2. • Electrical Conductors• Transport• Packaging• Building and Architecture• Miscellaneous Applications• High Pressure Gas Cylinders• Machined Components• Ladders and Access Equipment• Sporting Equipment• Road Barriers and Signs• Domestic and Office Furniture• Lithographic Plates
3. ELECTRICAL CONDUCTORS• Conductors in either the 1000 or 6000 series alloys are sensible technicalalternatives to copper for all electrical conductors, even in domestic wiring.• A very large proportion of overhead, high voltage, power lines utilisealuminium rather than copper as the conductor on weight grounds. Therelatively low strength of these grades requires that they be reinforced byincluding a galvanised or aluminium coated high tensile steel wire in eachstrand.• Aluminium alloys have a conductivity averaging 62% of the InternationalAnnealed Copper Standard (IACS) but, because of its density, it can carrymore than twice as much electricity as an equivalent weight of copper.
4. TRANSPORT• Aluminium and its alloys have been the prime material of construction for theaircraft industry throughout most of its history. Even today, when titanium andcomposites are growing in use, 70% of commercial civil aircraft airframes are madefrom aluminium alloys, and without aluminium civil aviation would not beeconomically viable.• The combination of acceptable cost, low component mass (derived from its lowdensity), appropriate mechanical properties, structural integrity and ease offabrication are also attractive in other areas of transport. There are now very manyexamples of its use in commercial vessels, rail cars both passenger and freight,marine hulls and superstructures and military vessels.• Volume car production now includes aluminium as engine castings, wheels,radiators and increasingly as body parts. For general production the 5000 and 6000series alloys provide adequate strength combined with good corrosion resistance,high toughness and ease of welding. In aircraft the very strong 2000, 7000 and 8000series alloys are preferred, and in military vessels the weldable 7000 series alloys canprovide ballistic properties to match steel armour.
5. PACKAGING• The successful use of the 1000 series alloys as foil for food wrapping and forcontainers utilises their good corrosion resistance and barrier properties against UVlight, moisture and odour. Foil can be readily formed, attractively decorated andcan be usefully combined with paper and plastic if required.• The most significant use of aluminium in packaging has been in the production ofbeverage cans which incorporate the `easy open ring pull in the lid. This has rapidlygrown to some 15% of all aluminium consumption, one hundred thousand millioncans a year!• Cans for some food products, particularly fish, which also employ the easy openingfacilities of aluminium, have been used for over sixty years. From a technical point ofview there is no reason why more use should not be made of aluminium as a canmaterial, to date costs seem to be the restraining factor. This may become lessimportant in the future, see the section on recycling.
6. BUILDING AND ARCHITECTURE• Aluminium is used in buildings for a wide spectrum of applications. These include roofing forfactories which incorporate foil vapor barriers, windows and pre formed sheet cladding features,doors, canopies and fronts for shops and prestigious buildings, architectural hardware and fittings,rainwater goods and replacement windows.• Aluminium structures and cladding are also used to refurbish many of the concrete structures builtin the 1950-60s which are now showing signs of deterioration and spoiling.• In building applications the durability of aluminum is of paramount importance. There are anumber of good examples of the durability of aluminium which may be familiar to the readerincluding the statue of Eros in Piccadilly Circus, London erected in 1893 and the clad dome of thechurch of San Gioacchino in Rome installed in 1887. More recently the oil and gas industry hasemployed aluminium widely in offshore structures.• The 1000, 3000, 5000 and 6000 wrought series alloys will perform, with no reduction of strength,without protection even in industrial and marine environments. They may however suffer somedeterioration in their appearance and protection by painting or anodising can be advisable.• Anodized films may be clear, to preserve the `aluminium finish or in a limited range of colours.Painting offers a wider range of colours and an appearance similar to other painted metals.• These finishing operations may also, of course, be used for purely decorative effects.
7. MISCELLANEOUS APPLICATIONS• The applications outlined above account for some 85% of consumption. Theremaining 15% are consist mainly of the following applications.
8. HIGH PRESSURE GAS CYLINDERS• Compressed gas cylinders with capacities up to fifty litre capacity forstorage and transportation of CO2, air, oxygen and special gases. The 6000series alloys combine light weight, good corrosion resistance, compatibilitywith the product to be contained and mechanical toughness.
9. MACHINED COMPONENTS• High tolerance components can be machined from the 2000 and 6000 seriesalloys. These alloys have additions of lead and bismuth which gives themmachinability that approaches that of the free machining brasses.
10. LADDERS AND ACCESS EQUIPMENT• Aluminium alloys are highly suited to ladders and access equipment due totheir lightweight, corrosion resistance and toughness. The 6000 seriesextrusions in particular are used both industrially and domestically.
11. SPORTING GOODS• The 2000 and 7000 series alloys are used for golf clubs and trolleys, racquetsfor many sports, snooker and pool cues, ski poles, often employing spin offfrom aerospace technology.
12. ROAD BARRIERS AND SIGNS• Extrusions and roll formed sheet in the 6000 and 5000 series alloys providegood corrosion resistance and decorative ability.
13. DOMESTIC AND OFFICE FURNITURE• The complexity and surface finish of extrusions in the 6000 series alloyscoupled with the range of shapes from castings and the use of superplastically formed sheet allows designers almost unlimited scope.
14. LITHOGRAPHIC PLATES• This is a high purity 1000 series sheet product which has its surfaceelectrochemically grained then anodized to generate the base to receivethe coatings used by printers.
