File System Hierarchy

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Explains the file system hierarchy of linux.

Explains the file system hierarchy of linux.

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  • 1. File System Hierarchy Srikant Ritolia +91-9886579971 srikant.ritolia@gmail.com Linux Users Group, Manipal October 17, 2010
  • 2. Index 1 Origin 2 File System Definition 3 File System Hierarchy Definition 4 Flow Chart 5 /bin 6 /boot 7 /dev 8 /etc 9 /home 10 /media 11 /mnt 12 /opt 13 /root 14 /proc 15 /sbin 16 /tmp 17 /usr 18 /var Srikant Ritolia (LUG Manipal) File System Hierarchy October 17, 2010 2 / 20
  • 3. What is File System Method of storing and organizing computer files and their data. Srikant Ritolia (LUG Manipal) File System Hierarchy October 17, 2010 3 / 20
  • 4. What is File System Method of storing and organizing computer files and their data. Essentially, it organizes these files into a database for the storage, organization, manipulation, and retrieval by the computer’s operating system. Srikant Ritolia (LUG Manipal) File System Hierarchy October 17, 2010 3 / 20
  • 5. What is File System Method of storing and organizing computer files and their data. Essentially, it organizes these files into a database for the storage, organization, manipulation, and retrieval by the computer’s operating system. Eg:- fat, ntfs, ext4, ext3....... Srikant Ritolia (LUG Manipal) File System Hierarchy October 17, 2010 3 / 20
  • 6. What is file system hierarchy To put it simply, it can be visualized as a tree with its roots and all. Srikant Ritolia (LUG Manipal) File System Hierarchy October 17, 2010 4 / 20
  • 7. What is file system hierarchy To put it simply, it can be visualized as a tree with its roots and all. At the top of the hierarchy is invariably the root path which is represented by ’/’. Srikant Ritolia (LUG Manipal) File System Hierarchy October 17, 2010 4 / 20
  • 8. What is file system hierarchy To put it simply, it can be visualized as a tree with its roots and all. At the top of the hierarchy is invariably the root path which is represented by ’/’. All other directories are created beneath this root path in linux. Srikant Ritolia (LUG Manipal) File System Hierarchy October 17, 2010 4 / 20
  • 9. Flow Chart Srikant Ritolia (LUG Manipal) File System Hierarchy October 17, 2010 5 / 20
  • 10. /bin Bin stands for binary. Srikant Ritolia (LUG Manipal) File System Hierarchy October 17, 2010 6 / 20
  • 11. /bin Bin stands for binary. Contains the useful command which are used by everyone in terminal. Srikant Ritolia (LUG Manipal) File System Hierarchy October 17, 2010 6 / 20
  • 12. /bin Bin stands for binary. Contains the useful command which are used by everyone in terminal. Contains shells like bash, csh etc as well as much used commands like cp, mv, rm, cat, ls. Srikant Ritolia (LUG Manipal) File System Hierarchy October 17, 2010 6 / 20
  • 13. /boot Contains the boot loader files. Srikant Ritolia (LUG Manipal) File System Hierarchy October 17, 2010 7 / 20
  • 14. /boot Contains the boot loader files. Grub and linux kernel. Srikant Ritolia (LUG Manipal) File System Hierarchy October 17, 2010 7 / 20
  • 15. /dev Stands for devices. Srikant Ritolia (LUG Manipal) File System Hierarchy October 17, 2010 8 / 20
  • 16. /dev Stands for devices. Highlights one important characteristic of the Linux filesystem - everything is a file or a directory. Srikant Ritolia (LUG Manipal) File System Hierarchy October 17, 2010 8 / 20
  • 17. /dev Stands for devices. Highlights one important characteristic of the Linux filesystem - everything is a file or a directory. No real subfolder. Srikant Ritolia (LUG Manipal) File System Hierarchy October 17, 2010 8 / 20
  • 18. /dev Stands for devices. Highlights one important characteristic of the Linux filesystem - everything is a file or a directory. No real subfolder. When you first boot up ur computer it detects your hardware and place folder and files representing your hardware in the dev directory. Srikant Ritolia (LUG Manipal) File System Hierarchy October 17, 2010 8 / 20
  • 19. /etc Configuration files get stored. Srikant Ritolia (LUG Manipal) File System Hierarchy October 17, 2010 9 / 20
  • 20. /etc Configuration files get stored. More importantly, the /etc/rc.d directory contains the system startup scripts. Srikant Ritolia (LUG Manipal) File System Hierarchy October 17, 2010 9 / 20
  • 21. /etc Configuration files get stored. More importantly, the /etc/rc.d directory contains the system startup scripts. This is a good directory to backup often. Saves lot of re-configuration later if you re-install or lose your current installation. Srikant Ritolia (LUG Manipal) File System Hierarchy October 17, 2010 9 / 20
