Its diameter approximates the width of thewhite band. It has 24 spokes.The design of the National Flag was adopted bythe Constituent Assembly of India on 22nd July, 1947.Its use and display are regulated by a code.Rabindranath Tagore‘s song, Jana-gana-mana wasadopted by the Constituent Assembly as the NationalAnthem of India on 24th January 1950. The first stanza(out of 5 stanzas) of the song, forms the NationalAnthem.National CalendarThe Saka year has the normal 365 days andbegins with Chaitra as its first month. The days of theSaka calendar have permanent correspondence withthe dates of the Gregorian Calendar, Chaitra 1 falling onMarch 22 in a normal year and on March 21 in a LeapYear. The National Calendar commenced on Chaitra1 Saka, 1879 corresponding to March 22, 1957 A.D.NATIONAL ANIMAL : TIGERNATIONAL GAME : HOCKEYNATIONAL FLOWER: LOTUSNATIONAL BIRD : PEACOCKNational SongBankim Chandra Chatterjee‘s Vande Mataramwhich was a source of inspiration to the people in theirstruggle for freedom, has an equal status with Janagana-mana. The first political occasion on which it was
  36. 36. sung was the 1896 session of the Indian NationalCongress.India-Religious CommunitiesThe major religious communities of India are theHindus, Muslims, Christians, Sikhs, Buddhists, Jainsand Parsis.RELIGIOUS BOOKSHindus Four Vedas, The Bhagwad Gita, TheRamayana, The Puranas, TheMahabharat, The Upanishads, TheRamcharitmanasMuslims The Holy QuranSikhs Guru Granth SahibChristians The BibleParsis Zend AvestaIndia - Principal LanguagesIndia has 18 officially recognised languages(Konkani, Manipuri and Nepali were added to theofficial list of 15 in 1992). The 1961 and 1971 censushad listed 1652 languages as mother tongues spoken inIndia. The Indian languages of today have evolvedfrom different language families.They may be grouped into 6 groups asunder :1. Negroid 4. Dravidian2. Austric 5. Indo-Aryan3. Sino-Tibetan 6. Other Speeches.These languages have interacted on one anotherthrough the centuries and have produced the majorlinguistic divisions of modern India. Among the majorgroups, the Aryan and the Dravidan are the dominatingfamilies. Indo-Aryan, the Indic branch of the Indo-European family, came into India with the Aryans. It isthe biggest of the language groups in India, accountingfor about 74 % of the entire Indian population. Theimportant languages in this group are : WesternPunjabi, Sindhi, Eastern Punjabi, Hindi, Bihari,Rajasthani, Gujarati, Marathi, Assamese, Bengali, Oriya,Pahari, Kashmiri and Sanskrit. Sankrit, the classicallanguage of India, represents the highest achievementof the Indo-Aryan languages. Although hardly spokennow-a-days, Sanskrit has been listed a nationallyaccepted language in the VIII Schedule to theConstitution. Dravidian languages form a group bythemselves, and unlike the Aryan, Austric or Sino-Tibetan speeches, have no relations outside theIndian subcontinent, that is, India, Pakistan andBangladesh. The Dravidian family is the secondlargest group in India, covering about 25% of the totalIndian population. The Dravidian language came intoIndia centuries before the Indo-Aryan.The outstanding languages of the
  37. 37. Dravidian groups are :(a) Telugu, the State language of Andhra Pradesh,numerically the biggest of the Dravidian languages(b) Tamil, the State language of Tamil Nadu, apparentlythe oldest and purest branch of the Dravidianfamily(c) Kannada, the State language of Karnataka, anotherancient Dravidian language that has developedindividually(d) Malayalam, the State language of Kerala, thesmallest and the youngest of the Dravidianfamily.Of the 1652 mother tongues listed in the census,33 are spoken by people numbering over a lakh. Withindependence, the question of a common languagenaturally came up.The Constituent Assembly could not arrive at aconsensus in the matter. The question was put to voteand Hindi won on a single vote-the casting vote of thePresident. Hindi however was only one of the manyregional languages of India.The Indian National Congress had advocated theformation of linguistic provinces. The acceptance ofthis policy involved the statutory recognition of all themajor regional languages. The Constitution thereforerecognised Hindi in Devanagari script as the officiallanguage of the Union (Art.343) and the regionallanguages as the official langugaes of the Statesconcerned (Art.345).English was recognised as the authoritativelegislative and judicial language (Art 348). The 8thSchedule was added to the Constitution to indicate allregional languages statutarily recognised.The Schedule originally contained 15languages as follows :1. Assamese 6. Kashmiri 11. Sanskrit2. Bengali 7. Malayalam 12. Tamil3. Gujarati 8. Marathi 13. Telugu4. Hindi 9. Oriya 14. Urdu5. Kannada 10. Punjabi 15. Sindhi.By the 71st Amendment to the Constitution,Konkani, Manipuri and Nepali were added to thelist in 1992. Hindi, numerically the biggest of theIndo-Aryan family is the official language of theGovernment of India. This was originally spokenin Delhi and some Western UP districts. OfficialHindi is written in Devanagiri script.Tamil, the oldest of the Dravidian languages, isthe State language of Tamil Nadu. Tamil literaturegoes back to centuries before the Christian era.The language is spoken by 74 million or more andjudging by its modern publications, it is advancingat a faster pace.