15. MARINE ALLOYS
16. • These alloys are used for boat building and shipbuilding, and other marineand salt-water sensitive shore applications.• 5052 aluminium alloy• 5059 aluminium alloy• 5083 aluminium alloy• 5086 aluminium alloy• 6061 aluminium alloy• 6063 aluminium alloy• 4043, 5183, 6005A, 6082 also used in marine constructions and off shoreapplications.
17. 5052 ALUMINIUM ALLOY• 5052 is an aluminium alloy, primarily alloyed with magnesium and chromium.It has good workability, medium static strength, high fatigue strength, goodweld ability, and very good corrosion resistance, especially in marineatmospheres. It also has the low density and excellent thermal conductivitycommon to all aluminium alloys. It is commonly used in sheet, plate and tubeform.• Typical applications include architecture, general sheet metal work, heatexchangers.
18. 5059 ALUMINIUM ALLOY• 5059 is an aluminium alloy, primarily alloyed with magnesium. It is notstrengthened by heat treatment, instead becoming stronger due to strain hardening, or cold mechanical working of the material.• Since heat treatment doesnt strongly affect the strength, 5059 can bereadily welded and retain most of its mechanical strength.• 5059 alloy was derived from closely related 5083 aluminium alloy byresearchers at Corus Aluminum in 1999.
19. 5083 ALUMINIUM ALLOY• 5083 aluminium alloy is an aluminium alloy with magnesium and traces ofmanganese and chromium. It is highly resistant to attack by seawater and industrial chemicalsAlloy 5083 retains exceptional strength after welding. Ithas the highest strength of the non-heat treatable alloys, but is notrecommended for use in temperatures in excess of 65°C.Applications• Alloy 5083 is commonly used in:• Shipbuilding
20. 5086 ALUMINIUM ALLOY• 5086 aluminium alloy• 5086 is an aluminium alloy, primarily alloyed with magnesium. It is notstrengthened by heat treatment, instead becoming stronger due to strain hardening, or cold mechanical working of the material.• Since heat treatment doesnt strongly affect the strength, 5086 can bereadily welded and retain most of its mechanical strength. The good resultswith welding and good corrosion properties in seawater make 5086extremely popular for vessel gangways, building boat and yacht hulls
21. 6061 ALUMINIUM ALLOY• 6061 aluminium alloy• 6061 is a precipitation hardening aluminium alloy, containing magnesium and silicon as its major alloying elements. Originally called "Alloy 61S," it wasdeveloped in 1935. It has good mechanical properties and exhibits good weldability. It is one of the most common alloys of aluminium for generalpurpose use.• It is commonly available in pre-tempered grades such as 6061-O (annealed)and tempered grades such as 6061-T6 (solutionized and artificially aged)and 6061-T651 (solutionized, stress-relieved stretched and artificially aged).
22. 6061 ALUMINIUM ALLOY• 6061 is commonly used for the following:• construction of aircraft structures, such as wings and fuselages, more commonly in homebuilt aircraft than commercial or military aircraft. 2024 alloy is somewhat stronger,but 6061 is more easily worked and remains resistant to corrosion even when the surfaceis abraded, which is not the case for 2024, which is usually used with a thin Alclad coatingfor corrosion resistance.• yacht construction, including small utility boats.• automotive parts, such as wheel spacers.• the manufacture of aluminium cans for the packaging of foodstuffs and beverages.• SCUBA tanks (post 1995)• 6061-T6 is used for:• the construction of bicycle frames and components.• many fly fishing reels.
23. 6061 ALUMINIUM ALLOY• The famous Pioneer plaque was made of this particular alloy.• the secondary chambers and baffle systems in firearm sound suppressors (primarily pistol suppressors for reduced weight and functionality), while theprimary expansion chambers usually require 17-4PH or 303 stainless steel or titanium• The upper and lower receivers of many AR-15 variants.
24. WELDING• 6061 is highly weldable, for example using tungsten inert gas welding (TIG) or metal inert gas welding (MIG). Typically, after welding, the properties near the weld arethose of 6061-O, a loss of strength of around 80%. The material can be re-heat-treated torestore -T4 or -T6 temper for the whole piece. After welding, the material can naturallyage and restore some of its strength as well. Nevertheless, the Alcoa StructuralHandbook recommends the design strength of the material adjacent to the weld to betaken as 11,000 psi without proper heat treatment after the weld. Typical fillermaterial is 4043 or 5356.• Extrusions• 6061 is an alloy used in the production of extrusions—long constant–cross-sectionstructural shapes produced by pushing metal through a shaped die.• Forgings• 6061 is an alloy that is suitable for hot forging. The billet is heated through an inductionfurnace and forged using a closed die process. Automotive parts, ATV parts, andindustrial parts are just some of the uses as a forging.
25. 6063 ALUMINIUM ALLOY• 6063 aluminium alloy• From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia• AA 6063 is an aluminium alloy, with magnesium and silicon as the alloyingelements. The standard controlling its composition is maintained by TheAluminum Association. It has generally good mechanical properties and isheat treatable and weldable. It is similar to the British aluminium alloy HE9.• 6063 is mostly used in extruded shapes for architecture, particularly windowframes, door frames, roofs, and sign frames. It is typically produced with verysmooth surfaces fit for anodizing.
26. WHAT ARE THE ADVANTAGES ANDDISADVANTAGES OF ALUMINUMALLOY OVER STEEL IN VESSELS?
27. SOME ADVANTAGES• Aluminum structures can be lighter than steel structures, resulting in lightervessels, which can increase performance and/or operating economy.• Aluminum alloys are more corrosion resistant in typical marine applications.
28. SOME DISADVANTAGES• Aluminum alloys are more difficult/expensive to weld.• Aluminum alloys dont have the strengths levels of steel alloys. This must beaccommodated in design.