  • 22. /home Linux is a multi-user environment so each user is also assigned a specific directory which is accessible only to them and the system administrator. Srikant Ritolia (LUG Manipal) File System Hierarchy October 17, 2010 10 / 20
  • 23. /home Linux is a multi-user environment so each user is also assigned a specific directory which is accessible only to them and the system administrator. containing saved files, personal settings, etc. Srikant Ritolia (LUG Manipal) File System Hierarchy October 17, 2010 10 / 20
  • 24. /media Mount point for removable disk like CDROM, pendrive. Srikant Ritolia (LUG Manipal) File System Hierarchy October 17, 2010 11 / 20
  • 25. /mnt Mount point for temporary mounted file system. Srikant Ritolia (LUG Manipal) File System Hierarchy October 17, 2010 12 / 20
  • 26. /mnt Mount point for temporary mounted file system. Mounting is the process by which you make a filesystem available to the system. Srikant Ritolia (LUG Manipal) File System Hierarchy October 17, 2010 12 / 20
  • 27. /opt This directory contains all the software and add-on packages that are not part of the default installation. Srikant Ritolia (LUG Manipal) File System Hierarchy October 17, 2010 13 / 20
  • 28. /opt This directory contains all the software and add-on packages that are not part of the default installation. Again, this directory is not used very often as it’s mostly a standard in Unix installations. Srikant Ritolia (LUG Manipal) File System Hierarchy October 17, 2010 13 / 20
  • 29. /root We talked about user home directories earlier and well this one is the home directory of the user root. Srikant Ritolia (LUG Manipal) File System Hierarchy October 17, 2010 14 / 20
  • 30. /root We talked about user home directories earlier and well this one is the home directory of the user root. Not to be confused with the system root. Srikant Ritolia (LUG Manipal) File System Hierarchy October 17, 2010 14 / 20
  • 31. /proc pseudo file system residing in the virtual memory. Srikant Ritolia (LUG Manipal) File System Hierarchy October 17, 2010 15 / 20
  • 32. /proc pseudo file system residing in the virtual memory. maintains highly dynamic data on the state of your operating system. Srikant Ritolia (LUG Manipal) File System Hierarchy October 17, 2010 15 / 20
  • 33. /proc pseudo file system residing in the virtual memory. maintains highly dynamic data on the state of your operating system. a new /proc file system is created every time your Linux machine reboots. Srikant Ritolia (LUG Manipal) File System Hierarchy October 17, 2010 15 / 20
  • 34. /proc pseudo file system residing in the virtual memory. maintains highly dynamic data on the state of your operating system. a new /proc file system is created every time your Linux machine reboots. Everything regarding your hardware like bluetooth, different slots, bus etc. is stored in it. Srikant Ritolia (LUG Manipal) File System Hierarchy October 17, 2010 15 / 20
  • 35. /sbin Contains binary (executable) files, usually for system administration. Srikant Ritolia (LUG Manipal) File System Hierarchy October 17, 2010 16 / 20
  • 36. /sbin Contains binary (executable) files, usually for system administration. This directory contains all the binaries that are essential to the working of the system. Srikant Ritolia (LUG Manipal) File System Hierarchy October 17, 2010 16 / 20
  • 37. /tmp This directory contains mostly files that are required temporarily. Srikant Ritolia (LUG Manipal) File System Hierarchy October 17, 2010 17 / 20
  • 38. /tmp This directory contains mostly files that are required temporarily. This directory is cleared out at boot or at shutdown. Srikant Ritolia (LUG Manipal) File System Hierarchy October 17, 2010 17 / 20
  • 39. /usr Unix System Resources Srikant Ritolia (LUG Manipal) File System Hierarchy October 17, 2010 18 / 20
  • 40. /usr Unix System Resources Lot of subdirectories Srikant Ritolia (LUG Manipal) File System Hierarchy October 17, 2010 18 / 20
  • 41. /usr Unix System Resources Lot of subdirectories Shared data, library, binary, application will be located. Srikant Ritolia (LUG Manipal) File System Hierarchy October 17, 2010 18 / 20
  • 42. /usr Unix System Resources Lot of subdirectories Shared data, library, binary, application will be located. Secondary hierarchy for read-only user data; contains the majority of (multi-)user utilities and applications. Srikant Ritolia (LUG Manipal) File System Hierarchy October 17, 2010 18 / 20
  • 43. /var Variable files whose content is expected to continually change during normal operation of the systemsuch as logs, spool files, and temporary e-mail files. Sometimes a separate partition. Srikant Ritolia (LUG Manipal) File System Hierarchy October 17, 2010 19 / 20
  • 44. Thank You!!! Srikant Ritolia (LUG Manipal) File System Hierarchy October 17, 2010 20 / 20