  38. 38. Kannada, the official language of the State ofKarnataka, belongs to the Dravidian family.Kannada, as an independent language, datesfrom the 9th century. It has rich literarytraditions.Malayalam, a branch of the Dravidian family, isthe official language of the State of Kerala.It is one of the most developed languages ofIndia.Telugu, numerically the biggest of the Dravidianlanguages is the State language of AndhraPradesh. Next to Hindi, it is the biggest linguisticunit in India.TRIBES AND RACESBhils Primitive race inhabiting Central India Santhals Aboriginal natives of OrissaMoplas Muslim Tribe of Malabar (Kerala) Todas Aboriginal Tribe of NilgirisNagas Hill Tribe of NagalandINDIA - Key Facts - 2001 CENSUSArea : 3,287,263 States : 28.Population : 1,027,015,247 (2001). Capital : New Delhi.Males : 531,277,078. Female-Male ratio : 933 females per 1000 males.Females : 495,738,169. National income : Rs.4,73,246 crore (1991-96)Literacy : Persons 566, 714, 995 (65.38%). Per Capita GNP : Rs.5528.6 (1991-92)Males : 339,969,048 (75.85%). Life Expectancy : 61.1 (1991-96).Females : 226,745,947 (54.16%). Infant Mortality Rate : 80 (1990).CAPITAL CITIES OF STATES AND UNION TERRITORIESSTATES CAPITALS1. Andhra Pradesh Hyderabad2. Arunachal Pradesh Itanagar3. Assam Dispur4. Bihar Patna5. Chhattisgarh Raipur6. Gujarat Gandhinagar7. Goa Panaji8. Haryana Chandigarh9. Himachal Pradesh Shimla10. Jammu & Kashmir Srinagar11. Jharkhand Ranchi12. Karnataka Bangalore13. Kerala Thiruvananthapuram14. Madhya Pradesh Bhopal15. Maharashtra Mumbai16. Manipur Imphal17. Meghalaya Shillong18. Mizoram Aizawl19. Nagaland Kohima20. Orissa Bhubaneshwar
  39. 39. 21. Punjab Chandigarh22. Rajasthan Jaipur23. Sikkim Gangtok24. Tamil Nadu Chennai25. Tripura Agartala26. Uttar Pradesh Lucknow27. Uttaranchal Dehradun28. West Bengal KolkataNational Capital TerritoryNew Delhi New DelhiUnion Territories Headquarters1. Andaman & Nicobar Islands Port Blair2. Chandigarh Chandigarh3. Dadra & Nagar Haveli Silvassa4. Daman & Diu Daman5. Lakshadweep Kavaratti6. Pondicherry PondicherryPLACES ASSOCIATED WITH INDUSTRIES IN INDIAPlace Name of IndustriesAhmedabad Cotton TextilesAligarh LocksAlwaye (Kerala) Rare Earths Factory,AluminiumAmbattur (Chennai) Cycle, Enfield MotorCyclesAmbarnath Machine Tools PrototypeAmritsar (Punjab) Printing MachinesAnand Amul ButterAnkleshwar (Gujarat) OilAvadi (Chennai) Tank FactoryBangalore AircraftBhilai (M.P) Steel PlantBhadravati Iron and SteelBhopal Heavy ElectricalsBokaro Steel PlantMumbai Atomic ReactorsNomba High OilChittaranjan LocomotiveCochin Ship-buildingCoimbatore Pulp & TextilesDindigul LocksDurgapur (W.B) Steel PlantEnnore Thermal PowerGuntur CottonHaldia Oil RefineryJharia CoalKagithapuram (T.N) PaperKalpakkam Atomic PowerKanpur LeatherKollegal (Karnataka) SilkKolar (Karnataka) Gold MinesLucknow Sugar
  40. 40. Ludhiana HosieryMoradabad UtensilsPlace Name of IndustriesMysore SilkNandambakkam (Chennai) Surgical InstrumentsNangal FertilizersNepanagar (M.P) NewsprintNeyveli LigniteOoty (Nilgiris) (T.N) Film ManufacturePerambur (Chennai) Integral Coach FactoryPimpri (Poona) Pencillin FactoryPinjore (Haryana) Machine ToolsRana Pratap Sagar Atomic Power PlantRaniganj Coal MiningRenukoot AluminiumRupnarainpur (W.B) CablesSindri FertilizerSinghbhum Copper, Iron oreSirpur PaperSivakasi Match IndustrySriharikota (A.P) Satellite StationSurat Gold laceTarapur (Maharashtra) Nuclear PowerThumba (Kerala) Rocket Launching CentreTiruchirappalli CigarTiruverumbur (T.N) Heavy ElectricalsTitagarh Paper MillsTrombay (Maharashtra) Atomic ReactorsTuticorin (Tamil Nadu) Thermal, Pearl fishingUdaipur (Rajasthan) Zinc ProjectUdhana (Gujarat) RayonUrkunta (Karnataka) CementUttapara (W.B) Ambassador carsVadodara (Gujarat) Nylon filament yarnVandalur (Chennai) AutomobileVisakhapatnam Ship, SubmarineWorli (Mumbai) Baby FoodZaina Kot (J&K) HMT Watch FactoryMINERALSMinerals PlacesMica Koderma (Bihar), Nellore (AndhraPradesh)Petroleum Digboi, Mumbai High, CauveryBasinRed stone Jodhpur (Rajasthan)Salt Sambhar Lake (Rajasthan),Vedaranyam, KovalamTin Hazaribagh (Bihar)Thorium Trivandrum (Kerala)Tungsten Nagpur, Maharashtra and MarwarUranium BiharZinc Zawar mines (Udaipur)Zircon Kerala sea shores & Cape ComorinMinerals Places
  41. 41. Aluminium KeralaBauxite Rajasthan, Jammu & KashmirCoal RaniganjCobalt Rajasthan and KeralaCopper Khetri (Rajasthan)Carborundum Salem, Khasi HillsDiamond Panna (Madhya Pradesh)Gold Kolar (Karnataka)Gypsum Tiruchy, Bikaner & JodhpurHeavy Water Tuticorin, KotaIron ore Singhbhum (Bihar)Lignite Neyveli (Tamil Nadu)Marble Jaipur (Rajasthan)NATIONAL PARKS AND SANCTUARIESAnna Zoological Sanctuary Vandalur (T.N.)Anamalai Sanctuary Coimbatore, (T.N.)Bandipur National Park Mysore (Karnataka)Corbett National Park Nainital (Uttaranchal)Crocodile Farm Kovalam (Chennai)Dachigam Santuary Srinagar (J & K)Ghana Bird Sanctuary Bharatpur (Rajasthan)Ghatprabha Bird Sanctuary Belgaum (Karnataka)Gir National Park Junagarh (Gujarat)Guindy Deer Sanctuary Guindy (Chennai)Guindy Snake Park Guindy (Chennai)Hazaribagh National Park Hazaribagh (Jharkhand)Kanha National Park Mandla (M.P.)Kaziranga Natinoal Park Jorhat (Assam)Manas Tiger Sanctuary Barbeta (Assam)Mudumalai Sanctuary NilgrisPeriyar Sanctuary Idukki (Kerala)Pichavaram Bird Sanctuary Chidambaram (T.N.)Rangathitto Bird Sanctuary Mysore (Karnataka)Ranthanbor Tiger Sanctuary Sawai (Rajasthan)Sivpuri National Park Sivpurai (M.P.)Vedanthangal Bird Sanctuary KancheepuramWILD ANIMALSBlack Bear Kashmir and parts of HimalayasDeer (Spotted) Many parts in IndiaElephants Western Ghats, Karnataka, TamilNadu & OrissaLions and Panther All Over India(Gir Forest, Gujarat)Rhinoceros AssamTiger Many Parts in IndiaGEOGRAPHICAL EPITHETSBengal‟s Sorrow Damodar RiverBlue Mountains Nilgiris HillsCity Beautiful ChandigarhCity of Ghats & Temples VaranasiCity of Golden Temple Amritsar
  42. 42. City of Palaces Kolkata &ChandigarhGarden City of India BangaloreGateway of India MumbaiLand of Five Rivers PunjabLand of Sunrise Arunachal PradeshASSOCIATION OF PLACESBardoli Sardar PatelBelur Ramakrishna ParamahamsaChittor Rana PratapCorsica Napoleon BonaparteDandi Mahatma GandhiFatehpur Sikri Akbar the GreatHaldighat Rana PratapHiroshima (Japan) Ist Atom Bomb droppedJallianwala-Bagh Massacre of IndiansJerusalem Jesus ChristKapilvastu BuddhaLumbini BuddhaMacedonia Alexander the GreatMecca Prophet MohammedNagasaki (Japan) IInd Atom Bomb droppedPearl Harbour Japans attack during WorldWar IIPondicherry Aurobindo GhoshPorbunder, Rajghat Mahatma GandhiSabarmati Mahatma GandhiSeringapatnam Tipu SultanShakti Sthal (New Delhi) Mrs. Indira GandhiShantivana Jawaharlal NehruShantiniketan R.N. TagoreTalwandi Guru NanakTrafalgar NelsonUjjain MahaviraVijay Ghat (Delhi) L.B. ShastriVrindaban (U.P.) Lord KrishnaWaterloo NapoleonLand of Setting Sun KanyakumariManchester of India MumbaiManchester of South India CoimbatorePoorman‟s Ooty YercaudQueen of Arabian Sea CochinQueen of Hills Mussoorie (U.P.)Rose Pink City JaipurScotland of the East MeghalayaSpice Garden of India KeralaSwitzerland of India Jammu & KashmirVenice of East CochinINDIA - STATESANDHRA PRADESHArea : 275,045 : Hyderabad
  43. 43. No.of Districts : 23Population : 75,727,541 (2001)Growth rate : 13.86% (1991-2000)Density per : 275Sex ratio : 978 (per 1000 males)Literacy rate : 61.11%Males : 70.85%Females : 51.17%Principal languages : Telugu & Urdu.Legislature : Unicameral.Location : Located in South India, Andhra Pradesh isbounded by Tamil Nadu in the South-Orissa in the NorthEast, Maharashtra and Chhattisgarh in the North EasternMaharashtra and Karnataka in the West and by the Bayof Bengal in the East.ARUNACHAL PRADESHArea : 83,743 : ItanagarNo.of Districts : 13Population : 1,091,117 (2001)Growth rate : 26.21% (1991-2001)Density per sq. km : 13Sex ratio : 901 (per 1000 males)Literacy rate : 54.74%Males : 64.07%Females : 44.24%Principal languages : Nyishi, Dafla, Miji, Adi Gallong,Wancho, Tagin Hill Miri, Mishmi, Monpa, Nocte, Alka,Tangsa and KhamptiLegislature : Unicameral.Location : Bounded by Bhutan to the West, China to theNorth and North-East. Myanmar (Burma) to the East andthe plains of Assam to the South. Arunachal Pradesh isthe home of more than 20 major tribes and acknowledgedto be one of the most splendid, variegated andmultilingual tribal areas of the world.ASSAMArea : 78,438 : DispurNo.of Districts : 23Population : 26,638,407 (2001)Growth rate : 18.85% (1991-2001)Density per : 340Sex ratio : 932 (per 1000 males)Literacy rate : 64.28%Males : 71.93%Females : 56.03%Principal Language : AssameseLegislature : UnicameralLocation : Located in Eastern India, Assam is almostseparated from Central India by Bangladesh.It is boundedWest by West Bengal, North by Bhutan and ArunachalPradesh, East by Nagaland, Manipur and Burma, South
  44. 44. by Meghalaya, Bangladesh, Tripura and Mizoram.BIHARArea : 94,163 : PatnaNo. of Districts : 37Population : 82,878,796 (2001)Growth rate : 28.43% (1991-2001)Desnity per : 880Sex ratio : 921 (per 1000 males)Literacy rate : 47.53%Males : 60.32%Females : 33.57%Principal Language : HindiLegislature : Bicameral.Location : Located in North India, Bihar is bounded byNepal in North, Jharkhand in South, West Bengal inEast and Uttar Pradesh in West.CHHATTISGARHArea : 1,35,133 : RaipurNo. of Districts : 16Population : 20,795,956 (2001)Growth rate : 18.06% (1991-2001)Density per : 154Sex ratio : 990 (per 1000 males)Literacy rate : 65.18%Males : 77.86%Females : 52.40%Principal Language : HindiLegislature : Unicameral.Location : Chhattisgarh is bounded by SouthernJharkhand and Orissa in the East, Madhya Pradesh andMaharashtra in the West, Uttar Pradesh and WesternJharkhand in the North & Andhra Pradesh in the South.GOAArea : 3,702 : PanajiNo. of Districts : 2Population : 1,343,998 (2001)Growth rate : 14.89% (1991-2001)Density per : 363Sex ratio : 960 (per 1000 males)Literacy rate : 82.32%Males : 88.88%Females : 75.51%Principal Language : Marathi and KonkaniLegislature : Unicameral.Location : Goa is bounded on the North byMaharashtra and on the East and South by Karnatakaand has a coastline of 105 km, opening upto Arabian Seain the West.
  45. 45. GUJARATArea : 1,96,024 : GandhinagarNo. of Districts : 25Population : 50, 596, 992 (2001)Growth rate : 22.548% (1991-2001)Density per : 258Sex ratio : 921 (per 1000 males)Literacy rate : 69.97%Males : 80.50%Females : 58.60%Principal Language : GujaratiLegislature : UnicameralLocation : Located in Western India, Gujarat is boundedin North by Pakistan & Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh inthe East, Maharashtra in the South-East and ArabianSea in the West.HARYANAArea : 44,212 : ChandigarhNo. of Districts : 19Population : 21,082,989 (2001)Growth rate : 28.06% (1991-2001)Density per : 477Sex ratio : 861 (per 1000 males)Literacy rate : 68.59%Males : 79.25%Females : 56.31%Principal Language : HindiLegislature : Unicameral.Location : Haryana is bounded by Uttar Pradesh & Delhiin the East, Punjab & Himachal Pradesh in the North &Rajasthan in the South & the West.HIMACHAL PRADESHArea : 55,673 : ShimlaNo. of Districts : 12Population : 6,077,248 (2001)Growth rate : 17.53% (1991-2001)Density per : 109Sex ratio : 970 (per 1000 males)Literacy rate : 77.13%Males : 86.02%Females : 68.08%Principal Languages : Hindi and Pahari.Legislature : Unicameral.Location : Himachal Pradesh is bounded North by Jammuand Kashmir, South by Uttaranchal & Uttar Pradesh, Tibet(China)in the East and Punjab in the West.JAMMU AND KASHMIRArea : 2,22,236
  46. 46. Capital : Srinagar (Summer)Jammu (Winter)No. of Districts : 14Population : 10,069,917Growth rate : 29.04% (1991-2001)Density per : 99Sex ratio : 900 (per 1000 males)Literacy rate : 54.46%Males : 65.75%Females : 41.82%Principal Language : Kashmiri, Dogri, Gujri, Punjabi,Urdu, Balti, Dadri, Pahari and Ladakhi;Legislature : BicameralLocation : Located in the extreme North, the State isbounded North by China, East by Tibet (China), Southby Himachal Pradesh and Punjab and West by Pakistan.JHARKHANDArea : 79, 714 : RanchiNo. of Districts : 18Population : 26,909,428 (2001)Growth rate : 23.19% (1991-2001)Density per : 338Sex ratio : 941 (per 1000 males)For more papers visit and© THE RAMAN’S BOOKSLiteracy rate : 54.13%Males : 67.94%Females : 39.38%Principal Language : HindiLegislature : BicameralLocation : Jharkhand is bounded by West Bengal in theEast, Uttar Pradesh and Chhattisgarh in the West, Biharin North and Orissa in South.KARNATAKAArea : 1,91,791 : BangaloreNo. of Districts : 27Population : 52,733,958 (2001)Growth rate : 17.25% (1991-2001)Density per : 275Sex ratio : 964 (per 1000 males)Literacy rate : 67.04%Males : 76.29%Females : 57.45%Principal Language : KannadaLegislature : BicameralLocation : Located in South India, Karnataka is boundedNorth by Maharashtra, East by Andhra Pradesh, Southby Tamil Nadu and Kerala, West by the Arabian Sea.KERALA
  47. 47. Area : 38,863 : ThiruvananthapuramNo. of Districts : 14Population : 31,838,619 (2001)Growth rate : 9.42% (1991-2001)Density per : 819Sex ratio : 1,058 (per 1000 males)Literacy rate : 90.92%Males : 94.20%Females : 87.86%Principal Language : MalayalamLegialature : Unicameral.Location : Located in South India, Kerala is boundedNorth by Karnataka, East and South-East by Tamil Nadu,South-West by the Indian Ocean & the Arabian Sea inthe West.MADHYA PRADESHArea : 308,313 : 60,385,118 (2001)Capital : BhopalGrowth rate : 24.34% (1991-2001)No. of Districts : 45Density per : 196Sex ratio : 920 (per 1000 males)Literacy rate : 64.11%Males : 76.80%Females : 50.28%Principal Language : HindiLegislature : Unicameral.Location : Madhya Pradesh is bounded by Chhattisgarhin the East, Rajasthan & Gujarat in the West, Uttar Pradeshin the North & Maharashtra in the South.MAHARASHTRAArea : 3,07,713 : MumbaiNo. of Districts : 35Population : 96,752,247 (2001)Growth rate : 22.57% (1991-2001)Density per : 314Sex ratio : 922 (per 1000 males)Literacy rate : 77.27%Males : 86.27%Females : 67.51%Principal Language : MaratiLegislature : BicameralLocation : Located in Central India, Maharashtra isbounded North by Madhya Pradesh East byChhattisgarh, South by Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka andGoa, West by the Arabian Sea and North-West by Damanand Gujarat.MANIPURArea : 22,327
  48. 48. Capital : ImphalNo. of Districts : 9Population : 2,388,634 (2001)Growth rate : 30.02% (1991-2001)Density per : 107Sex ratio : 978 (per 1000 males)Literacy rate : 68.87%Males : 77.87%Females : 59.70%Principal Language : ManipuriLegislature : UnicameralLocation : Located in North-East India, Manipur isbounded North by Nagaland, East by Myanmar (Burma),South by Mizoram and West by Assam.MEGHALAYAArea : 22,429 : ShillongNo. of Districts : 7Population : 2,306,069 (2001)For more papers visit and© THE RAMAN’S BOOKSGrowth rate : 29.94% (1991-2001)Density per : 103Sex ratio : 975 (per 1000 males)Literacy rate : 63.31%Males : 66.14%Females : 60.41%Principal Languages : Khasi, Garo & English.Legislature : Unicameral.Location : A landlocked territory of lovely hills withabounding sylvan beauty, Meghalaya (meaning ―theabode of clouds‖) is bounded on the North byGoalpara, Kamrup and Karbi-Anglong districts ofAssam State, and on the East by the districts of Cacharand North Cachar Hills, also of the State of Assam. Onthe South and West is Bangladesh.MIZORAMArea : 21,081 : AizawlNo. of Districts : 8Population : 891,058 (2001)Growth rate : 29.18% (1991-2001)Density per : 42Sex ratio : 938 (per 1000 males)Literacy rate : 88.49%Males : 90. 69%Females : 86.13%Principal Languages : Mizo and English.Legislature : UnicameralLocation : One of the Eastern-most States, Mizoram liesbetween Bangladesh and Myanmar (Burma), Tripura,Assam and Manipur border is on the North.
  49. 49. NAGALANDArea : 16,579 : KohimaNo. of Districts : 8Population : 1,988,636 (2001)Growth rate : 64.41% (1991-2001)Density per : 120Sex ratio : 909 (per 1000 males)Literacy rate : 67.11%Males : 71.77%Females : 61.92%Principal Languages : Ao, Chang, Chakhesang, Konyak,Sangtam, Angami, Sema & LothaLegislature : Unicameral.Location: Situated in the extreme North-East of thecountry, Nagaland is bounded by Arunachal Pradesh inthe North, Manipur in the South, Myanmar in the Eastand Assam in the West.ORISSAArea : 1,55,707 : BhubaneswarNo. of Districts : 30Population : 36,706,920 (2001)Growth rate : 15.94% (1991-2001)Density per : 236Sex ratio : 972 (per 1000 males)Literacy rate : 63.61%Males : 75.95%Females : 50.97%Principal Language : OriyaLegislature : Unicameral.Location : Located in Eastern India, Orissa is boundedNorth by Jharkhand, North-East by West Bengal, Eastby the Bay of Bengal, South by Andhra Pradesh & Westby Chhattisgarh.PUNJABArea : 50,362 : ChandigarhNo. of Districts : 17Population : 24,289,296 (2001)Growth rate : 19.76% (1991-2001)Density per : 482Sex ratio : 874 (per 1000 males)Literacy rate : 69.95%Males : 75.63%Females : 63.55%Principal Language : PunjabiLegislature : Unicameral.Location : Punjab is bound by Jammu and Kashmir in theNorth, Rajasthan & Haryana in the South, HimachalPradesh in the East & Pakistan in the West.
  50. 50. RAJASTHANArea : 3,42,239 : JaipurNo. of Districts : 32Population : 56,473,122 (2001)Growth rate : 28.33% (1991-2001)Density per : 165Sex ratio : 922 (per 1000 males)Literacy rate : 61.03%Males : 76.46%Females : 44.34%Principal Languages : Hindi and RajasthaniLegislature : Unicameral.Location : Located in North-West India, Rajasthan isbounded North by Punjab, North-East by Haryana andUttar Pradesh, East by Madhya Pradesh, South by Gujaratand West by Pakistan.Rajasthan is the largest State ofthe Indian union in terms of its size.SIKKIMArea : 7,096 : GangtokNo. of Districts : 4Population : 540,493 (2001)Growth rate : 32.98% (1991-2001)Density per : 76Sex ratio : 875 (per 1000 males)Literacy rate : 69.68%Males : 76.73%Females : 61.46%Principal Languages : Bhutia, Nepali, Lepchaand LimbuLegislature : Unicameral.Location : Located in the Eastern Himalayas, Sikkim isbounded North by Tibet (China), East by Tibet andBhutan, South by West Bengal and West by Nepal.It isthe least populated State of the Indian Union.TAMIL NADUArea : 1,30,058 : ChennaiNo. of Districts : 30Population : 62,110,839 (2001)Growth rate : 11.19% (1991-2001)Density per : 478Sex ratio : 986 (per 1000 males)Literacy rate : 73.47%Males : 82.33%Females : 64.55%Principal Language : TamilLegislature : UnicameralLocation : Located in South India, Tamil Nadu isbounded North by Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh, Eastby the Bay of Bengal, South by the Indian Ocean andWest by Kerala.
  51. 51. TRIPURAArea : 10,492 : AgartalaNo. of Districts : 4Population : 3,191,168 (2001)Growth rate : 15.74% (1991-2001)Density per : 304Sex ratio : 950 (per 1000 males)Literacy rate : 73.66%Males : 81.47%Females : 65.41%Principal Languages : Bengali, Kakborak andManipuriLegislature : Unicameral.Location : Tripura is bounded on the North, West andSouth by Bangladesh and on the North-East by Assamand Mizoram.UTTAR PRADESHArea : 2,38,566 : LucknowNo. of Districts : 70Population : 166,052,859 (2001)Growth rate : 25.80% (1991-2001)Density per : 689Sex ratio : 898 (per 1000 males)Literacy rate : 57.36%Males : 70.23%Females : 42.98%Principal Languages : Hindi & Urdu.Legislature : Bicameral.Location : Uttar Pradesh is bounded by Uttaranchal andNepal in North, Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh inSouth, Rajasthan, Haryana and Delhi in West & Bihar &Jharkhand in East.UTTARANCHALArea : 55,845 : DehradunNo. of Districts : 13Population : 8,479,562 (2001)Growth rate : 19.20% (1991-2001)Density per : 159Sex ratio : 964 (per 1000 males)Literacy rate : 72.28%Males : 84.01%Females : 60.26%Principal Language : HindiLegislature : Unicameral.Location : Uttaranchal is bounded by Tibet (China)in theNorth and Uttar Pradesh in the South, Nepal in the East& Himachal Pradesh in the West.WEST BENGAL
  52. 52. Area : 88,752 : 80,221,171 (2001)Capital : KolkataGrowth rate : 17.84% (1991-2001)No. of Districts : 18Density per : 904Sex ratio : 934 (per 1000 males)Literacy rate : 69.22%Males : 77.58%Females : 60.22%Principal Language : BengaliLegislature : Unicameral.Location : Located in North-East India, West Bengal isbounded North by Sikkim and Bhutan, East by Assamand Bangladesh, South by the Bay of Bengal and Orissa,West by Bihar and Jharkhand and North-West by Nepal.UNION TERRITORIESNATIONALCAPITAL TERRITORY- DELHIArea : 1,483 : DelhiNo. of Districts : 9Population : 13,782,976 (2001)Growth rate : 46.31% (1991-2001)Density per : 9,294Sex ratio : 821 (per 1000 males)Literacy rate : 81.82%Males : 87.37%Females : 75.00%Principal Languages : Hindi, Punjabi & Urdu.Legislature : UnicameralLocation : Delhi lying in the Northern part of the country,is surrounded by Haryana on all sides except the Eastwhere it borders with Uttar Pradesh. It has become theNational Capital Territory in 1991.ANDAMAN AND NICOBARISLANDSArea : 8,249 : Port BlairNo. of Districts : 2Population : 356,256 (2001)Growth rate : 26.94% (1991-2001)Density per : 43Sex ratio : 846 (per 1000 males)Literacy rate : 81.18%Males : 86.07%Females : 75.29%Principal Languages : Nicobarese, Hindi, Bengali, Tamil,Telugu & Malayalam.Legislature : None
  53. 53. Location : The Andaman and Nicobar Islands are a groupof more than 3000 islands out of which 265 areuninhabited. The Andaman Islands lie in the Bay ofBengal 1,255 km from Kolkata & 1,190 km from Chennai.The islands are 193 km from Cape Negrais in Burma. Fivelarge islands grouped together are called the GreatAndamans & to the South is the Island of Little Andaman.There are some 204 islets, the 2 principal groups beingthe Ritchie Archipelago and the Labyrinth Islands. Thetotal area is about 6,408 sq km. The Great Andaman groupis about 467 km long & at the widest, 51 km broad. TheNicobar Islands are situated to the South of theAndamans, 121 km from Little Andaman. There are 19islands, 7 uninhabited, with a total area of 1, 841 sq km.The islands are usually divided into three sub-groups(southern, central and northern), the chief islands in eachbeing. respectively, Great Nicobar, Camotra withNancowrie & Car Nicobar. There is a fine landlockedharbour between the islands of Camotra & Nancowrie,known as Nancowrie Harbour.CHANDIGARHArea : 114 : ChandigarhGrowth rate : 40.33% (1991-2001)Density per : 7,903Population : 900,914 (2001)Sex ratio : 773 (per 1000 males)Literacy rate : 81.76%Males : 85.65%Females : 76.65%Principal Languages : Hindi, Punjabi andEnglishLegislature : NoneLocation : Chandigarh is in the Foot hills of Shivalik hillsand is the most beautiful city in India. The city was createdby French architect, Le Corbusier. Chandigarh is thecapital of both Punjab & Haryana states. It is boundedon North and West by Punjab and on the East and Southby Haryana.DADRA AND NAGAR HAVELIArea : 491 : SilvassaGrowth rate : 59.20% (1991-2001)Density per : 449Population : 220,451 (2001)Sex ratio : 811 (per 1000 males)Literacy rate : 60.03%Males : 73.32%Females : 42.99%Principal Languages : Gujarati and Hindi.Legislature : NoneLocation : The Union Territory is located between Gujaratand Maharashtra. Vapi, located 15 km away from Silvassa,
  54. 54. is the nearest railway station.DAMAN AND DIUArea : 112 : DamanNo. of Districts : 2Population : 158,059 (2001)Growth rate : 55.59% (1991-2001)Density per : 1,411Sex ratio : 709 (per 1000 males)Literacy rate : 81.09%Males : 88.40%Females : 70.37%Principal Language : GujaratiLocation : Daman lies on the Gujarat Coast, 193 km Northof Mumbai, while Diu lies off the South-East coast ofKathiawar in Gujarat. The two are located on the Westcoast of India in the Arabian Sea.LAKSHADWEEPArea : 32 sq km.Growth rate : 17.19% (1991-2001)Capital : KavarattiDensity per : 1,894Population : 60,595 (2001)Sex ratio : 947 (per 1000 males)Literacy rate : 87.52%Males : 93.15%Females : 81.56%Principal Language : Malayalam & English.Legislature : NoneLocation : Lakshadweep lies about 220 to 440 kms fromthe coastal city of Cochin inKerala. It is an archipelagoconsisting of 12 atolls, three reefs and five sub mergedbanks. Out of its 36 Islands covering an area of 32 sq.kms.only 10 are inhabited.PONDICHERRYArea : 492 sq km.Population : 973,829 (2001)Capital : PondicherryGrowth rate : 20.56% (1991-2001)No. of Districts : 4Density per : 2,029Sex ratio : 1,001 (per 1000 males)Literacy rate : 81.49%Males : 88.89%Females : 74.13%Legislature : Unicameral;Principal Languages : Tamil,French, Telugu, Malayalamand English.Location : The Union Territory of Pondicherryencompasses an area of only 492 with Pondicherrytown and its villages covering 293 surrounded bythe South Arcot District, Karaikal town and its villages
  55. 55. covering 160 surrounded by Thanjavur District,Mahe and its villages covering 9 surrounded bythe Kerala State and Yanam covering 30 within theEast Godavari District in Andhra Pradesh. Pondicherrylies 162 km Wouth of Chennai and 22 km North ofCuddalore. Karaikal is 150 km of South of Pondicherry.Yanam is 840 kms North-East of Pondicherry Mahe is 653kms away on the West Coast.IMPORTANT DAYSJANUARY12 National Youth Day21 Army Day26 Republic Day30 Martyrs’ DayFEBRUARY28 National Science DayMARCH8 International Women’s Day11 Commonwealth Day15 World Consumers Rights Day15 World Disabled Day21 World Forestry Day22 World Day for Water23 World Meteorological DayAPRIL5 National Maritime Day7 World Health Day10-16 Railway Week13 Jallianwala Day18 World Heritage Day22 Earth Day23 World Book Day8 International Literacy Day16 World Ozone Day27 World Tourism DayOCTOBER1 International Day for the Elderly2 World Vegetarian Day2 World Animal Day4 National Integration Day8 Air Force Day16 World Food Day21 Police Commemoration Day24 UN Day30 World Thrift Day31 National Integration DayNOVEMBER14 Children’s Day19 Citizens DayDECEMBER1 World AIDS Day4 Navy Day7 Flag Day10 Human Rights Day (UN)20 Kisan’s DayMAY1 May Day, Workers’ Day, InternationalLabour Day8 World Red Cross Day17 World Tele-communication Day21 Anti-terrorism Day24 Commonwealth Day31 No-Tobacco DayJUNE5 World Environment DayJULY
  56. 56. 1 Doctors’ Day11 World Population DayAUGUST1-7 Breast Feeding Week6 Hiroshima Day9 Nagasaki Day9 Quit India Day15 Independence Day29 National Sports DaySEPTEMBER5 Teachers’ DayMULTIPURPOSE RIVER-VALLEY PROJECTSBeas Project : It is a joint venture of the government ofPunjab; Haryana and Rajasthan. It consists of two units:(i) Beas - Sutlej link and (ii) Beas Dam at Pong.Beas-Sutlej Link : The Project links the Beas and theSutlej rivers in Punjab through 38.4 km of hill and valleys.The project is shared by Punjab, Haryana and Rajasthanwhich will benefit from its irrigation and power potential.The biggest beneficiary will be Haryana.Bhadra Reservoir Project is across the river Bhadra inKarnataka.Bhakara - Nangal Project (Himachal Pradesh) : It is thelargest multipurpose project in India and the higheststraight-gravity dam in the world (225.5 m high) ont theriver Sutlej.Chambal Project is a joint undertaking by the Rajasthanand Madhya Pradesh governments. The Rana Pratap Damat Bhata, 488 km from Kotah, was inaugurted on Fed 9,1970. The project comprises construction of two otherdams : Gandhi Sagar Dam in Madhya Pradesh and JawaharSagar (Kotah) Dam in Rajasthan.Chamera Hydro-Electric Project : The 540 MW ChameraHydroelectric project on the river in Himachal Pradeshwas implemented with Canadian credit offer about Rs.335 crore.Chukha Project : The 336 MW project is the mostprestigious and largest in Bhutan. It has beencompletely built by India. The dam has been constructedon Wang Chu river. The project costed Rs.244 crore.Damodar Velley Project (West Bengal and Bihar) :Principal object of this multipurpose scheme is to controlthe flowing of the Damodar which is notorious for itsvagaries and destrutiveness. It is designed on the linesof the Tennesses Valley Authority (T.V.A.) in U.S.A.Dul-Hasti Hydro-electric Project : The 1263 crore projecthas been built on river Chenab in Jammu and Kashmir.The foundation of the project was laid in September 1984.The project consists of a power plant of 390 MW capacity.The power house will be located underground.Farakka Barrage : The basic aim of the Farakka Barrageis to preserve and maintain Calcutta port and to improvethe navigability of the Hooghly river. It consists of abarrage across the Ganga at Farakka. Another barrage atJangipur across the Bhagirathi, a 39-km long feeder canaltaking off from the right bank of the Ganga at Farakka
  57. 57. and tailing into the Bhagirathi below the Jangipur barrage,and a road-cum-rail bridge have already been completed.Especially, the object of Farakka is to use about 40,000cusecs of water out of the water stored in the dam toflush the Calcutta port which is getting silted up.Gandak Project (Bihar and UP) : This is a joint ventureof India and Nepal as per agreement signed between thetwo governments on Dec. 4, 1959. Bihar and UP are theparticipating Indian States. Nepal would also deriveirrigation and power benefits from this project.Hirakud Project (Orissa) : is the first of a chain of threeDams planned for harvesting the Mahanadi.Idduki Hydro-Electric Project : It is a giant hydro-electricproject of Kerala and one of the biggest in the countryconstructed with Canadian assistance with an installedcapacity of 390 MW in the first stage and 780 MW on thesecond stage. The project envisages to harness Periyarwater and it has three major dams, the 160 m high Iddukkiarch dam across Periyar river, 138 m high Cheruthoni Damacross the tributary of Cheruthoni river and 99.9 m highKulmavu Dam.Jayakwadi Dam (Maharashtra): The 10-km longJayakwadi dam on the Godavari is Maharashtra‘s largestpower project located near Paithan.Kakarapara Project is on the river Tapti near Kakarapara,80 km upstream of Surat. The project is financed by theGujarat government.Koel Karo Project : The project envisages constructionof eastern dam across river south Koel at Basia in Biharand another dam over north Karo at Lohajimi. Thecapacity will be 710 MW.Kol Project : The 600 MW project is to be located on theSutlej, 6 km upstream of the Dehar House on the Beas-Sutlej link project in Mandi districts, Himachal Pradesh.Beas generting power, the dam will also serve as a checkdam for the 1,050-MW Bhara Dam to prolong its life by atleast 10 years.Kosi Project (Bihar) : This project will serve Bihar andNepal. The Kosi rises in Nepal, passes through Biharand it joins the Ganges. The river is subject to heavyflood. Two are to be built across it.Nagarjuna Sagar Project : is a venture of AndhraPradesh for utilising water from the Krishna river. TheNagarjuna Sagar Dam was inaugurated on Aug. 4, 1967.It is situated near Nadikonad village in Mriyalguda talukof Nalgonda district.Nathpa-Jhakri Hydel Project : 1500 MW Nathpa-JhakriProject is to be built over river Sutlej in Kinnaurdistrict of Himachal Pradesh at a cost of about Rs.2216.34 crore. The project will be Asia‘s biggest Hydroelectricproject.Parambikulam Aliyar Project : is a joint venture of TamilNadu and Kerala States. It envisages construction ofFor more papers visit and© THE RAMAN’S BOOKS